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Yearling (horse)

A yearling is a young horse either male or female, between one and two years old. Yearlings are comparable in development to a early adolescent and are not mature physically. While they may be in the earliest stages of sexual maturity, they are considered too young to be breeding stock. Yearlings may be further defined by sex, using the term "colt" to describe any male horse under age four, filly for any female under four; the training of yearlings consists of basic gentling on the ground. Yearlings are full of energy and quite unpredictable. Though they are not mature, they are heavier and stronger than a human and require knowledgeable handling. Many colts who are not going to be used as breeding stallions are gelded at this age—in part to improve their behavior. Under ideal conditions, a yearling will have been trained as a suckling or weanling foal to lead, to have its hooves handled, to be groomed, clipped and loaded into a horse trailer. If these tasks have not been accomplished, the yearling year is a time they are done, in part to get the horse used to human handling before it reaches its full adult strength.

Other than basic gentling and management of yearlings has many areas of dispute because some yearlings look mature and strong though they do not yet have the skeletal structure to support hard work. Yearlings grow at different rates and some horse breeds mature faster than others. For example, some people teach longeing or roundpenning to yearlings, others avoid it, arguing that work in small circles stresses the joints of the young horse, which are still "soft," and not developed. Thoroughbred and American Quarter Horse race horses are "backed", or put under saddle, during the autumn of their yearling year, after the age of 18 months, though the riders are very light in weight and the young horses are not raced at this age; some draft horse breeds and yearling Standardbreds are introduced to a harness and the concept of pulling an object, though they are not asked to handle any significant amount of weight. Conversely, trainers of breeds such as the Lipizzan do not consider putting a young horse under saddle until it is four years old.

Some breeding farms tend to leave yearlings alone to grow in pastures and natural settings, others keep them stabled and condition them intensively for show or sale. For business purposes, the yearling year is considered a good time for breeders to sell young horses. One of the most famous horse auctions in the world is the Keeneland yearling sale in Kentucky, where young Thoroughbred yearlings are put up for sale to the highest bidder selling for prices in the five and six figures, but sometimes bringing prices in the millions; the world of halter exhibition is another area of controversy. Because larger, more mature yearlings place better in halter classes at horse shows, hence sell sooner and for better prices, there is a temptation to over-feed young horses and provide supplemental products, such as steroids, to promote rapid growth; such practices may have long-term health implications for the future athletic career of the young animal and may put it at risk for growth disorders. Weanling Horse breeding Horse training Equine nutrition Lyons and Jennifer J. Denison.

Bringing Up Baby. Primedia Enthusiast Publications, 2002. ISBN 1-929164-12-2. Describes methods of training a young horse from birth up until it is old enough to ride

Wilson Creek (Lackawanna River tributary)

Wilson Creek is a tributary of the Lackawanna River in Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is 3.7 miles long and flows through Fell Township. The watershed of the creek has an area of 3.82 square miles. The creek is impaired by metals and pH from abandoned mine drainage; some reaches of it experience total flow loss. There are three discharges of acid mine drainage entering the creek: the Upper Wilson Outfall, the Lower Wilson Outfall, the Molensky Slope Outfall; the watershed of the creek is in the Appalachian Mountain section of the Ridge and Valley physiographic province. The main rock types in the watershed are interbedded sedimentary sandstone; the creek flows past areas of disturbed mining land. Wilson Creek is a first-order stream with a narrow watershed; the watershed is forested, with the upper reaches being undeveloped. Other land uses include abandoned mine lands, developed lands, open fields. Various coal mines and collieries existed in the creek's vicinity. Additionally, a number of bridges have been constructed across the creek.

Wilson Creek is designated as a Migratory Fishery. Wild trout reproduce in the creek, but it has a low concentration of macroinvertebrates, as of the early 1990s. A possible greenway/trail along the creek could provide a link between the communities of Simpson and Richmondale. Wilson Creek begins in a small lake in Fell Township, near the Lackawanna County/Susquehanna County line, it flows east-southeast for a few tenths of a mile before passing through another lake, turning southeast, flowing down a slope. Several tenths of a mile further downstream, the creek turns south-southwest for several tenths of a mile, flowing between the base of a mountain and Pennsylvania Route 171, it turns south for a few tenths of a mile before briefly turning east and crossing Pennsylvania Route 171. The creek turns south for more than a mile, still flowing alongside Pennsylvania Route 171, it enters Simpson and turns south-southwest. After a short distance, it turns south for several tenths of a mile before turning southeast and reaching its confluence with the Lackawanna River.

