Tree of the knowledge of good and evil
The tree of the knowledge of good and evil is one of two specific trees in the story of the Garden of Eden in Genesis 2–3, along with the tree of life. Genesis 2 narrates that God places the first man and woman in a garden with trees of whose fruits they may eat, but forbids them to eat from "the tree of the knowledge of good and evil." When, in Genesis 3, a serpent seduces the woman to eat from its forbidden fruit and she lets the man taste it, God expels them from the garden and thereby from eternal life. The phrase in Hebrew: טוֹב וָרָע, tov wa-raʿ translates as good and evil; this may be an example of the type of figure of speech known as merism, a literary device that pairs opposite terms together in order to create a general meaning, so that the phrase "good and evil" would imply "everything." This is seen in the Egyptian expression evil-good, employed to mean "everything." In Greek literature, Homer uses the device when he lets Telemachus say, "I know all things, the good and the evil".
If tree of the knowledge of good and evil is to be understood to mean a tree whose fruit imparts knowledge of everything, this phrase does not denote a moral concept. This view is held by several scholars. However, given the context of disobedience to God, other interpretations of the implications of this phrase demand consideration. Robert Alter emphasizes the point that when God forbids the man to eat from that particular tree, he says that if he does so, he is "doomed to die." The Hebrew behind this is in a form used in the Hebrew Bible for issuing death sentences. In Jewish tradition, the Tree of Knowledge and the eating of its fruit represents the beginning of the mixture of good and evil together. Before that time, the two were separate, evil had only a nebulous existence in potential. While free choice did exist before eating the fruit, evil existed as an entity separate from the human psyche, it was not in human nature to desire it. Eating and internalizing the forbidden fruit changed this and thus was born the yeitzer hara, the Evil Inclination.
In Rashi's notes on Genesis 3:3, the first sin came about because Eve added an additional clause to the Divine command: Neither shall you touch it. By saying this, Eve added to YHWH's command and thereby came to detract from it, as it is written: Do not add to His Words. However, In Legends of the Jews, it was Adam who had devoutly forbidden Eve to touch the tree though God had only mentioned the eating of the fruit; when Adam ate from the Tree of Knowledge, all the animals ate from it, too In Kabbalah, the sin of the Tree of Knowledge brought about the great task of beirurim, sifting through the mixture of good and evil in the world to extract and liberate the sparks of holiness trapped therein. Since evil has no independent existence, it depends on holiness to draw down the Divine life-force, on whose "leftovers" it feeds and derives existence. Once evil is separated from holiness through beirurim, its source of life is cut off, causing the evil to disappear; this is accomplished through observance of the 613 commandments in the Torah, which deal with physical objects wherein good and evil are mixed together.
Thus, the task of beirurim rectifies the sin of the Tree and draws the Shechinah back down to earth, where the sin of the Tree had caused Her to depart. In Christian theology, consuming the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil was the sin committed by Adam and Eve that led to the fall of man in Genesis 2-3. In Catholicism, Augustine of Hippo taught that the tree should be understood both symbolically and as a real tree - to Jerusalem being both a real city and a figure of Heavenly Jerusalem. Augustine underlined that the fruits of that tree were not evil by themselves, because everything that God created was good, it was disobedience of Adam and Eve, told by God not to eat of the tree, that caused disorder in the creation, thus humanity inherited sin and guilt from Adam and Eve's sin. In Western Christian art, the fruit of the tree is depicted as the apple, which originated in central Asia; this depiction may have originated as a Latin pun: by eating the mālum, Eve contracted malum.
It is possible that this depiction originated because of the religious painters' artistic licence. The Quran never refers to the tree as the "Tree of the knowledge of good and evil" but rather refers to it as "the tree" or as the "tree of immortality." Muslims believe that when God created Adam and Eve, he told them that they could enjoy everything in the Garden except this tree, so, Satan appeared to them and told them that the only reason God forbade them to eat from that tree is that they would become Angels or become immortals. When they ate from this tree their nakedness appeared to them and they began to sew together, for their covering, leaves from the Garden; the Quran mentions the sin as being a'slip', after this'slip' they were sent to the destination they were intended to be on - Earth. They repented to God and asked for his forgiveness and were forgiven, it was decided that those who obey God and follow his path shall be rewarded with everlasting life in Jannah, those who disobey God and stray away from his path shall be punished in Jahannam.
