Istanbul known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea, its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city; the city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is viewed as a bridge between the West. Founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city grew in size and influence, becoming one of the most important cities in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for 16 centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine, Palaiologos Byzantine and Ottoman empires.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 CE and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate. The city's strategic position on the historic Silk Road, rail networks to Europe and the Middle East, the only sea route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean have produced a cosmopolitan populace. While Ankara was chosen instead as the new Turkish capital after the Turkish War of Independence, the city's name was changed to Istanbul, the city has maintained its prominence in geopolitical and cultural affairs; the population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in and city limits have expanded to accommodate them. Arts, music and cultural festivals were established towards the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network in the city.
12.56 million foreign visitors arrived in Istanbul in 2015, five years after it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world's fifth most popular tourist destination. The city's biggest attraction is its historic center listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, its cultural and entertainment hub is across the city's natural harbor, the Golden Horn, in the Beyoğlu district. Considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world, it hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years; the first known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from Byzas. Ancient Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists.
Modern scholars have hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin and hence predated the Megarean settlement. After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became known as Constantinople, which, as the Latinized form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις", means the "City of Constantine", he attempted to promote the name "Nova Roma" and its Greek version "Νέα Ῥώμη" Nea Romē, but this did not enter widespread usage. Constantinople remained the most common name for the city in the West until the establishment of the Turkish Republic, which urged other countries to use Istanbul. Kostantiniyye and Be Makam-e Qonstantiniyyah al-Mahmiyyah and İstanbul were the names used alternatively by the Ottomans during their rule; the use of Constantinople to refer to the city during the Ottoman period is now considered politically incorrect if not inaccurate, by Turks. By the 19th century, the city had acquired other names used by Turks. Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, but used the name Stamboul—as the Turks did—to describe the walled peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara.
Pera was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks used the name Beyoğlu. The name İstanbul is held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν", which means "to the city" and is how Constantinople was referred to by the local Greeks; this reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was reflected by its Ottoman name'Der Saadet' meaning the'gate to Prosperity' in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved directly from the name Constantinople, with the first and third syllables dropped. A Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol "plenty of Islam" because the city was called Islambol or Islambul as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire, it is first attested shortly after the conquest
Azerbaijan the Republic of Azerbaijan, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south; the exclave of Nakhchivan is bounded by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, has an 11 km long border with Turkey in the northwest. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence in 1918 and became the first democratic Muslim state. In 1920 the country was incorporated into the Soviet Union as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic; the modern Republic of Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence on 30 August 1991, shortly before the dissolution of the USSR in the same year. In September 1991, the Armenian majority of the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region seceded to form the Republic of Artsakh; the region and seven adjacent districts outside it became de facto independent with the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994.
These regions are internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan pending a solution to the status of the Nagorno-Karabakh through negotiations facilitated by the OSCE. Azerbaijan is a unitary semi-presidential republic, it is one of six independent Turkic states and an active member of the Turkic Council and the TÜRKSOY community. Azerbaijan has diplomatic relations with 158 countries and holds membership in 38 international organizations, including the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Non-Aligned Movement, the OSCE, the NATO Partnership for Peace program, it is one of the founding members of GUAM, the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Azerbaijan holds observer status in the World Trade Organization. While more than 89% of the population is Shia Muslim, the Constitution of Azerbaijan does not declare an official religion and all major political forces in the country are secularist. Azerbaijan has a high level of human development that ranks on par with most Eastern European countries.
It has a high rate of economic literacy, as well as a low rate of unemployment. However, the ruling party, the New Azerbaijan Party, has been accused of authoritarianism and human rights abuses. According to a modern etymology, the term Azerbaijan derives from that of Atropates, a Persian satrap under the Achaemenid Empire, reinstated as the satrap of Media under Alexander the Great; the original etymology of this name is thought to have its roots in the once-dominant Zoroastrianism. In the Avesta's Frawardin Yasht, there is a mention of âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide, which translates from Avestan as "we worship the fravashi of the holy Atropatene." The name "Atropates" itself is the Greek transliteration of an Old Iranian Median, compounded name with the meaning "Protected by the Fire" or "The Land of the Fire". The Greek name was mentioned by Diodorus Strabo. Over the span of millennia, the name evolved to Āturpātākān to Ādharbādhagān, Ādharbāyagān, Āzarbāydjān and present-day Azerbaijan.
