Palatal lateral approximant
The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʎ⟩, a lowercase letter ⟨y⟩. None of the 13 languages investigated by Recasens, many of them Romance, has a true palatal and that is likely the case for several other languages listed here. Some languages, like Portuguese and Catalan, have a lateral approximant that varies between alveolar and alveolo-palatal, there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the alveolo-palatal lateral approximant. If precision is desired, it may be transcribed ⟨l̠ʲ⟩ or ⟨ʎ̟⟩, there is a non-IPA letter ⟨ȴ⟩, used especially in Sinological circles. The palatal lateral approximant contrasts phonemically with its voiceless counterpart /ʎ̥/ in the Xumi language spoken in China and its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation and it is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only. It is a consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue. The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language. The alphabet uses the Latin script, the punctuation is similar to that used in other Romance languages and in English. The Spanish language is written using the Spanish alphabet, which is the Latin script with one letter, eñe ñ. Although the letters k and w are part of the alphabet, they appear only in such as karate, waterpolo. Each letter has an official name according to the Real Academia Españolas new 2010 Common Orthography. The digraphs ch and ll were considered letters of the alphabet from 1754 to 2010, the digraph rr is occasionally considered a letter, but officially it was never so. ^1 The sequence ⟨ch⟩ represents the affricate /tʃ/, the digraph was formerly treated as a single letter, called che. ^2 The phonemes /θ/ and /s/ have merged in many dialects, see seseo. ^3 With the exception of loanwords, hámster, hachís, which have /x/. ^5 Used only in the digraph ⟨qu⟩. ^6 The digraph ⟨rr⟩. For details on Spanish pronunciation, see Spanish phonology and Wikipedia, when acute accent and diaeresis marks are used on vowels they are considered variants of the plain vowel letters, but ⟨ñ⟩ is considered a separate letter from ⟨n⟩.
This makes a difference when sorting alphabetically, ⟨ñ⟩ appears in dictionaries after ⟨n⟩, for example, in a Spanish dictionary piñata comes after pinza. There are five digraphs, ⟨ch⟩, ⟨ll⟩, ⟨rr⟩, ⟨gu⟩ and ⟨qu⟩, for example, in dictionaries, chico is alphabetized after centro and before ciudad, instead of being alphabetized after all words beginning with cu- as was formerly done. Despite their former status as unitary letters of the alphabet, ⟨ch⟩, thus the word chillón in a text written in all caps is CHILLÓN, not *ChILlÓN, and if it is the first word of a sentence, it is written Chillón, not *CHillón. Sometimes, one finds lifts with buttons marked LLamar, but this double capitalization has always been incorrect according to RAE rules, B and V The letters ⟨b⟩ and ⟨v⟩ were originally simply known as be and ve, which in modern Spanish are pronounced identically. In Old Spanish, they represented different sounds but the sounds merged later. Their usual names are be and uve, in some regions, some Mexicans and most Peruvians generally say be grande / chica, Argentines and Chileans, be larga / corta.
Some people give examples of words spelt with the letter, e. g. b de burro / v de vaca, Colombians tend to say be grande for B and ve pequeña for V. In Venezuela, they called B as b de Bolívar, and V as v de Venezuela, regardless of these regional differences, all Spanish-speaking people recognize be as the official name of B. R The digraph ⟨rr⟩ is sometimes called doble erre or erre doble. It is sometimes suggested that the name of the letter ⟨r⟩ be ere when it is single, and erre when it is double, the name ere was used when referring specifically to the alveolar tap /ɾ/ and erre referring to the alveolar trill /r/
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Royal Spanish Academy
The Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE, is the official royal institution responsible for overseeing the Spanish language. It is based in Madrid, but is affiliated with national language academies in twenty-one other hispanophone nations through the Association of Spanish Language Academies, the proposed language guidelines are shown in a number of works. The priorities are the Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española, edited periodically twenty-three times since 1780, the Academy has a formal procedure for admitting words to its publications. The headquarters, opened in 1894, is located at Calle Felipe IV,4, in the ward of Jerónimos, the Center for the Studies of the Royal Spanish Academy, opened in 2007, is located at Calle Serrano 187–189. King Philip V approved its constitution on 3 October 1714, placing it under the Crowns protection, the RAE began establishing rules for the orthography of Spanish beginning in 1741 with the first edition of the Ortographía.