God in Quran states: " Children of Adam! Let not Satan tempt you as he brought your parents out of the Garden, stripping them of their garments to show them their shameful parts, he sees you, he and his tribe, from where you see them not. We have made the Satans the friends of those who do not believe
Holy of Holies
The Holy of Holies is a term in the Hebrew Bible which refers to the inner sanctuary of the Tabernacle where God's presence appeared. The area was defined by four pillars which held up the veil of the covering, under which the Ark of the Covenant was held above the floor; the Ark according to Hebrew Scripture contained the Ten Commandments, which were given by God to Moses on Mount Sinai. King Solomon built the Temple in Jerusalem; the Crusaders associated it with the Well of Souls, located under the Foundation Stone of the Dome of the Rock. The construction "Holy of Holies" is a literal translation of a Hebrew idiom, intended to express a superlative. Examples of similar constructions are "servant of servants", "Sabbath of sabbaths", "God of gods", "Vanity of vanities", "Song of songs", "king of kings", etc. In the Authorized King James Version, "Holy of Holies" is always translated as "Most Holy Place"; this is in keeping with the intention of the Hebrew idiom to express the utmost degree of holiness.
The King James Version of the Bible has been in existence for over four hundred years. For most of that time, it was a primary reference in much of the English speaking world for information about Judaism. Thus, the name "Most Holy Place" was used to refer to the "Holy of Holies" in many English documents. A related term is the debir transliterated in the Septuagint (the Greek translation as dabir, which either means the back part of the Sanctuary, or derives from the verb stem D-V-R, "to speak", justifying the translation in the Latin Vulgate as oraculum, from which the traditional English translation "oracle" derives. According to the Hebrew Bible, in order that God may dwell among the Israelites, God gave Moses instructions for erecting a sanctuary; the directions provide for: A wooden ark, gilded inside and outside, for the Tablets of the Covenant, with a pure gold cover as the "mercy seat" for the Divine Presence. According to the Bible, the Holy of Holies was covered by a veil, no one was allowed to enter except the High Priest, he would only enter once a year on Yom Kippur, to offer the blood of sacrifice and incense.
The Bible reports that in the wilderness, on the day that the tabernacle was first raised up, the cloud of the Lord covered the tabernacle. There are other times that this was recorded, instructions were given that the Lord would appear in the cloud upon the mercy seat, at that time the priests should not enter into the tabernacle. According to the Hebrew Bible, the Holy of Holies contained the Ark of the Covenant with representation of Cherubim. Upon completion of the dedication of the Tabernacle, the Voice of God spoke to Moses "from between the Cherubim"; the Holy of Holies, the most sacred site in Judaism, is the inner sanctuary within the Tabernacle and Temple in Jerusalem when Solomon's Temple and the Second Temple were standing. The Holy of Holies was located in the westernmost end of the Temple building, being a perfect cube: 20 cubits by 20 cubits by 20 cubits; the inside was in total darkness and contained the Ark of the Covenant, gilded inside and out, in, placed the Tablets of the Covenant.
According to Hebrews 9:4 in the New Testament, Aaron's rod and a pot of manna were in the ark. The Ark was covered with a lid made of pure gold, known as the "mercy seat", covered by the beaten gold cherubim wings, creating the space for the Divine Presence; when the Temple was rebuilt after the Babylonian captivity, the Ark was no longer present in the Holy of Holies. Josephus records that Pompey profaned the Temple by insisting on entering the Holy of Holies in 63 BCE; the Holy of Holies was entered once a year by the High Priest on the Day of Atonement, to sprinkle the blood of sacrificial animals and offer incense upon the Ark of the Covenant and the mercy seat which sat on top of the ark in the First Temple. The animal was sacrificed on the Brazen Altar and the blood was carried into the most holy place; the golden censers were found in the Most Holy Place. The Magdala stone is thought to be a representation of the Holy of Holies carved before the destruction of the Temple in the year 70.
