The Ver is a river in Hertfordshire, England. The Romans built the city of Verulamium alongside it at a time when it was navigable, the Ver is a chalk stream, which is partly a seasonal winterbourne north of Redbourn. However, many of its features have been compromised as a result of being canalised during the construction of the artificial lakes at Verulamium Park in St Albans in the 1930s. During the 1960s and 1970s it suffered serious problems as a result of water extraction upstream, in 2004 a proposal for remedial work was being developed for the St Albans lakes. Eleven mills are known to have existed, of which a number can still be today, either as mills. Particularly worthy of note are, Dolittle Mill, closed in 1927 and since demolished. It is reputed to have been the site of a miracle, the early 15th century chronicler Thomas Walsingham, a monk at St Albans Abbey, records that a child fell into the mill race and was thrown out by the wheel, apparently dead. The childs mother prayed to Saint Alban, offering money if the life were restored.
Redbournbury Mill, between Redbourn and St Albans, a recently restored flour mill, still producing flour. A 16th century mill in St Albans which was previously a mill belonging to St Albans Abbey. Its origins are known to go back to at least 1194, today it is restored and open as a museum, with gift shop and waffle house. Moor Mill, in Smug Oak Lane, Bricket Wood, now a public house and conference centre. The water wheel and other workings can still be seen inside during normal opening hours, the bridge in St Michaels Street, adjacent to Kingsbury Mill, dates from 1765 and is believed to be the oldest extant bridge in Hertfordshire. According to an account of the Second Battle of St Albans in 1461. It is thought that the Romans had built a bridge here by the 3rd century AD, disused watercress beds can be seen at various points along the rivers length, the entire Ver valley was a national centre for the watercress growing industry. Ver Valley Society Friends of Verulamium Park Discover the River Ver on Countryside Management Services website
Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem
Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem in Nottingham is one of several pubs in England which claim to be the oldest. The pub building rests against Castle Rock upon which Nottingham Castle is built, the pub claims that it was established in 1189 AD. However, there is no documentation to verify this date, the earliest parts of the current building date from around 1650, the earliest record of a pub is in 1751, when the building was being used as an inn with the name The Pilgrim. With a history dating from circa 947 AD, the Porch House in Stow-on-the-Wold could be the best claim to oldest inn. There is a tradition that part of this building was once a hospice built by order of Aethelmar. Evidence suggests that caves in the rock against which the pub is built, were used as a brewhouse for Nottingham Castle, the oldest parts of the current building were constructed between 1650 and 1660, though a map by John Speed shows a previous building in existence in 1610. By 1751 the building was being used as an inn with the name The Pilgrim, the first record of the use of the name Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem dates from 1799.
Brew House Yard acquired its name after 1680
A listed building or listed structure, in the United Kingdom, is one that has been placed on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. The statutory bodies maintaining the list are Historic England in England, Cadw in Wales, Historic Scotland in Scotland, the preferred term in Ireland is protected structure. In England and Wales, an amenity society must be notified of any work to a listed building which involves any element of demolition. Owners of listed buildings are, in circumstances, compelled to repair and maintain them. When alterations are permitted, or when listed buildings are repaired or maintained, slightly different systems operate in each area of the United Kingdom, though the basic principles of the listing remain the same. It was the damage to caused by German bombing during World War II that prompted the first listing of buildings that were deemed to be of particular architectural merit. The listings were used as a means of determining whether a building should be rebuilt if it was damaged by bombing.
Listing was first introduced into Northern Ireland under the Planning Order 1972, the listing process has since developed slightly differently in each part of the UK. In the UK, the process of protecting the historic environment is called ‘designation’. A heritage asset is a part of the environment that is valued because of its historic. Only some of these are judged to be important enough to have legal protection through designation. However, buildings that are not formally listed but still judged as being of heritage interest are still regarded as being a consideration in the planning process. Almost anything can be listed – it does not have to be a building and structures of special historic interest come in a wide variety of forms and types, ranging from telephone boxes and road signs, to castles. Historic England has created twenty broad categories of structures, and published selection guides for each one to aid with assessing buildings and these include historical overviews and describe the special considerations for listing each category.
