Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Nazareth is the capital and the largest city in the Northern District of Israel. Nazareth is known as the Arab capital of Israel, in 2015 its population was 75,726. The inhabitants are predominantly Arab citizens of Israel, of whom 69% are Muslim and 30. 9% Christian, Nazareth Illit is built alongside old Nazareth, and had a Jewish population of 40,312 in 2014. The Jewish sector was declared a city in June 1974. In the New Testament, the town is described as the home of Jesus. One view suggests this toponym might be an example of a name used by resettling groups on their return from exile. The negative references to Nazareth in the Gospel of John suggest that ancient Jews did not connect the name to prophecy. Another theory holds that the Greek form Nazara, used in Matthew and Luke, may derive from an earlier Aramaic form of the name, or from another Semitic language form. If there were a tsade in the original Semitic form, as in the Hebrew forms and this has led some scholars to question whether Nazareth and its cognates in the New Testament actually refer to the settlement known traditionally as Nazareth in Lower Galilee.
In the Quran, Christians are referred to as naṣārā, meaning followers of an-Nāṣirī, in Lukes Gospel, Nazareth is first described as a town of Galilee and home of Mary. Following the birth and early epiphanial events of chapter 2 of Lukes Gospel, Mary and Jesus returned to Galilee, to their own city, Nazareth. In English translations of the New Testament, the phrase Jesus of Nazareth appears seventeen times whereas the Greek has the form Jesus the Nazarēnos or Jesus the Nazōraios. One plausible view is that Nazōraean is a normal Greek adaptation of a reconstructed, Nazaréth is named twelve times in surviving Greek manuscript versions of the New Testament,10 times as Nazaréth or Nazarét, and twice as Nazará. The former two may retain the feminine endings common in Galilean toponyms, the minor variants and Nazarath are attested. Nazara might be the earliest form of the name in Greek and it is found in Matthew 4,13 and Luke 4,16. However, the Textus Receptus clearly translates all passages as Nazara leaving little room for debate there, the form Nazara is found in the earliest non-scriptural reference to the town, a citation by Sextus Julius Africanus dated about 221 CE.
The Church Father Origen knows the forms Nazará and Nazarét, Eusebius in his Onomasticon refers to the settlement as Nazara. The nașirutha of the scriptures of the Mandeans refers to craft, not to Nazareth
Amoraim refers to the Jewish scholars of the period from about 200 to 500 CE, who said or told over the teachings of the Oral Torah. They were concentrated in Babylonia and the Land of Israel and their legal discussions and debates were eventually codified in the Gemara. The Amoraim followed the Tannaim in the sequence of ancient Jewish scholars, the Tannaim were direct transmitters of uncodified oral tradition, the Amoraim expounded upon and clarified the oral law after its initial codification. The first Babylonian Amoraim were Abba Arika, respectfully referred to as Rav, among the earliest Amoraim in Israel were Rabbi Yochanan and Shimon ben Lakish. Traditionally, the Amoraic period is reckoned as seven or eight generations, the last Amoraim are generally considered to be Ravina I and Rav Ashi, and Ravina II, nephew of Ravina I, who codified the Babylonian Talmud around 500 CE. In total,761 amoraim are mentioned by name in the Jerusalem,367 of them were active in the land of Israel from around 200-350 CE, while the other 394 lived in Babylonia during 200-500 CE.
The following is a listing of the most prominent of the Amoraim mentioned in the Talmud. More complete listings may be provided by some of the links below. Abba Arika, known as Rav, last Tanna, first Amora, moved from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia. Founder and Dean of the Yeshiva at Sura, disciple of Judah haNasis students and others. Dean of the Yeshiva at Nehardea, joshua ben Levi, headed the school of Lod. Bar Kappara Rav Huna, disciple of Rav and Shmuel, Dean of the Yeshiva at Sura. Rav Yehudah, disciple of Rav and Shmuel, Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita. Adda bar Ahavah, disciple of Rav, son of Gamaliel III, disciple and grandson of Judah haNasi, and younger brother of Judah II. Judah II, disciple and grandson of Judah haNasi, and son, sometimes called Rabbi Judah Nesiah, and occasionally Rebbi like his grandfather. Resh Lakish, disciple of Judah haNasi, Rabbi Yannai and others, Rabbi Yochanan, disciple of Judah haNasi and Rabbi Yannai. Dean of the Yeshiva at Tiberias, primary author of the Jerusalem Talmud.