Traditional Judaism regards the location where the inner sanctuary was located, on the Temple Mount in Mount Moriah, as retaining some or all of its original sanctity for use in a future Third Temple. The exact location of the Kodesh Hakodashim is a subject of dispute. Traditional Judaism regards the Holy of Holies as the place; the Talmud gives detailed des
Inanna is an ancient Mesopotamian goddess associated with love, sex, fertility, war and political power. She was worshipped in Sumer and was worshipped by the Akkadians and Assyrians under the name Ishtar, she was known as the "Queen of Heaven" and was the patron goddess of the Eanna temple at the city of Uruk, her main cult center. She was associated with the planet Venus and her most prominent symbols included the lion and the eight-pointed star, her husband was the god her sukkal, or personal attendant, was the goddess Ninshubur. Inanna was worshipped in Sumer at least as early as the Uruk period, but she had little cult prior to the conquest of Sargon of Akkad. During the post-Sargonic era, she became one of the most venerated deities in the Sumerian pantheon, with temples across Mesopotamia; the cult of Inanna-Ishtar, which may have been associated with a variety of sexual rites, including homosexual transvestite priests, sacred prostitution and hierogamy between Sumerian kings and her priestesses, was continued by the East Semitic-speaking people who succeeded the Sumerians in the region.
She was beloved by the Assyrians, who elevated her to become the highest deity in their pantheon, ranking above their own national god Ashur. Inanna-Ishtar is alluded to in the Hebrew Bible and she influenced the Phoenician goddess Astarte, who influenced the development of the Greek goddess Aphrodite, her cult continued to flourish until its gradual decline between the first and sixth centuries AD in the wake of Christianity, though it survived in parts of Upper Mesopotamia as late as the eighteenth century. Inanna appears in more myths than any other Sumerian deity. Many of her myths involve her taking over the domains of other deities, she was believed to have stolen the mes, which represented all positive and negative aspects of civilization, from Enki, the god of wisdom. She was believed to have taken over the Eanna temple from An, the god of the sky. Alongside her twin brother Utu, Inanna was the enforcer of divine justice. In the standard Akkadian version of the Epic of Gilgamesh, Ishtar asks Gilgamesh to become her consort.
When he refuses, she unleashes the Bull of Heaven, resulting in the death of Enkidu and Gilgamesh's subsequent grapple with his mortality. Inanna-Ishtar's most famous myth is the story of her descent into and return from Kur, the ancient Sumerian Underworld, a myth in which she attempts to conquer the domain of her older sister Ereshkigal, the queen of the Underworld, but is instead deemed guilty of hubris by the seven judges of the Underworld and struck dead. Three days Ninshubur pleads with all the gods to bring Inanna back, but all of them refuse her except Enki, who sends two sexless beings to rescue Inanna, they escort Inanna out of the Underworld, but the galla, the guardians of the Underworld, drag her husband Dumuzid down to the Underworld as her replacement. Dumuzid is permitted to return to heaven for half the year while his sister Geshtinanna remains in the Underworld for the other half, resulting in the cycle of the seasons. Inanna and Ishtar were separate, unrelated deities, but they were equated with each other during the reign of Sargon of Akkad and came to be regarded as the same goddess under two different names.