The name Azerbaijan was first adopted for the area of the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan by the government of Musavat in 1918, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, when the independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was established. Until the designation had been used to identify the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran, while the area of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was referred to as Arran and Shirvan. On that basis Iran protested the newly adopted country name. During the Soviet rule, the country was spelled in English from the Russian transliteration as Azerbaydzhan; the earliest evidence of human settlement in the territory of Azerbaijan dates back to the late Stone Age and is related to the Guruchay culture of Azokh Cave. The Upper Paleolithic and late Bronze Age cultures are attested in the caves of Tağılar, Damcılı, Yataq-yeri and in the necropolises of Leylatepe and Saraytepe. Early settlements included the Scythians in the 9th century BC. Following the Scythians, Iranian Medes came to dominate the area to the south of the Aras.
The Medes forged a vast empire between 900–700 BC, integrated into the Achaemenid Empire around 550 BC. The area was conquered by the Achaemenids leading to the spread of Zoroastrianism, it became part of Alexander the Great's Empire and its successor, the Seleucid Empire. During this period, Zoroastrianism spread in the Atropatene. Caucasian Albanians, the original inhabitants of northeastern Azerbaijan, ruled that area from around the 4th century BC, established an independent kingdom; the Sasanian Empire turned Caucasian Albania into a vassal state in 252, while King Urnayr adopted Christianity as the state religion in the 4th century. Despite Sassanid rule, Albania remained an entity in the region until the 9th century, while subordinate to Sassanid Iran, retained its monarchy. Despite being one of the chief vassals of the Sasanian emperor, the Albanian king had only a semblance of authority, the Sasanian marzban held most civil and military authority. In the first half of the 7th century, Caucasian Albania, as a vassal of the Sasanians, came under nominal Muslim rule due to the Muslim conquest of Persia.
The Umayyad Caliphate repulsed both the Sasanians and Byzantines from Transcaucasia and turned Caucasian Albania into a vassal state after Christian resistance led by Kin
Esra Gümüş Kirici is a Turkish volleyball player. She plays as an outside hitter; the player is Turkey women's national volleyball team. She started her career with VakıfBank Istanbul in 1995 to 2000, she played for Yeşilyurt between 2000-04. She transferred to Eczacıbaşı VitrA in 2004. VakifBank Ankara Yeşilyurt Eczacıbaşı VitrA 1996-97 Turkish League - Champion, with VakifBank Ankara 1997-98 Turkish League - Champion, with VakifBank Ankara 2005-06 Turkish League - Champion, with Eczacıbaşı Istanbul 2006-07 Turkish League - Champion, with Eczacıbaşı Istanbul 2007-08 Turkish League - Champion, with Eczacıbaşı Istanbul 2011 Turkish Volleyball Super Cup - Champion, with Eczacıbaşı VitrA 2011-12 Turkish Cup - Champion, with Eczacıbaşı VitrA 2011-12 Aroma Women's Volleyball League - Champion, with Eczacıbaşı VitrA 2012 Turkish Volleyball Super Cup - Champion, with Eczacıbaşı VitrA 2012-2013 Turkish Women's Volleyball Cup - Runner-Up, with Eczacıbaşı VitrA 2012-2013 Turkish Women's Volleyball League - Runner-Up, with Eczacıbaşı VitrA 2003 European Championship - Silver Medal 2009 Mediterranean Games - Silver Medal 2009 European League - Silver Medal 2010 European League - Bronze Medal 2011 European Championship - Bronze 2012 FIVB World Grand Prix - Bronze Medal 2013 Mediterranean Games - Silver Turkish women in sports TVF website Eczacıbaşı Website
Simge Şebnem Aköz
Simge Şebnem Aköz is a Turkish volleyball player for Eczacıbaşı VitrA and the Turkish national team. She participated at the 2017 Women's European Volleyball Championship, 2018 FIVB Volleyball Women's Nations League
Bakırköy is a neighbourhood and district on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey. The quarter is densely populated, has a residential character and is inhabited by an upper middle class population; the municipality of Bakırköy is much larger than the quarter and includes several other neighbourhoods, such as Yeşilköy, Yeşilyurt, Ataköy. Bakırköy lies between the coast of the Sea of Marmara. Bakırköy has a large psychiatric hospital called "Bakırköy Ruh ve Sinir Hastalıkları Hastanesi", is an important shopping and commercial center. During the Byzantine times Bakırköy was a separate community outside Constantinople, a well-watered pleasant seaside retreat from the city, was called Hebdomon. Here - where nowadays the Ataköy Marina lies - Emperor Valens built one of the two imperial Palaces bearing the name of Magnaura, while Justinian erected another Palace named Jucundianae placed near the seaside. Two churches, dedicated to St. John the Evangelist and to St. John Baptist the Forerunner, the latter hosting the head of the Saint and burial place of the Emperor Basil II, were erected here.