Both Historic Scotland and Cadw produce guidance for owners, in England, to have a building considered for listing or delisting, the process is to apply to the secretary of state, this can be done by submitting an application form online to Historic England. The applicant does not need to be the owner of the building to apply for it to be listed, full information including application form guidance notes are on the Historic England website. Historic England assesses buildings put forward for listing or delisting and provides advice to the Secretary of State on the architectural, the Secretary of State, who may seek additional advice from others, decides whether or not to list or delist the building. In England and Wales the authority for listing is granted to the Secretary of State by the Planning Act 1990, Listed buildings in danger of decay are listed on the Historic England Heritage at Risk Register
Late Middle Ages
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history generally comprising the 14th and 15th centuries. The Late Middle Ages followed the High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the modern era. Around 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe came to a halt, a series of famines and plagues, including the Great Famine of 1315–1317 and the Black Death, reduced the population to around half of what it was before the calamities. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare and England experienced serious peasant uprisings, such as the Jacquerie and the Peasants Revolt, as well as over a century of intermittent conflict in the Hundred Years War. To add to the problems of the period, the unity of the Catholic Church was shattered by the Western Schism. Collectively these events are called the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages. Despite these crises, the 14th century was a time of progress in the arts. Following a renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman texts that took root in the High Middle Ages, combined with this influx of classical ideas was the invention of printing, which facilitated dissemination of the printed word and democratized learning.
These two things would lead to the Protestant Reformation. Toward the end of the period, the Age of Discovery began, the rise of the Ottoman Empire, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, eroded the last remnants of the Byzantine Empire and cut off trading possibilities with the east. Europeans were forced to seek new trading routes, leading to the expedition of Columbus to the Americas in 1492 and their discoveries strengthened the economy and power of European nations. The changes brought about by these developments have led scholars to view this period as the end of the Middle Ages and beginning of modern history. However, the division is artificial, since ancient learning was never entirely absent from European society. As a result there was continuity between the ancient age and the modern age. Some historians, particularly in Italy, prefer not to speak of the Late Middle Ages at all, but rather see the period of the Middle Ages transitioning to the Renaissance. The term Late Middle Ages refers to one of the three periods of the Middle Ages, along with the Early Middle Ages and the High Middle Ages, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodization in his History of the Florentine People.
Flavio Biondo used a framework in Decades of History from the Deterioration of the Roman Empire. Tripartite periodization became standard after the German historian Christoph Cellarius published Universal History Divided into an Ancient, for 18th-century historians studying the 14th and 15th centuries, the central theme was the Renaissance, with its rediscovery of ancient learning and the emergence of an individual spirit
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Church of St Mary the Virgin, Baldock
The Church of St Mary the Virgin is a parish church of the Church of England in Baldock in Hertfordshire. Dedicated to the Virgin Mary, the church on the site dated to about 1150 and was built by the Knights Templar before being largely rebuilt in about 1330 by the Knights Hospitaller. It is a Grade I listed building, the advowson or patronage of the church of St. It was granted, together with the manor of Baldock, to the Knights Hospitaller, who expanded it in about 1330, the latter in 1343 granted it for two years to Sir Walter de Manny, after which it presumably reverted to the Hospitallers. In 1359 it was claimed by the Crown as parcel of the Holy Trinity church of Weston, the patronage was transferred before 1829 to the Lord Chancellor. The latter held it until 1865, when it was transferred to the Bishop of Rochester, who presented until 1877, since 1902 the presentation has been in the hands of the bishop and the Marquess of Salisbury alternately. The Fraternity or Gild of Jesus at St Marys in Baldock was founded in 1459, at that date it had a master, churchwardens and sisters, and found a priest who helped the parson of the church in his duties.
At the inquiry of 1548 William Tybie was the brotherhood priest, in 1550 it was granted, with the lands belonging, to John Cock. Byrd is remembered for giving Charles I a drink of wine from this chalice when he passed through Baldock and he was eighty eight before he passed away. And died in the year When one and sixes three made up the Quere, for a time Byrds assistant or lecturer was William Sherwin, who was either silenced or ejected. The churchs plate includes a cup and cover paten of 1629, the Rev. John Smith, Rector of the church from 1832 to 1870 and who is buried in the churchyard, was the first to decipher the complete text of the Diary of Samuel Pepys. Smith laboured on the Diaries for three years, from 1819 to 1822 and his transcription, which is kept in the Pepys Library, was the basis for the first published edition of the diary, edited by Lord Braybrooke, released in two volumes in 1825. The 19th century rectory beside the church, built in 1871, today it is a nursery, while a rather more modest modern rectory is located in Pond Lane.