Inanna's name may derive from the Sumerian phrase nin-an-ak, meaning "Lady of Heaven", but the cuneiform sign for Inanna is not a ligature of the signs lady and sky. These difficulties led some early Assyriologists to suggest that Inanna may have been a Proto-Euphratean goddess related to the Hurrian mother goddess Hannahannah, only accepted into the Sumerian pantheon; this idea was supported by Inanna's youthfulness, as well as the fact that, unlike the other Sumerian divinities, she seems to have lacked a distinct sphere of responsibilities. The view that there was a Proto-Euphratean substrate language in Southern Iraq before Sumerian is not accepted by modern Assyriologists; the name Ishtar occurs as an element in personal names from both the pre-Sargonic and post-Sargonic eras in Akkad and Babylonia. It is of Semitic derivation and is etymologically related to the name of the West Semitic god Attar, mentioned in inscriptions from Ugarit and southern Arabia; the morning star may have been conceived as a male deity who presided over the arts of war and the evening star may have been conceived as a female deity who presided over the arts of love.
Among the Akkadians and Babylonians, the name of the male god supplanted the name of his female counterpart, due to extensive syncretism with Inanna, the deity remained as female, despite the fact that her name was in the masculine form. Inanna has posed a problem for many scholars of ancient Sumer due to the fact that her sphere of power contained more distinct and contradictory aspects than that of any other deity. Two major theories regarding her origins have been proposed; the first explanation holds that Inanna is the result of a syncretism between several unrelated Sumerian deities with different domains. The second explanation holds that Inanna was a Semitic deity who entered the Sumerian pantheon after it was fully structured, who took on all the r
Henry Albert Azaria is an American actor, voice actor and producer, known for his voice characterizations as a variety of characters in the animated sitcom The Simpsons, which include Moe Szyslak, Apu Nahasapeemapetilon, Chief Wiggum, Comic Book Guy, Carl Carlson and others. After attending Tufts University, he had joined the series with little voice acting experience, but became a regular in its second season, with many of his performances on the show being based on famous actors and characters. In addition to his work on The Simpsons, Azaria became more known for his live-action appearances in feature films such as The Birdcage, Mystery Men, America's Sweethearts, Shattered Glass, Along Came Polly, Run Fatboy Run, Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian and The Smurfs. Since 2017, he has starred as the title character in Brockmire. Azaria had recurring roles on the television series Mad About You and Friends, played the title character in the drama Huff and appeared in the popular stage musical Spamalot.
Known as a comedic actor, he has taken on more dramatic roles, including the television films Tuesdays With Morrie and Uprising. He has won a SAG Award, he was married to actress Helen Hunt from 1999 to 2000 and has been married to actress Katie Wright since 2007. Azaria was born in Queens, New York City, the son of Eastern Sephardic Jewish parents and Albert Azaria, his grandparents on both sides hailed from Thessaloniki, Greece's Spanish Jewish community established there after the 1492 exile from Spain. His family's spoken language at home was the Ladino language, which Azaria has described as "a strange, antiquated Spanish dialect written in Hebrew characters."Azaria's father ran several dress-manufacturing businesses, while his mother raised him and his two older sisters and Elise. Before marrying his father, Azaria's mother had been a publicist for Columbia Pictures, promoting films in Latin American countries, as she was fluent in both English and Spanish. During his childhood, Azaria would "memorize and mimic" the scripts of the films and stand-up comedy routines that he enjoyed.
Azaria attended The Kew-Forest School in Forest Hills. He decided to become an actor after performing in a school play at the age of 16, becoming, at the expense of his academic studies, "obsessed with acting." Both of his parents loved all forms of show business. He studied drama at Tufts University from 1981 to 1985, where he met and befriended actor Oliver Platt and noted that "Oliver was a better actor than I was in college, he inspired me." Together they both starred in various college stage productions, including The Merchant of Venice, before Azaria trained at the American Academy of Dramatic Arts. Although he did not expect the endeavor to be successful, Azaria decided to become a professional actor, so that in his life, he would not regret not having tried. Azaria's first acting job was an advertisement for Italian television when he was seventeen years old, he worked as a busboy. Azaria intended to work predominantly as a theatrical actor, he and Platt set up their own company, named Big Theatre, although Harold Pinter's The Dumb Waiter was the only thing they performed.