The proposals of the Academy became the norm in Spain by royal decree in 1844. The current rules and practical recommendations are presented in the latest edition of the Ortografía. In 1994, the RAE ruled that the Spanish consonants CH and LL would hence be alphabetized under C and under L, the Números are elected for life by the other academicians. Each academician holds a seat labeled with a letter from the Spanish alphabet, upper-, joint publications of the RAE and the Association of Spanish Language Academies Diccionario de la lengua española. The first edition is in public domain, the Diccionario esencial de la lengua española was published in 2006 as a shortened work to span between the 22nd and 23rd editions. The edition of 1999 was the first spelling book to cover the whole Hispanic world, the first edition is in public domain. Nueva gramática de la lengua española, the latest edition is the first grammar to cover the whole Hispanic world, replacing the prior Gramática de la lengua española and the Esbozo de una Nueva gramática de la lengua española.
The first edition is in public domain, the Gramática básica is a 250-page pocket reference intended for school use, to be published in late 2010. The RAE has published two works by individual editors, Gramática de la lengua española and Gramática descriptiva de la lengua española. Resolves doubts related to the use of the Spanish language, replaces the Diccionario escolar de la RAE. Diccionario práctico del estudiante is a version for Latin America
The Cervantes Institute is a worldwide non-profit organization created by the Spanish government in 1991. It is named after Miguel de Cervantes, the author of Don Quixote, the Cervantes Institute, a government agency, is the largest organization in the world responsible for promoting the study and the teaching of Spanish language and culture. This organization has branched out in over 20 different countries with 54 centres devoted to the Spanish and Hispanic American culture and it designs Spanish language courses, offering two kinds of courses and special. It offers the Diplomas of Spanish as Foreign Language examinations on behalf of the Spanish Ministry of Education and this is an official qualification certifying levels of competence in the Spanish language, and is the only certificate for non-native Spanish speakers that is officially recognised in Spain. The diplomas are subdivided into six levels, each one corresponding to a proficiency level as described by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, A1, A2, B1, B2, C1.
It improves the methods of Spanish education, sponsors lectures, book presentations, art exhibitions, The Spain Film Festival and Festival of Flamenco. Supported by other organisations and communities and it organises and promotes the program to spread the Spanish language throughout the world. The Institute works with Spains national radio and television to deliver Spanish language courses, publications, on-line bibliographies, library holdings, the hosting of major conferences on the state of the Spanish language. It publishes the Anuario del español to analyse and report on the situation and it supports the Centro Virtual Cervantes on the internet since 1997. General language courses are offered at four different levels, intermediate, advanced, to provide different resources, including Spanish on-line, to improve the teaching. To allow the students to use any of the facilities of the Cervantes Institute around the world, to issue Spanish language diplomas and certificates The administration of the Cervantes Institute is subdivided into three parts.
A commitment and interest in planning the activities and direction of the Institute are managed by a high-profile membership, The Cervantes Institute is overseen by its governing body, the Patronato. It gives general directions for the activities of the Institute and informs on its annual activities, the Consejo de Administración is a management body and approves the general plans and projects of the Institute. It consists of representatives from the ministries of Foreign Affairs, Education and Sport, the Director is appointed by the Council of Ministers of Spain. The Director is in charge of guiding the management of the Institute, Centro Virtual Cervantes is an online service that was created in December 1997 by the Instituto Cervantes of Spain to contribute to the diffusion of the Spanish language and Hispanic cultures. The Instituto Cervantes has a presence in the 3D virtual world Second Life. On 13 December 2004, the Cervantes Institute formed its Centro de Formación de Profesores in its headquarters, located in Alcalá de Henares and this institution was founded to encourage the teaching of Spanish as a foreign language and to provide useful resources to its members.