Hebdomon was a place of concentration of the Thracian army. It had a large Field of Mars, the Kampos tou Tribounaliou in Latin Campus Tribunalis, where several Emperors were elected through acclamation by the army. Among them were Valens, Honorius, Theodosius II, Nikephoros II Phokas; the Campus lay in the valley of Veli Efendi. The imperial court came to the Hebdomon to attend military parades, to welcome the emperor coming back from campaign, to pray in the large church of St. John Baptist the Forerunner; the place was named Makrohori, adapted to Makriköy in the Ottoman period, when many large houses were built here. In 1925 the ancient denomination was changed to Bakırköy by imposition of a law which suppressed all place names of non-Turkish origin, it was a district in Beyoğlu province between 1923 and 1926 and the district was included present ones of Avcılar, Bağcılar, Bahçelievler, Başakşehir, Esenler, Güngören, Küçükçekmece, western boroughs of Zeytinburnu and small part of Arnavutköy before 1957.
It was the biggest district of Turkey before separation of Küçükçekmece one in 1987 and ones of Bağcılar, Bahçelievler and Güngören in 1992. Esenler district was formed from some boroughs from Bağcılar and Güngören in 1994 and Başakşehir one formed from some boroughs from Büyükçekmece, Esenler and Küçükçekmece in 2009. Small area around villages of Şamlar part of newly founded Arnavutköy district. There is little remaining of historical significance in the area: what there is includes a cistern, a powder house from the 17th century, the Greek Orthodox church of Saint George and a Greek school, the central mosque and fountain of 1875, an Armenian Church and school and the resting place of the Muslim saint Zuhurat Baba, a Turkish soldier who died during the conquest of Constantinople, his resting place is visited by women on Fridays. The seafront is now a popular location for tea gardens and restaurants. Bakırköy became a popular residential area in the late 19th century after the construction of a railroad connection to İstanbul and until the 1970s was one of the most relaxed and desirable locations in the city.
It is still populated by Istanbul's upper middle-class. Some parts of Bakırköy are pleasant residential areas the streets from the hospital downwards to the sea; the planned satellite town of Ataköy to the west of Bakırköy centre is tidy indeed, was Turkey's first successful planned development. Ataköy contains much social infrastructure including the Galleria shopping yacht marina; the centre of Bakırköy is an important commercial district. There is a huge shopping district, a range of cinemas and cafés, as well as conversion of streets to pedestrian malls. Bakırköy is easy to reach by public transport. Moreover, the quarter has a station of the suburban railway line between Sirkeci and Halkalı. Veli Efendi, Turkey's largest and oldest racecourse, built in 1913, is close by. Istanbul's largest mental hospital is in Bakırköy, the parkland surrounding it is the largest green space in the district. There is a popular belief. Being near the Fault in the Sea of Marmara, Bakırköy is vulnerable to earthquake damage.
The headquarters of Turkish Airlines are on the grounds of Istanbul Atatürk Airport in Yeşilköy in Bakırköy. Borajet has its head office in Yeşilköy. Atlasjet has its head office in Bakırköy. Istanbul Atatürk Airport, Yeşilköy World Trade Center Istanbul, Yeşilköy Bakirkoy Synagogue, Bakırköy Carousel Shopping Center, Bakırköy Galleria Ataköy, Ataköy Beyti Restaurant, FloryaSport venues Ataköy Athletics Arena, Atak
Neslihan Demir, is a Turkish volleyball star playing for Galatasaray. She has been among FIVB Heroes, she represented her country as the flag-bearer at the 2012 Summer Olympics Parade of Nations and the official advertisement face of Turkey for the 2020 Summer Olympics candidateship along with basketballer Hedo Türkoğlu. Her position is opposite-hitter and she has won a lot of personal awards in international tournaments, she studied at Gazi University. She played for VakıfBank Türk Telekom and Spar Tenerife Marichal, she played over 100 times for the national team. At age 19, Darnel was the leading player in the Turkish team that won the silver medal at the EC 2003 in Turkey making her a star in her home country and in the volleyball scene. In 2007/08 Darnel took a break from volleyball to become a mother. Playing with VakıfBank Güneş Sigorta Türk Telekom at the CEV Indesit Champions League, she won the "Best Scorer" award, she was named Sportsperson of Year in 2003 & 2004 by Newspaper Sabah and in 2006 by Newspaper Milliyet.