He decided that television was a better arena and offered more opportunity so, after being offered work with talent agent Harry Gold, Azaria moved to Los Angeles. Azaria got along with Gold, lukewarm about working with him, but after a woman Azaria had "worked with in New York got furious with him because he said he'd work with me and didn't", Gold sent him out for auditions, he made his television debut with a role in the pilot episode of the 1986 ABC comedy-drama series Joe Bash, with Peter Boyle. His part—a one-line role as the police officer Maldonado—was edited out before the show was broadcast, although the role secured him admission to the Screen Actors Guild. Azaria appeared in the TV film Nitti: The Enforcer, about the gangster Frank Nitti, appeared in the failed pilot Morning Maggie alongside Matthew Perry, with whom he became good friends, he played Joe in an episode of the sitcom Family Ties in 1988 in which he had one line, the following year he played Steve Stevenson in an episode of Growing Pains.
Azaria has described his career progression as being gradual. In Los Angeles, Azaria was trained by acting coach Roy London. Between acting jobs he performed as a stand-up comedian, worked as a bartender for a catering firm. Azaria became famous for his voice work in the ongoing animated television series The Simpsons, he joined the show having performed only one voice-over—as the titular animated dog in the failed Fox pilot Hollywood Dog, a show he described as "sort of Roger Rabbit-esque, where the dog was animated, but everybody else was real." The first voice he performed on The Simpsons was that of town bartender Moe Szyslak, replacing Christopher Collins who had recorded the character's voice. Having known him from Hollywood Dog, casting director Bonita Pietila called Azaria and asked him to audition for the voice of Moe. At the time he was performing the role of a drug dealer in a play, utilizing a voice based on actor Al Pacino's performance in the film Dog Day Afternoon, he used the voice in his audition for The Simpsons and, at the request of the show's executive producers Matt Groening and Sam Simon, made the voice more "gravelly".
Groening and Simon thought the resultant voice was ideal for Moe and took Azaria over to the Fox recording studio. Before he had seen a script
Lilith is a figure in Jewish mythology, developed earliest in the Babylonian Talmud. Lilith is envisioned as a dangerous demon of the night, sexually wanton, who steals babies in the darkness. Lilith may be linked in part to a earlier class of female demons in ancient Mesopotamian religion, found in cuneiform texts of Sumer, the Akkadian Empire and Babylonia. In Jewish folklore, Alphabet of Sirach onwards, Lilith appears as Adam's first wife, created at the same time and from the same clay as Adam—compare Genesis 1:27; the legend developed extensively during the Middle Ages, in the tradition of Aggadah, the Zohar, Jewish mysticism. For example, in the 13th-century writings of Isaac ben Jacob ha-Cohen, Lilith left Adam after she refused to become subservient to him and would not return to the Garden of Eden after she had coupled with the archangel Samael. Evidence in Jewish materials is plentiful, but little information has survived relating to the Sumerian, Akkadian and Babylonian view of this class of demons.
While the connection is universally agreed upon, recent scholarship has disputed the relevance of two sources used to connect the Jewish lilith to an Akkadian lilītu—the Gilgamesh appendix and the Arslan Tash amulets. In Hebrew-language texts, the term lilith or lilit first occurs in a list of animals in Isaiah 34:14, either in singular or plural form according to variations in the earliest manuscripts. In the Dead Sea Scrolls 4Q510-511, the term first occurs in a list of monsters. In Jewish magical inscriptions on bowls and amulets from the 6th century CE onwards, Lilith is identified as a female demon and the first visual depictions appear; the resulting Lilith legend continues to serve as source material in modern Western culture, occultism and horror. The Semitic root L-Y-L served as derivative for the Hebrew layil and Arabic layl, meaning "night"; the Talmudic and Yiddish use of Lilith is cognate with the Hebrew. In the Akkadian language of Assyria and Babylonia, the terms lili and līlītu mean spirits.