Wilson Creek joins the Lackawanna River 30.82 miles upriver of its mouth. Wilson Creek is designated as an impaired stream; the causes of the impairment are metals and pH. The source of the impairment is abandoned mine drainage. In 1996 and 1998, 0.6 miles were impaired, while in 2004, 4 miles were impaired. Reaches of Wilson Creek experience total flow loss. A loss of base flow in the stream was observed at the Richmondale Pile in September 2000. In 2002, the discharge of Wilson Creek in its upper reaches ranged from 73 to 1,130 US gal per minute, with an average of 534 US gal per minute. In the creek's middle reaches, it ranged from 0 to 3,580 US gal per minute, with an average of 1,700 US gal per minute. In its lower reaches, the discharge ranged from 3,460 to 12,370 US gal per minute, with an average of 6,870 US gal per minute. In 2002, the concentration of iron in Wilson Creek ranged from less than 0.30 milligrams per liter to 0.39 milligrams per liter in the creek's upper reaches. In its middle reaches, the iron concentration was less than 0.30 milligrams per liter and in its lower reaches, it ranged from 0.01 to less than 0.30 milligrams per liter.

In 2002, the concentration of manganese in Wilson Creek ranged from less than 0.05 milligrams per liter to 0.12 milligrams per liter in the creek's upper reaches. In its middle reaches, the manganese concentration was less than 0.050 milligrams per liter and in its lower reaches, it ranged from 0.02 to less than 0.12 milligrams per liter. In 2002, the concentration of aluminum in Wilson Creek was less than 0.5 milligrams per liter in its upper and middle reaches. In its lower reaches, the aluminum concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.15 milligrams per liter. In its upper reaches, the concentration of acidity in Wilson Creek ranged from 0 to 31 milligrams per liter, with an average of 21 milligrams per liter; the concentration of alkalinity ranged from 10.4 to 17.8 milligrams per liter, with an average of 13.2 milligrams per liter. The pH ranged from 5.8 to 6.7, with an average of 6.1. In its middle reaches, the concentration of acidity in the creek ranged from 0.8 to 22.0 milligrams per liter, with an average of 10.5 milligrams per liter.

The concentration of alkalinity ranged from 8.6 to 15.0 milligrams per liter, with an average of 10.5 milligrams per liter. The pH ranged from 5.6 to 6.2, with an average of 6.0. In its lower reaches, the concentration of acidity in Wilson Creek ranged from 0 to 2 milligrams per liter, with an average of 0.25 milligrams per liter. The concentration of alkalinity ranged from 32 to 44 milligrams per liter, with an average of 37 milligrams per liter; the pH ranged from 5.9 to 6.9, with an average of 6.3. There are three discharges of acid mine drainage that flow into Wilson Creek: the Upper Wilson Outfall, the Lower Wilson Outfall, the Molensky Slope Outfall; the first was found to have no flow, the second was found to have a flow of 10 gallons per minute, the third was found to have a flow of 80 gallons per minute. The last of these accounts for most of the flow that Wilson Creek contributes to the Lackawanna River; the water from this outfall has a sulfuric odor, but has low concentrations of metals.

In the early 1900s, the creek did have high concentrations of sulfur. The creek historically carried some silt; the elevation near the mouth of Wilson Creek is 1,129 feet above sea level. The elevation of the creek

La Mujer Muerta

La Mujer Muerta is a subrange of the Sierra de Guadarrama, Sistema Central, located in Segovia Province, Spain. The silhouette of the mountain range takes the shape of a reclining woman with when seen from certain angles, hence its name which means "dead woman" in the Spanish language; the highest point is La Pinareja. There are many legends that try to explain the name, La Mujer Muerta, with the mountains La Pinareja, Peña el Oso, Pico de Pasapán that form, when viewed from the city, the body of a woman, dead or sleeping. One story is that the woman's husband went off to war and failed to keep his promise that he would return and marry her, she died of a broken heart and, her body in the mountain. According to this, the peak of La Pinareja corresponds to the face of the woman laying on her back; the peak of Peña el Oso corresponds to her arms crossed over her chest. Pico de Pasapán corresponds to the woman's feet. A legend with a more pastoral backgrounds speaks of a farmer's beautiful daughter who fell in love with a farmer too.

This farmer saw a different man in her doorway one night and, out of jealousy, killed him. The woman was killed at the same time and in a storm a few days the mountain was formed. Dead woman #Geography Ruta de La Mujer Muerta