She was awarded Best Scorer at the 2006 World Championship and 2010 World ChampionshipDarnel was selected as FIVB Hero by FIVB in May 2012. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, she was selected to be the at the flagbearer of her home country. Darnel won the Best Spiker individual award during the 2013–14 CEV Champions League Final Four held in Baku, Azerbaijan. There her team lost the semifinal to the Bronze Medal match to Rabita Baku. Neslihan Demir married Orkun Darnel, captain of the Galatasaray Swimming team, on July 16, 2006; the couple have a daughter named Zeynep Penelope. Orkun Darnel became manager of Galatasaray Daikin women's volleyball team after playing water polo at the same club for twenty years; the couple announced their divorce in March 2013. Eskişehir DSI Yeşilyurt Vakıfbank Güneş Sigorta Spar Tenerife Marichal Vakıfbank Güneş Sigorta Eczacıbaşı VitrA Galatasaray 2002-2003 Indesit Champions League "Best Scorer" 2002-2003 Indesit Champions League "Best Server" 2003-2004 Top Teams Cup Final Four "Most Valuable Player" 2003-2004 Top Teams Cup Final Four "Best Server" 2005-2006 Indesit Champions League Final Four "Best Scorer" 2005-2006 Indesit Champions League "Best Server" 2006 World Championship "Best Scorer" 2007 Montreux Volley Masters "Best Scorer" 2009 European Volleyball League "Most Valuable Player" 2009 European Volleyball League "Best Scorer" 2009-2010 Indesit Champions League Preliminary Round "Best Scorer" 2010 European Volleyball League "Best Scorer" 2011 FIVB World Grand Prix European Qualification "Best Scorer" 2011 FIVB World Grand Prix European Qualification "Most Valuable Player" 2010 World Championship "Best Scorer" 2011 European Championship "Best Scorer" 2012 FIVB World Grand Prix "Best Server" 2013-14 CEV Champions League "Best Spiker" 2003 European Championship - Silver Medal 2005 Mediterranean Games - Gold Medal 2009 Mediterranean Games - Silver Medal 2009 European League - Silver Medal 2010 European League - Bronze Medal 2011 European League - Silver Medal 2011 European Championship - Bronze Medal 2012 FIVB World Grand Prix - Bronze Medal 2013 Mediterranean Games - Silver Medal 2003-04 Turkish Championship - Champion, with Vakifbank Günes Sigorta Istanbul 2003-04 CEV Top Teams Cup - Champion, with Vakifbank Günes Sigorta Istanbul 2004-05 Turkish Championship - Champion, with Vakifbank Günes Sigorta Istanbul 2005-06 Turkish Championship - Runner-up, with Vakifbank Günes Sigorta Istanbul 2006-07 Spanish Championship - Runner-up, with Spar Tenerife Marichal 2006-2007 Indesit Champions League - Bronze Medal with Spar Tenerife Marichal 2008 Spanish Super Cup - Champion, with Spar Tenerife Marichal 2009-2010 Turkish Championship - Runner-up, with Vakifbank Günes Sigorta Istanbul 2011 Turkish Cup - Champion, with Eczacıbaşı VitrA 2011 Turkish Super Cup - Champion, with Eczacıbaşı VitrA 2011-2012 Turkish Championship - Champion, with Eczacıbaşı VitrA 2012 Turkish Cup - Champion, with Eczacıbaşı VitrA 2012 Turkish Volleyball Super Cup - Champion, with Eczacıbaşı VitrA 2012-2013 Turkish Women's Volleyball Cup - Runner-Up, with Eczacıbaşı VitrA 2012-2013 Turkish Women's Volleyball League - Runner-Up, with Eczacıbaşı VitrA 2014–15 CEV Champions League - Champion, with Eczacıbaşı VitrA 2015 FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship - Champion, with Eczacıbaşı VitrA 2016 FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship - Champion, with Eczacıbaşı VitrA Turkish women in sports FIVB Profile Official website
Özgenur Yurtdagülen, a.k.a. Özge Nur Yurtdagülen, is a Turkish female volleyball player. She is 192 cm tall at 73 kg, she plays for Galatasaray in the middle blocker position. Yurtdagülen is a member of the Turkey women's national volleyball team, she is a student of Business Administration at Bahçeşehir University. Yurtdagülen began her sports career at the age of eleven in Yeşilyurt, played there in all age categories. In June 2012, she transferred to Galatasaray, she played in junior women's national team. She was called up to the Turkey women's national volleyball team, played at the 2014 Women's European Volleyball League that won the gold medal. 2014 Women's European Volleyball League - champion 2015 FIVB Volleyball Women's U23 World Championship - Silver Turkish women in sports Özgenur Yurtdagülan at Scoresway