Some uses of līlītu are listed in The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, in Wolfram von Soden's Akkadisches Handwörterbuch, Reallexikon der Assyriologie. The Sumerian female demons lili have no etymological relation to Akkadian lilu, "evening". Archibald Sayce considered that Hebrew lilit לילית and the earlier Akkadian līlītu are from proto-Semitic. Charles Fossey has this translating to "female night being/demon", although cuneiform inscriptions from Mesopotamia exist where Līlīt and Līlītu refers to disease-bearing wind spirits. Another possibility is association not with "night", but with "wind", thus identifying the Akkadian Lil-itu as a loan from the Sumerian lil "air" — from Ninlil, "lady air", goddess of the south wind — and itud, "moon". Samuel Noah Kramer translated ki-sikil-lil-la-ke as Lilith in "Tablet XII" of the Epic of Gilgamesh dated c.600 BC. "Tablet XII" is not part of the Epic of Gilgamesh, but is a Assyrian Akkadian translation of the latter part of the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh.
The ki-sikil-lil-la-ke is associated with a zu bird. In Gilgamesh and the Netherworld, a huluppu tree grows in Inanna's garden in Uruk, whose wood she plans to use to build a new throne. After ten years of growth, she comes to harvest it and finds a serpent living at its base, a Zu bird raising young in its crown, that a ki-sikil-lil-la-ke made a house in its trunk. Gilgamesh is said to have killed the snake, the zu bird flew away to the mountains with its young, while the ki-sikil-lil-la-ke fearfully destroys its house and runs for the forest. Identification of ki-sikil-lil-la-ke as Lilith is stated in Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. According to a new source from Late Antiquity, Lilith appears in a Mandaic magic story where she is considered to represent the branches of a tree with other demonic figures that form other parts of the tree, though this may include multiple "Liliths". Suggested translations for the Tablet XII spirit in the tree include ki-sikil as "sacred place", lil as "spirit", lil-la-ke as "water spirit".
But simply "owl", given that the lil is building a home in the trunk of the tree. A connection between the Gilgamesh ki-sikil-lil-la-ke and the Jewish Lilith was rejected by Dietrich Opitz and rejected on textual grounds by Sergio Ribichini. Kramer's translation of the Gilgamesh fragment was used by Henri Frankfort and Emil Kraeling to support identification of a woman with wings and bird-feet in the Burney Relief as related to Lilith, but this has been rejected by sources, including the British Museum, in current possession of the piece; the terracotta plaque depicts a beautiful, naked goddess-like sylph with bird-like features who stands atop two lions and between two owls. Although once believed to be the actual image of Lilith, it is now thought to represent Inanna, the Sumerian goddess of love, beauty and sexual desire; the depiction of the nocturnal and predatory owls, have led many to believe the relief is an affirmation of Lilith's role as a demon who flies about the underworld, delivering night terrors to those who sleep.
The Arslan Tash amulets are limestone plaques discovered in 1933 at Arslan Tash, the aut
Judd Apatow is an American filmmaker and comedian. He is the founder of Apatow Productions, through which he produced and developed the television series Freaks and Geeks, Funny or Die Presents, Girls and Crashing and directed the films The 40-Year-Old Virgin, Knocked Up, Funny People, This Is 40, May It Last: A Portrait Of The Avett Brothers, The Zen Diaries of Garry Shandling. Apatow's work has won numerous awards including a Primetime Emmy Award, a Creative Arts Emmy Award, a Hollywood Comedy Award, an AFI Award for Bridesmaids, his films have been nominated for Grammy Awards, PGA Awards, Golden Globe Awards, Academy Awards. His producing credits include The Cable Guy, Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy, Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby, Forgetting Sarah Marshall, Step Brothers, Get Him to the Greek, Wanderlust, The Five-Year Engagement, Begin Again, Anchorman 2: The Legend Continues, Popstar: Never Stop Never Stopping, The Big Sick and Juliet, Naked. Judd Apatow was born in Flushing and raised in Syosset, New York.
