JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites.
Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service.
This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR
Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist. The family returned to Perth, and in 1917 moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a cadet at the Adelaide Public Library. Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in a gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologists Assistant to Arthur Mills Lea and he had already published thirty-one papers on entomological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various groupings of Indigenous Australians. This interest began with a trip to Groote Eylandt where an Anindilyakwa man gave Tindale very detailed descriptions of which land was his. This led Tindale to question the orthodoxy of the time which was that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region.
While Tindales methodology and his notion of the tribe have been superseded. Quite a number of now-important record films were made by Tindale, in 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and was assigned the rank of Wing Commander. He had previously tried to enlist in the Australian army at the outbreak of WWII but was rejected due to his damaged eyesight, in 1967, at the age of sixty-six, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Colorado. He was eventually honoured with a doctorate by the Australian National University in 1980, during 1993 Tindale received unofficial confirmation of his appointment as an Officer of the Order of Australia, this was presented posthumously, to his widow Muriel. Also in 1993, the South Australian Museum Boards named a public gallery in his honour, Tindale published extensively, both as sole author and collaborator. Note that the archives contain 2,804 items related to Dr Tindale
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
Clarence River (New South Wales)
The Clarence River, a mature wave dominated, barrier estuary, is situated in the Northern Rivers district of New South Wales, Australia. The river reaches its mouth at its confluence with the Coral Sea in the South Pacific Ocean, on its journey it passes through the towns of Tabulam and Copmanhurst, the city of Grafton, and the towns of Ulmarra, and Maclean. The river features many large islands, including Woodford, Ashby and Harwood islands. The river supports a large prawn trawling and fishing industry, the Clarence River system is an extensive east coast drainage with many tributaries of differing size. Apart from the Murray River, it is the largest river in mainland Australia south of the Tropic of Capricorn and its basin is, together with the very similarly-sized Hawkesbury, Australias largest Pacific watershed south of Bundaberg. The climate of most of the basin is subtropical, though the highest areas with cooler weather are of the temperate Cfb type, annual rainfall ranges from 1,600 millimetres on the coast at Yamba down to 1,080 millimetres in the shielded valley at Grafton.
At higher altitudes, rainfall may reach 2,000 millimetres on exposed slopes, most of the high areas actually receive no more rain than Grafton though variability from year to year is less. Temperatures are generally warm, with maxima in lower area ranging from 27 °C in January to 19 °C in July. In the highlands, temperatures are cooler and in July range from lows of around 2 °C to maxima around 13 °C - though in January days remain very warm at around 25 °C. At Grafton, the peaked at a new record height of 8.1 metres. Two years earlier, the river peaked 7.6 metres, on both occasions, the citys levee was credited with preventing more severe flooding. The local historical society has published an account of newspaper reports documenting flooding of the river from the late 1800s to 2011, tourism is a significant industry in the Clarence Valley generating around A$457million per annum and employing around 2500 people. Most of the Clarence basin is forested, with important areas of remnant subtropical.
Only in alluvial areas where soils are less leached is there major agricultural development, in areas the chief industries are cattle rearing. Of particular interest is the island town of Harwood, where a Sperry New Holland factory. Harwood is the location of the sugar mill, the Harwood Sugar Mill built in 1873 and is the oldest Australian mill still operational. The sugar mill is situated on the due to its importance in transporting sugar cane from farms in the surrounding area in previous times. Harwood is just after the Harwood Bridge on part of Australias National Highway from Sydney, Port Macquarie, the Aboriginal people of the lower reaches call the river Breimba or Berrinbah
Himberrong is a clan of the Anēwan Aboriginal tribe of what is now known as the New England Tablelands region in northeast New South Wales. The territory of the Himberrong clan stretches from the Moonbi Range in the west, past Yarrowitch and Kunderang in the east, border disputes over the Moonbi Range were common between the Himberrong and a clan of the Gamilaraay. The main camp of the Himberrong was on the bank of the Muluerindie/Macdonald River about two miles upriver from where the 140-acre Inglebah Aboriginal Reserve now stands. Inglebah is the Anaiwan word for whirlpools of crayfish, the swamps, traditionally Aboriginal people camped around Inglebah for fishing and ceremonial activities. Inglebah was favored because it was a sheltered, secure camping spot nestled between hills and the banks of the MacDonald River. It has a permanent water supply from the springs in the area, an elicitation of Anaiwan words was recorded on tape by Harry Wright in 1963 as they were spoken by tribesmen coming into Armidale from Inglebah.
At the time of first contact, the Himberrong clan numbered around 600, two Himberrong men by the names of Bungaree and Yarry were the first of their clan to encounter colonists in the early 1800s. On returning from their trips, the clan would have a great corroboree. In the late 1800s, colonists used explosives to massacre the Himberrong clan at their main camp
The indigenous people identify themselves as Guringai. Their taurai is known to extend north to the Macleay River, Fraser came up with the name Kuringgai being a conjunction of the native words Koori/Guri to mean black man and Ngai, meaning black woman, or belonging to. According to Fraser, the Kuringgai were bordered by the Wachigari and the Paikalyung to the north, the Kamalarai to the northwest, the Wiradhari to the west and the Murrinjari to the south. However, Norman Tindale would say in 1974 that the Awabakal are the one of a series of tribes to which the arbitrary term Kuringgai has been applied by Fraser. He divided the area Fraser labelled Kuringgai into several tribes, including the Tharawal, Dharuk, Awabakal, Birpai, the clan groups are the Garigal, Borregegal, Walkeloa with hundreds more. They were hunters and gatherers within their land, the Guringai lives were dictated by the seasons and the seasonal travels throughout their lands, with great ceremony. The Guringai still live in their traditional homelands, the Aborigines of New South Wales.
Sauchie House, West Maitland, University of Newcastle, bibliography of Ku-ring-gai people and language resources, at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies
Evans Head, New South Wales
Evans Head is a town in Richmond Valley Shire of the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia. At the 2011 census, Evans Head had a population of 2,722 people and it is 726 kilometres north of Sydney, and 11 kilometres east off the Pacific Highway from Woodburn. Evans Head is named after a surveyor, Lt Evans. It is a town and a holiday resort, playing host to one of the largest holiday parks in NSW. It is sandwiched between two national parks, the Bundjalung National Park and the Broadwater National Park, there is a wide curved beach that is popular for fishing and swimming. The 1874 wreck of a schooner, Pilot, is visible on the beach north of the town in times of high erosion. Evans Head plays host to one of the few retired F-111 aircraft in Australia, in addition the museum has a host of authentic aircraft on display. There is a fishing fleet permanently moored in the estuary. Other industries include tourism and there is sugar cane growing further inland. The towns airport, the Evans Head Memorial Aerodrome, formerly a RAAF base, the Evans Head Memorial Aerodrome is heritage listed and will always be known by that name.
The town was traditionally a village, with snapper fishing and prawning forming the basis of the towns local economy. With rising costs and diminishing prawn catches, the local industry has diminished dramatically. The town has an estate, The Bowlo bowling club, RSL club, Surf Club. Evans Head is home to one of the largest holiday parks in NSW, the Evans Head Holiday Park has almost 600 sites and is located within walking distance of all the local town amenities. The town has two supermarkets, two butchers, a number of clothing stores, and other eateries who cater for the tourist population, whilst the population is less than 3,000 people that number swells in holiday periods. Surveys in the Colonial Office,16 Feb 1832, London, J. Arrowsmith