Samuel ben Nahman Shila of Kefar Tamarta Isaac Nappaha Rabbah, disciple of Rav Huna, Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita
The Old Yishuv were the Jewish communities of the southern Syrian provinces in the Ottoman period, up to the onset of Zionist aliyah and the consolidation of the New Yishuv by the end of World War I. The Old Yishuv developed after a period of decline in Jewish communities of the Southern Levant during the early Middle Ages. The oldest group consisted of the Ladino-speaking Sephardic Jewish communities in Galilee, a second group was composed of Ashkenazi and Hassidic Jews who had emigrated from Europe in the 18th and early 19th centuries. A third wave was constituted by Yishuv members who arrived in the late 19th century. Apart from the Old Yishuv centres in the four cities of Judaism, namely Jerusalem, Hebron and Safed, smaller communities existed in Jaffa, Pekiin, Nablus. Petah Tikva, although established in 1878 by the Old Yishuv, rishon LeZion, the first settlement founded by the Hovevei Zion in 1882, could be considered the true beginning of the New Yishuv. Jewish communities of the southern Levant under Byzantine rule fell into a decline in the early 7th century.
And with the Jewish revolt against Heraclius and Muslim conquest of Syria, despite temporary revival, the Arab Muslim civil wars of the 8th and 9th centuries drove many non-Muslims out of the country, with no evidence of mass conversions, except for Samaritans. The Crusader period marked the most serious decline, lasting through the 12th century, maimonides traveled from Spain to Morocco and Egypt, and stayed in the Holy Land, probably sometime between 1165 and 1167, before settling in Egypt. He had become a physician of Saladin, escorting him throughout his war campaigns against the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Small Jewish communities were existent at the time in Gaza, the vast majority of the settlers were wiped out by the Crusaders, who arrived in 1219, and the few survivors were allowed to live only in Acre. Their descendants blended with the original Jewish residents, called Mustarabim or Maghrebim, the Mamluk period saw an increase in the Jewish population, especially in the Galilee, but the black death epidemics had cut the countrys demographics by at least one-third.
In 1260, Rabbi Yechiel of Paris arrived in Eretz Israel, at the part of Mamluk Empire, along with his son. There he established the Talmudic academy Midrash haGadol dParis and he is believed to have died there between 1265 and 1268, and is buried near Haifa, at Mount Carmel. Nahmanides arrived in 1267 and settled in Acre as well, don Joseph Nasi succeeded in resettling Tiberias and Safed in 1561 with Sephardic Jews, many of them former Anusim. By the late 16th century, Safed had become a center of Kabbalah, inhabited by important rabbis, among them were Rabbi Yakov bi Rav, Rabbi Moshe Cordevero, Rabbi Yosef Karo, and Isaac Luria. At this time there was a community in Jerusalem headed by Rabbi Levi ibn Haviv known as the Mahralbach. Rabbi Yeshaye Horowitz, the Shelah Hakadosh, arrived in 1620, becoming the most important Jewish center, didnt last
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Yeshiva is a Jewish institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and Torah study. Study is usually done through daily shiurim and in pairs called ḥavrutas. Ḥavruta-style learning is one of the features of the yeshiva. In the United States and Israel, the different levels of education have different names. In Israel, elementary-school students are enrolled in a Talmud Torah or cheder, post-bar mitzvah-age students learn in a yeshiva ketana, a kollel is a yeshiva for married men. It is common for a kollel to pay a stipend to its students. Students of Lithuanian and Hasidic yeshiva gedolas usually learn in yeshiva until they get married, yeshivas were attended by males only. Today, all non-Orthodox and a few Modern Orthodox yeshivas are open to females, although there are separate schools for Orthodox women and girls, yeshivas for women do not follow the same structure or curriculum as the traditional yeshiva for boys and men. Alternate spellings and names include yeshivah (/jəˈʃiːvɑː/, Hebrew, ישיבה, sitting and mesivta, Beth midrash, Talmudical Academy, Rabbinical Academy, the word yeshiva, lit. sitting, is applied to the activity of learning in class, and hence to a learning session.