His mother, Tamara "Tami", worked managing record labels founded by her father and his grandfather, music producer and record label owner Bob Shad. He produced the first album by Big Brother and the Holding Company and went on to work with music giants Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Sarah Vaughn, Dinah Wilson, Janis Joplin, his father, Maury Apatow, was a real estate developer. His family is Jewish, "but nonreligious." Apatow has an older brother, a younger sister, Mia. His maternal grandmother, Molly, co-starred in his film This Is 40; when Apatow was twelve years old, his parents divorced. Robert went to live with his maternal grandparents, Mia went to live with her mother; as a child, Apatow lived with his father, visited his mother on weekends. Apatow's mother spent a summer working at a comedy club, where Judd was first exposed to live stand-up comedy. Apatow was obsessed with comedy as a child. Apatow got his comic start washing dishes at the Long Island East Side Comedy Club, while attending Syosset High School, he played jazz and hosted a program called Comedy Club on the school's 125-watt radio station WKWZ which he created as a way to meet and learn from the comedians he looked up to.
He cold-called comedians he admired during this time, managing to interview Steve Allen, Howard Stern, Harold Ramis and John Candy, along with emerging comedians such as Jerry Seinfeld, Steven Wright and Garry Shandling. Apatow began performing stand-up comedy at age seventeen, during his senior year of high school. In the September 1985 issue of Laugh Factory Magazine, he is listed as an Associate Editor. After graduating from high school in 1985, he moved to Los Angeles and enrolled in the screenwriting program at University of Southern California. While at USC, he organized and hosted a number of on-campus "Comedy Night" events, featuring headliners such as Saturday Night Live performer Kevin Nealon. Apatow introduced the acts at these events with short standup routines of his own, he began volunteering at benefit concerts for HBO's Comic Relief and performing and seeing standup at the Improv in Hollywood. He dropped out of college during his second year and moved into an apartment with comedian Adam Sandler, whom he met at the Improv.
He competed in the Johnnie Walker Comedy Search in 1989 directed by Saturday Night Live short film producer Neal Marshad. Shortly thereafter, Apatow was introduced by manager Jimmy Miller to Garry Shandling which resulted in Apatow being hired as a writer for the 1991 Grammy Awards that year, which Shandling hosted, he went on to co-produce comedy specials by Roseanne Arnold, Tom Arnold, Jim Carrey. In 1992, Apatow appeared on HBO's 15th Annual Young Comedians Special and shortly afterwards went on to co-create and executive produce The Ben Stiller Show for Fox. Apatow had met Stiller outside of an Elvis Costello concert in 1990, they became friends. Despite critical acclaim and an Emmy Award for Apatow and the rest of the writing staff, Fox canceled the show in 1993. Apatow went on to join HBO's The Larry Sanders Show in 1993 as a writer and consulting producer, he served as a co-executive producer and director of an episode during the show's final season in 1998, he credits Shandling as his mentor for influencing him to write comedy, more character-driven.
Apatow earned six Emmy nominations for his work on Larry Sanders. During this same time, he worked as a consulting producer and staff writer for the animated show The Critic, starring Jon Lovitz. In 1995, Apatow co-wrote. Around the same time, Apatow was hired to produce and do an uncredited re-write of the script for the movie The Cable Guy, released in 1996 to mixed reviews, it was during the pre-production of the film that Apatow met actress Leslie Mann. Apatow did uncredited re-writes on two other Jim Carrey films: Liar and Bruce Almighty, his next script was titled Making Amends, which had Owen Wilson attached to star as a man in Alcoholics Anonymous who decides to apologize to everyone he has hurt. However, the film was never made. Apatow did uncredited rewrites of The Wedding Singer, he was featured in four tracks on Sandler's 1996 comedy album "What the Hell Happened to Me?"In 1999, Apatow created Sick in the He
Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. is an American film studio, production company and film distributor, a member of the Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group, a division of Sony Entertainment's Sony Pictures subsidiary of the Japanese multinational conglomerate Sony Corporation. What would become Columbia Pictures, CBC Film Sales Corporation, was founded on June 19, 1918 by Harry Cohn, his brother Jack Cohn, Joe Brandt, it went public two years later. In its early years, it was a minor player in Hollywood, but began to grow in the late 1920s, spurred by a successful association with director Frank Capra. With Capra and others, Columbia became one of the primary homes of the screwball comedy. In the 1930s, Columbia's major contract stars were Cary Grant. In the 1940s, Rita Hayworth became the studio's premier star and propelled their fortunes into the late 1950s. Rosalind Russell, Glenn Ford, William Holden became major stars at the studio, it is one of the leading film studios in the world and is a member of the "Big Five" major American film studios.