The Centre supports the future teachers of Spanish through its Master of Education in Spanish as a Foreign Language, the Automatic Translator Service of the Cervantes Institute, Portal de las Tecnologías Lingüisticas en España, was launched by the Cervantes Institute on 10 January 2005
Voseo is the use of vos as a second person singular pronoun, including its conjugational verb forms in many dialects of Spanish. In dialects that have it, it is used instead of tú. Use of tú is known as tuteo, Vos is used extensively as the primary form of the second person singular in Rioplatense Spanish, Eastern Bolivia, and Paraguayan Spanish. Central American Spanish exhibits an extensive use of vos. Vos had not been used in formal writing except in Argentina. Nowadays it is common to see billboards and other advertising media using voseo. In the dialect of Argentina and Uruguay, vos is the form for use in television media. In Peru, voseo is present in some Andean regions and Cajamarca and it is present in Ladino, where it replaces usted. In the United States, Salvadoran Americans are by far the largest voseo users followed by other Central Americans, Hondurans and Costa Ricans. Voseo can be found in the context of using verb conjugations for vos with tú as the pronoun, as in the case of Chilean Spanish.
Originally a second-person plural, Vos came to be used as a more polite second-person singular pronoun to be used among ones familiar friends. O Dios, sois vos mi Padre verdadéro, O God, thou art my true Father, Tú eres un buen amígo, Thou art a good friend. The standard formal way to address a person one was not on terms with was to address such a person as vuestra merced in the singular. Because of the meaning of these forms, they were accompanied by the corresponding third-person verb forms. Other formal forms of address included vuestra excelencia and vuestra señoria, both vos and tú are considered to be informal pronouns, with vos being somewhat synonymous with tú in regions where both are used. This was the situation when Castilian was brought to the Río de la Plata area, note that the term vosotros is a combined form of vos otros, while the term nosotros comes from nos otros. In the first half of the 19th century the use of vos was as prevalent in Chile as it was in Argentina, the current limitation of the use of vos in Chile is attributed to a campaign to eradicate it by the Chilean education system.
The campaign was initiated by Andrés Bello who considered the use of vos a manifestation of lack of education, the independent disjunctive pronoun ti is replaced by vos. That is, vos is both nominative and the form to use after prepositions, para ti for you becomes para vos, etc
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Americas where Romance languages are predominant. It is therefore broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America—though it usually excludes French Canada and it has an area of approximately 19,197,000 km2, almost 13% of the Earths land surface area. As of 2015, its population was estimated at more than 626 million and in 2014, Latin America had a combined nominal GDP of 5,573,397 million USD and a GDP PPP of 7,531,585 million USD. The term Latin America was first used in 1861 in La revue des races Latines, a further investigation of the concept of Latin America is by Michel Gobat in the American Historical Review. The term was first used in Paris in an 1856 conference by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao and this term was used in 1861 by French scholars in La revue des races Latines, a magazine dedicated to the Pan-Latinism movement. Latin America is, defined as all parts of the Americas that were once part of the Spanish.
By this definition, Latin America is coterminous with Ibero-America and this definition emphasizes a similar socioeconomic history of the region, which was characterized by formal or informal colonialism, rather than cultural aspects. As such, some sources avoid this oversimplification by using the phrase Latin America, the distinction between Latin America and Anglo-America is a convention based on the predominant languages in the Americas by which Romance-language and English-speaking cultures are distinguished. Latin America can be subdivided into several subregions based on geography, demographics and it may be subdivided on linguistic grounds into Hispanic America, Portuguese America and French America. *, Not a sovereign state The concept of Latin America has been criticized by a number of intellectuals, the earliest known settlement was identified at Monte Verde, near Puerto Montt in Southern Chile. Its occupation dates to some 14,000 years ago and there is disputed evidence of even earlier occupation.