St Marys has two church schools - St Marys Infant and St Marys Junior Schools, which share a site on St Marys Way in Baldock. The parasychologist Peter Underwood married in the church in 1944, the church is built of flint rubble with stone dressings, while the tower is coated with Roman cement. Pieces of moulding and columns of a building are used in the walls. The roofs of the chapel and north aisle are of slate. The church consists of a chancel and south chapels, nave and south aisles, west tower, and north and south porches
Bolton is a town in Greater Manchester in North West England. A former mill town, Bolton has been a centre for textiles since Flemish weavers settled in the area in the 14th century, introducing a wool. The urbanisation and development of the town coincided with the introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. The British cotton industry declined sharply after the First World War, close to the West Pennine Moors, Bolton is 10 miles northwest of Manchester. It is surrounded by smaller towns and villages that together form the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton. The town of Bolton has a population of 139,403, historically part of Lancashire, Bolton originated as a small settlement in the moorland known as Bolton le Moors. In the English Civil War, the town was a Parliamentarian outpost in a staunchly Royalist region, in what became known as the Bolton Massacre,1,600 residents were killed and 700 were taken prisoner. Football club Bolton Wanderers play home games at the Macron Stadium, Cultural interests include the Octagon Theatre and the Bolton Museum and Art Gallery, as well as one of the earliest public libraries established after the Public Libraries Act 1850.
Bolton is a common Northern English name derived from the Old English bothl-tun, the first recorded use of the name, in the form Boelton, dates from 1185 to describe Bolton le Moors, though this may not be in relation to a dwelling. It was recorded as Bothelton in 1212, Botelton in 1257, Boulton in 1288, forms of Botheltun were Bodeltown, Botheltun-le-Moors, Boltune, Bolton-super-Moras, Bolton-in-ye-Moors, Bolton-le-Moors. The towns motto of Supera Moras means overcome difficulties, and is a pun on the Bolton-super-Moras version of the meaning literally. A Bronze Age mound was excavated in Victorian times outside Haulgh Hall, the Romans built roads from Manchester to Ribchester to the east and a road along what is now the A6 to the west. It is claimed that Agricola built a fort at Blackrod by clearing land above the forest, evidence of a Saxon settlement exists in the form of religious objects found when the Victorian parish church was built. In 1067 Great Bolton was the property of Roger de Poitou and after 1100 and it became the property of the Pilkingtons who forfeited it in the Civil War and after that the Stanleys who became Earls of Derby.
Great Bolton and Little Bolton were part of the Marsey fee, in 1212 Little Bolton was held by Roger de Bolton as plough-land, a charter to hold a market in Churchgate was granted on 14 December 1251 by King Henry III of England. Bolton became a town and borough by a charter from the Earl of Derby, William de Ferrers, on 14 January 1253. Burgage plots were laid out on Churchgate and Deansgate in the centre of the town close to where Ye Olde Man & Scythe public house. In 1337 Flemish weavers settled and introduced the manufacture of woollen cloth, more Flemish weavers, fleeing the Huguenot persecutions, settled here in the 17th century
Pigeons and doves constitute the bird family Columbidae, which includes about 310 species. Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks, and short slender bills and they primarily feed on seeds and plants. This family occurs worldwide, but the greatest variety is in the Indomalaya, in general, the terms dove and pigeon are used somewhat interchangeably. Pigeon is a French word that derives from the Latin pipio, for a peeping chick, the species most commonly referred to as pigeon is the rock dove, one subspecies of which, the domestic pigeon, is common in many cities as the feral pigeon. Pigeons and doves are likely the most common birds in the world and pigeons build relatively flimsy nests – often using sticks and other debris – which may be placed in trees, on ledges, or on the ground, depending on species. They lay one or two eggs at a time, and both parents care for the young, which leave the nest after seven to 28 days. Unlike most birds, both sexes of doves and pigeons produce crop milk to feed to their young, secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of the crop, young doves and pigeons are called squabs.
The adjective columbine refers to pigeons and doves, recent phylogenomic studies support the grouping of these pigeons and sandgrouse together, along with mesites, forming the sister taxon to Mirandornithes. The Columbidae are usually divided into five subfamilies, probably inaccurately, for example, the American ground and quail doves, which are usually placed in the Columbinae, seem to be two distinct subfamilies. The order presented here follows Baptista et al. with some updates, osteology and DNA sequence analyses indicate the dodo and Rodrigues solitaire are better considered as a subfamily Raphinae in the Columbidae pending availability of further information. The dodo and Rodrigues solitaire are in all part of the Indo-Australian radiation that produced the three small subfamilies mentioned above, with the fruit-doves and pigeons. Therefore, they are included as a subfamily Raphinae, pending better material evidence of their exact relationships. Exacerbating these issues, columbids are not well represented in the fossil record, no truly primitive forms have been found to date.