It was one of the so-called "Little Three" among the eight major film studios of Hollywood's Golden Age. Today, it has become the world's fifth largest major film studio; the studio was founded on June 19, 1918 as Cohn-Brandt-Cohn Film Sales by brothers Jack and Harry Cohn and Jack's best friend Joe Brandt, released its first feature film in August 1922. Brandt was president of CBC Film Sales, handling sales and distribution from New York along with Jack Cohn, while Harry Cohn ran production in Hollywood; the studio's early productions were low-budget short subjects: "Screen Snapshots", the "Hall Room Boys", the Chaplin imitator Billy West. The start-up CBC leased space in a Poverty Row studio on Hollywood's famously low-rent Gower Street. Among Hollywood's elite, the studio's small-time reputation led some to joke that "CBC" stood for "Corned Beef and Cabbage". Brandt tired of dealing with the Cohn brothers, in 1932 sold his one-third stake to Harry Cohn, who took over as president. In an effort to improve its image, the Cohn brothers renamed the company Columbia Pictures Corporation on January 10, 1924.
Cohn remained head of production as well. He would run one of the longest tenures of any studio chief. In an industry rife with nepotism, Columbia was notorious for having a number of Harry and Jack's relatives in high positions. Humorist Robert Benchley called it the Pine Tree Studio, "because it has so many Cohns". Columbia's product line consisted of moderately budgeted features and short subjects including comedies, sports films, various serials, cartoons. Columbia moved into the production of higher-budget fare joining the second tier of Hollywood studios along with United Artists and Universal. Like United Artists and Universal, Columbia was a horizontally integrated company, it controlled distribution. Helping Columbia's climb was the arrival of Frank Capra. Between 1927 and 1939, Capra pushed Cohn for better material and bigger budgets. A string of hits he directed in the early and mid 1930s solidified Columbia's status as a major studio. In particular, It Happened; until Columbia's existence had depended on theater owners willing to take its films, since as mentioned above it didn't have a theater network of its own.
Other Capra-directed hits followed, including the original version of Lost Horizon, with Ronald Colman, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, which made James Stewart a major star. In 1933, Columbia hired Robert Kalloch to be women's costume designer, he was the first contract costume designer hired by the studio, he established the studio's wardrobe department. Kalloch's employment, in turn, convinced leading actresses that Columbia Pictures intended to invest in their careers. In 1938, the addition of B. B. Kahane as Vice President would produce Charles Vidor's Those High Gray Walls, The Lady in Question, the first joint film of Rita Hayworth and Glenn Ford. Kahane would become the President of Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1959, until his death a year later. Columbia could not afford to keep a huge roster of contract stars, so Cohn borrowed them from other studios. At Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, the industry's most prestigious studio, Columbia was nicknamed "Siberia", as Louis B. Mayer would use the loan out to Columbia as a way to punish his less-obedient signings.
In the 1930s, Columbia signed Jean Arthur to a long-term contract, after The Whole Town's Talking, Arthur became a major comedy star. Ann Sothern's career was launched when Columbia signed her to a contract in 1936. Cary Grant signed a contract in 1937 and soon after it was altered to a non-exclusive contract shared with RKO. Many theaters relied on westerns to attract big weekend audiences, Columbia always recognized this market, its first cowboy star was Buck Jones, who signed with Columbia in 1930 for a fraction of his former big-studio salary. Over the next two decades Columbia released scores of outdoor adventures with Jones, Tim McCoy, Ken Maynard, Jack Luden, Bob Allen, Russell Hayden, Tex Ritter, Ken Curtis, Gene Autry. Columbia's most popular cowboy was Charles Starrett, who signed with Columbia in 193