Over the course of millennia, people spread to all parts of the continents, by the first millennium CE, South Americas vast rainforests, mountains and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. Some groups formed more permanent settlements such as the Chibcha and the Tairona groups and these groups are in the circum Caribbean region. The Chibchas of Colombia, the Quechuas and Aymaras of Bolivia, the region was home to many indigenous peoples and advanced civilizations, including the Aztecs, Toltecs and Inca. The Aztec empire was ultimately the most powerful civilization known throughout the Americas, with the arrival of the Europeans following Christopher Columbus voyages, the indigenous elites, such as the Incas and Aztecs, lost power to the heavy European invasion. Hernándo Cortés seized the Aztec elites power with the help of local groups who had favored the Aztec elite, epidemics of diseases brought by the Europeans, such as smallpox and measles, wiped out a large portion of the indigenous population.
Historians cannot determine the number of natives who died due to European diseases, due to the lack of written records, specific numbers are hard to verify. Many of the survivors were forced to work in European plantations, intermixing between the indigenous peoples and the European colonists was very common, and, by the end of the colonial period, people of mixed ancestry formed majorities in several colonies
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.42 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the area of its capital and largest city. With an area of approximately 176,000 square kilometres, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, only larger in size than Suriname. Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for approximately 4000 years before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento, one of the oldest European settlements in the region, in 1680. Montevideo was founded as a stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a struggle between Spain, Portugal and Brazil. It remained subject to influence and intervention throughout the 19th century. Modern Uruguay is a constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government.
Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, lack of corruption, e-government, on a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peace-keeping missions than any other country. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income, Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth and infrastructure. It is regarded as a country by the UN. Uruguay is the third-best ranked in the world in e-Participation, Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, soybeans, frozen beef and milk. Nearly 95% of Uruguays electricity comes from energy, mostly hydroelectric facilities. The Economist named Uruguay country of the year in 2013, acknowledging the innovative policy of legalizing the production, the name of the namesake river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including bird-river, the name could refer to a river snail called uruguá that was plentiful in the water.
The only documented inhabitants of Uruguay before European colonization of the area were the Charrúa, the Portuguese discovered the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512. The Spanish arrived in present-day Uruguay in 1516, the indigenous peoples fierce resistance to conquest, combined with the absence of gold and silver, limited their settlement in the region during the 16th and 17th centuries
Voiced palatal fricative
The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʝ⟩, and it is the non-sibilant equivalent of the voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant. In broad transcription, the symbol for the approximant, ⟨j⟩. The voiced palatal fricative is a rare sound, occurring in only seven of the 317 languages surveyed by the original UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database. In Kabyle, Modern Greek, and Scottish Gaelic, the sound occurs phonemically, along with its voiceless counterpart, and in several more, the sound occurs a result of phonological processes. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a symbol for that sound. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are j\_- and G_+, especially in broad transcription, the voiced post-palatal fricative may be transcribed as a palatalized voiced velar fricative. Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate, the otherwise identical post-palatal variant is articulated slightly behind the hard palate, making it sound slightly closer to the velar.
Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation and it is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only. It is a consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue. The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds
Most varieties of Spanglish are not usually considered a language itself, but instead a blend of Spanish and English lexical items and grammar. Spanglish is not a pidgin, because unlike pidgin languages, Spanglish can be the primary form for some individuals. Spanglish can be considered a variety of Spanish with heavy use of English or a variety of English with heavy use of Spanish and it can be more related either to Spanish or to English, depending on the circumstances. Since Spanglish arises independently in each region, it reflects the spoken varieties of English and Spanish. In general different varieties of Spanglish are not necessarily mutually intelligible, the term was introduced by the Puerto Rican poet Salvador Tió in the late 1940s, when he called it Espanglish or Inglañol. Some of these creoles have become recognized languages in their own right, including the Llanito language of Gibraltar and San Andrés–Providencia Creole of Colombia. In the late 1940s, the Puerto Rican journalist and essayist Salvador Tió coined the terms Espanglish for Spanish spoken with some English terms, between 1902 and 1948, the main language of instruction in public schools was English.