The genus Gerandia has been described from Early Miocene deposits of France, apart from that, all other fossils belong to extant genera. For these, and for the number of more recently extinct prehistoric species. Phylogeny based on the work by John H. Boyd III, Pigeons and doves exhibit considerable variations in size. Overall, the Columbidae tend to have short bills and legs, the wings are large and have low wing loadings, pigeons have strong wing muscles and are among the strongest fliers of all birds. They are highly manoeuvrable in flight, the plumage of the family is variable
Inspector Morse (TV series)
Inspector Morse is a British detective drama television series based on a series of novels by Colin Dexter. It starred John Thaw as Chief Inspector Morse and Kevin Whately as Sergeant Lewis, the series comprises 33 two-hour episodes produced between 1987 and 2000. Dexter made uncredited appearances in all but three of the episodes. The series, first shown in the UK on the ITV network, was made by Zenith Productions for Central Independent Television, between 1995 and 1996, it was produced by Carlton Television, and towards the series end, was made by Carlton and WGBH. Every episode involved a new investigation, featuring several guest stars. Writer Anthony Minghella scripted three, including the first, The Dead of Jericho, which aired on 6 January 1987 featuring Gemma Jones, Patrick Troughton, and James Laurenson. Its other writers included Julian Mitchell, Daniel Boyle, and Alma Cullen, and its directors included John Madden, Herbert Wise, Peter Hammond, Adrian Shergold, and Danny Boyle. The series remains popular and is repeated on ITV and ITV3 in the UK.
The character of Lewis was transformed from the elderly Welshman and ex-boxer of the novels to a much younger Geordie police sergeant with a family, as a foil to Morses cynical streak. Morses first name, Endeavour, is revealed on only one occasion, on the other occasions, he usually answers Morse. Everyone just calls me Morse or dryly replies Inspector, when asked what his first name is, Thaw had a special appreciation of the fact that Morse was different from classic detectives such as Hercule Poirot and Sherlock Holmes. Morse was brilliant, but he was not always right and he often arrested the wrong person or came to the wrong conclusion. As a result, unlike many classic sleuths, Morse does not always simply arrest his culprit, ironic circumstances have the case end and the crime brought to him. Also, Morse was a romantic—frequently mildly and gently flirting with or asking out colleagues, witnesses, or suspects—occasionally bordering on the unprofessional, Morse is a character whose talents and intelligence are being wasted in positions that fail to match his abilities.
Morse is a highly credible detective and plausible human being and his penchant for drinking, his life filled with difficult personal relationships, and his negligence toward his health, make him a more tragic character than previous classic sleuths. Morses eventual death in the final episode The Remorseful Day is caused by heart problems exacerbated by heavy drinking, differing from the literary characters diabetes-related demise, Inspector Morse was filmed for ITV using 16 mm film stock. Since its production, a number of releases of the show on DVD using various remastered editions of the episodes in the 4,3 ratio have been made. In recent years, ITV has overseen a high-definition restoration of the drama from the original 16 mm negatives so as to boost the HD content on ITV3 HD
Rye House, Hertfordshire
Rye House is a location in Hoddesdon in the English county of Hertfordshire, now in the Lee Valley Regional Park. There were medieval buildings there, for about 450 years, of only a gatehouse remains. The House gave its name to the Rye House Plot, an attempt of 1683 that was a violent consequence of the Exclusion Crisis in British politics at the end of the 1670s. The ownership of Rye House was very stable over four centuries, but the fabric gradually ran down, andres Pedersen, a Danish soldier who took part in the Hundred Years War, was denizenised in England in 1433, becoming Sir Andrew Ogard. In 1443 he was allowed to impark part of the manor of Rye, the called the Isle of Rye, in the parish of Stanstead Abbots. Over 50 types of moulded brick were used in its construction, in 1517 William Parr was living at Rye House, it was the main family home for the Parrs, Catherine Parr and Anne Parr also, after their fathers death, until 1531. It passed in 1577 to Joyce Frankland from her husband William, the Frankland family sold it to the Baeshe family, in 1619.
It was the setting of the Rye House Plot, in 1683, when the putative plot was actively being discussed, it was occupied by Richard Rumbold, one of the conspirators. It was bought by the Fieldes family in 1676, in the person of the Hertford MP Edmund Feilde, by 1834 Rye House had become a workhouse. Subsequently Henry Teale developed it into a tourist attraction, buying the House and 50 acres in 1864, there were a maze and a bowling green, among other features. An affray there in 1885 between Catholic excursionists and Orangemen led to a question in the House of Commons, in 1911 it was described as a hotel. For many years the Great Bed of Ware was on display, the moat was put to uses including growing water cress. The part that had filled in was excavated in the 1980s. The local geography played a significant part in the history of the House, at Hoddesdon the River Stort runs into the River Lea, and the area was often flooded. The lord of the manor of Rye maintained a bridge over the Lea, the causeway became part of the coaching road via Bishops Stortford into East Anglia