The Mishnah tractate Megillah mentions the law that a town can only be called a city if it supports ten men to make up the required quorum for communal prayers. Likewise, every beth din was attended by a number of pupils up to three times the size of the court and these might be indications of the historicity of the classical yeshiva. As indicated by the Talmud, adults generally took off two months a year and Adar, the preceding the pilgrimage festivals of Sukkot and Pesach. The rest of the year they worked, the Geonic period takes its name from Gaon, the title bestowed on the heads of the three yeshivas in existence from the third to the thirteenth century. The Geonim acted as the principals of their individual yeshivot, and as spiritual leaders, the yeshiva conducted all official business in the name of its Gaon, and all correspondence to or from the yeshiva was addressed directly to the Gaon. Throughout the Geonic Period there were three yeshivot, there was however, no requirement for this, and each community could choose to associate with any of the yeshivot.
The yeshiva served as the highest educational institution for the Rabbis of this period, in addition to this, the yeshiva wielded immense power as the principal body for interpreting Jewish law. In this regard, the community saw the Gaon of a yeshiva as the highest judge on all matters of Jewish law, each yeshiva ruled differently on matters of ritual and law, the other yeshivot accepted these divisions, and all three ranked as equally orthodox. The yeshiva served as an authority, in conjunction with local communities
Yad Ben Zvi
Yad Ben Zvi, known as the Ben-Zvi Institute, is a research institute and publishing house named for Israeli president Yitzhak Ben-Zvi in Jerusalem, Israel. Yad Ben-Zvi is an institute established to continue the Zionist and cultural activities of Israels second and longest serving president. It is housed in the home and offices of the Ben-Zvi and his wife, Rachel Yanait, Ben-Zvi founded the institute in 1947 to explore the history and culture of the Jewish communities living in Arab countries. It houses a library of manuscripts, rare books and a photographic archive, yad-Ben Zvi organizes courses, seminars and special tours of Jerusalem. In 2012, the opened a new international school for Jerusalem studies in a renovated historic building formerly known as the Pioneer Women’s House
Meir of Rothenburg
Meir of Rothenburg was a German Rabbi and poet, a major author of the tosafot on Rashis commentary on the Talmud. He is known as Meir ben Baruch, the Maharam of Rothenburg, Rabbi Meir was born between 1215 and 1220 in Worms. He comes from a line of rabbis. His first teacher was his father and he settled in Rothenburg ob der Tauber, opening a yeshiva in his house. After the death of his father in 1281, he settled in Worms, in 1286, King Rudolf I instituted a new persecution of the Jews, declaring them servi camerae, which had the effect of negating their political freedoms. Tradition has it that a ransom of 23,000 marks silver was raised for him. He ruled on his own abduction in light of Talmudic law and he died in prison after seven years. Fourteen years after his death a ransom was paid for his body by Alexander ben Salomon Wimpfen, Rabbi Meir wrote no single major work, but many notes, commentaries and poems—as well as 1,500 responsa. His disciple the Rosh codified much of his teaching and these responsa contain rulings of other older and contemporary Ashkenazi poskim, see History of Responsa, Thirteenth century.
Rabbi Meir is well known as a Tosafist and in particular, authored the Tosafot commentary of the Talmudic tractate Yoma and he authored commentaries on the Tohorot and Zeraim orders of the Mishnah. Rabbi Meir wrote a number of liturgical poems
Great Academy of Paris
The Great Academy of Paris was a 13th-century Talmudic academy in Acre, established by Rabbi Jehiel of Paris. In around 1258, Rabbi Jehiel of Paris immigrated to the Kingdom of Jerusalem from Northern France with several hundred students, his son Joseph following soon later. The group settled in the Crusader stronghold of Acre, where Rabbi Jehiel founded a Talmudic academy which he named the Great Academy of Paris, the academy intended to continue the learning traditions of the Tosafists of Northern France. One report suggests there were 300 students learning at the academy, although this may have included members of the local community. Acre subsequently became a centre of authority for Middle Eastern Jews. Its scholars were instrumental in preserving the communication network between the Jewish diaspora and Palestinian Jewry and it is probable that the Jews of Acre could not sustain the institution alone and that emissaries were sent to Europe to solicit funding
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network