Currently Puerto Rico is nearly unique in having both English and Spanish as its official languages, many American English words are now found in the vocabulary of Puerto Rican Spanish. Spanglish may be known by different regional names, Spanglish does not have one unified dialect—specifically, the varieties of Spanglish spoken in New York, Florida and California differ. It is common in Panama, where the 96-year U. S. control of the Panama Canal influenced much of society, especially among the former residents of the Panama Canal Zone. The same applies to the large Puerto Rican-descended populations of New York City, Spanglish is spoken commonly in the modern United States, reflecting the growth of the Hispanic-American population due to immigration. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the population of Hispanics grew from 35.3 million to 53 million between 2000 and 2012, Hispanics have become the largest minority ethnic group in the US. More than 80% are of Mexican descent, Mexican Americans form one of the fastest-growing groups, increasing from 20.6 million to 34.5 million between 2000 and 2012.
Around 58% of this community chose California, especially Southern California, Spanglish is widely used throughout the heavily Mexican-American and other Hispanic communities of Southern California. The use of Spanglish has become important to Hispanic communities throughout the United States in areas such as Miami, New York City, Texas, in Miami a Spanglish familiarly known as Cubonics is spoken. Spanglish is known as bilingualism/ semi-lingual ism, the acquisition of the first language is interrupted or unstructured language input follows from the second language. This can happen in reverse, many Mexican-Americans and bilinguals express themselves in various Spanglishes. For many, Spanglish serves as a basis for self-identity, many others believe that Spanglish should not exist and should be prohibited
Spanish dialects and varieties
Some of the regional varieties of the Spanish language are quite divergent from one another, especially in pronunciation and vocabulary, and less so in grammar. While all Spanish dialects use the written standard, all spoken varieties differ from the written variety. There are differences between European Spanish and the Spanish of the Americas, as well as many different dialect areas both within Spain and within Hispanic America, among grammatical features, the most prominent variation among dialects is in the use of the second-person pronouns. For the second-person singular familiar pronoun, some Hispanic America dialects use tú, in a broad sense, Hispanic American Spanish can be grouped into, Mexican Central American Caribbean. The Spanish spoken in Gibraltar is essentially not different from the areas in Spain. The maintenance of phonemic contrast is called distinción in Spanish, the merged phoneme is typically realized as, though in parts of southern Andalusia the realization is closer to, in Spain this latter variation is called ceceo and the former one seseo.
In dialects with seseo the words casa and caza are pronounced as homophones, the symbol stands for a voiceless sibilant like the s of English sick, while represents a voiceless interdental fricative like the th of English thick. In some cases where the merger would render words homophonic in Hispanic America. Caza replaced by cacería, or cocer, homophonic with coser, for more on seseo, see González-Bueno. Traditionally Spanish had a distinction between /ʎ/ and /ʝ/. But for most speakers in Spain and the Americas, these two phonemes have merged in the phoneme /ʝ/. This merger results in the words calló and cayó being pronounced the same, the use of the merged phoneme is called yeísmo. The phoneme /ʝ/ can be pronounced in a variety of ways, in most of the area where yeísmo is present, the merged phoneme /ʎ ~ ʝ/ is pronounced as the fricative or approximant or as the glide, and also, in word-initial positions, affricates and. In the area around the Río de la Plata, this phoneme is pronounced as a sibilant fricative, either as voiced or, especially by young speakers.
One of the most distinctive features of the Spanish variants is the pronunciation of /s/ when it is not aspirated to or elided. However, in most of Andalusia, in a few areas in southern Spain. /s/ is allophonized as or before voiced consonants when it is not aspirated to or elided, is a transitional between and. In some varieties of Hispanic American Spanish this may occur intervocalically within an individual word, for instance, todos los cisnes son blancos, can be pronounced, or even