Cheoljong of Joseon
Cheoljong of Joseon was the 25th king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. He was a distant relative of King Yeongjo, he was born the illegitimate son of Yi Gwang, Prince Jeongye of the Joseon dynasty and his concubine Lady Yeom of Yongseong, in Ganghwa. His first name was Yi Won-beom. Though some years he was changed his name to Yi Byeon. In August 1841, Min Jin-yong and Lee Won-deok were plotting a coup d'etat to crown Yi Won-gyeong as king and legitimate child of Jeongye Daewongun. Yi Won-gyeong was the second cousin of King Heonjong of Joseon and the great-great grandson of 21st King Yeongjo of Joseon. However, Min Jin-yong and Lee Won-deok's coup d'etat was detected and they were executed along with Yi Won-gyeong, his only descendants the and sole survivors were two Illegitimate sons, Yi Kyung-eung and Yi Won-beom, who were deported to Ganghwa-do. He was part of the royal family of the Joseon dynasty but he was illegitimate. During his childhood times, all the legitimate children of the Joseon dynasty died.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the Andong Kim clan, who had provided the Joseon state with several queens, had seized power everywhere in Korea. The social stagnation that resulted was a breeding ground for unrest. Corruption and embezzlement from the treasury and its inevitable exploitation were taken to extreme levels, reached staggering proportions. One rebellion after another was accompanied by natural disasters. Indeed, it was one of the most gloomy periods in the country’s history; the only aim of the Andong Kim clan was the preservation of their influence. Their fierce campaign to dominate the royal house had led to a situation in which all of the representatives of the royal family fled from Seoul; when the royal family produced intelligent and appropriate candidates for the accession, they were either accused of treason and executed or sent into exile, so when Heonjong died, leaving no son, no acceptable candidate could be found to succeed to the throne. Cheoljong ascended to the throne in 1849 at the age of 19.
As a distant relative of King Yeongjo, the 21st king of Joseon, Cheoljong was selected for adoption by the Dowager Queen at the time and to allow him to ascend to the throne. The future Cheoljong was found on Ganghwa Island; when the envoys arrived on Ganghwa Island, they found the remaining clan of the Yi's surviving in wretched poverty. In 1849, at the age of 18, Yi Byeon/Seong, the 3rd son of Prince Jeon-gye, was proclaimed King, amidst obvious degradation and poverty. Though from the start of the Joseon Dynasty Korean kings had given top priority to the education of their sons, Cheoljong could not read a single word on the notice delivering congratulations to him on his elevation to the royal throne. For the Andong Kims, Cheoljong was an excellent choice, his illiteracy made him vulnerable to their control. Proof of this was that though Cheoljong ruled the country for 13 years, until his last days he had not yet learned how to move with dignity or how to wear royal clothes, so that in the most luxurious of robes he still looked like a fisherman.
As part of the Andong Kim's manipulation of Cheoljong, in 1851, the clan married Cheoljong to Kim Mun-geun, daughter of a member of the clan, known posthumously as Queen Cheorin. Cheoljong died at the age of 32 in January 1864, without a male heir qualified for the throne, as his only son was born to a lower ranked consort, not to Queen Cheolin. Once again, it became necessary to search far back in the Yi lineage to find a candidate for the throne. Father: Yi Gwang, Grand Internal Prince Jeongye Grandfather: Yi In, Prince Euneon Grandmother: Princess Consort Jeonsan of the Jeonju Yi clan Mother: Grand Internal Princess Consort Yongseong of the Yongdam Yeom clan Grandfather: Yeom Seong-Hwa Grandmother: Lady Ji of the Sangju Ji clan Consorts and their Respective Issue:Queen Cheorin of the Andong Kim clan Unnamed son Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Miryang Park clan Unnamed son Royal Consort Gwi-in of the Pyeongyang Jo clan Unnamed son Unnamed son Royal Lady Na-in of the Lee clan Unnamed son Unnamed daughter Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Onyang Bang clan Unnamed daughter Unnamed daughter Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Geumseong Beom clan Princess Yeonghye Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Gimhae Kim clan Unnamed daughter Lord Wonbeom, the 3rd Son of Prince Jeongye (great-grandson His Royal Highness the Prince Deogwan of Korea, the heir presumptive to the throne.
His Majesty the King of Korea King Cheoljong Huiyun Jeonggeuk Sudeok Sunseong Heummyung Gwangdo Donwon Changhwa Munhyeon Museong Heonin Yeonghyo the Great of Korea 철종희윤정극수덕순성흠명광도돈원창화문현무성헌인영효대왕 哲宗熙倫正極粹德純聖欽命光道敦元彰化文顯武成獻仁英孝大王 List of Rulers of Korea Joseon Dynasty History of Korea List of Korea-related topics Jeongye Daewongun Byeon Tae-seop. 韓國史通論, 4th ed. ISBN 89-445-9101-6. Cummings, Bruce.. Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History. New York. ISBN 0-393-04011-9
Sejong the Great
Sejong the Great was the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty of Korea. He was the third son of Queen consort Min, he was designated as heir-apparent, Crown Prince, after his older brother Prince Yangnyeong was stripped of his title. He ascended to the throne in 1418. During the first four years of his reign, Taejong governed as regent, after which his father-in-law, Sim On, his close associates were executed. Sejong reinforced Confucian policies and executed major "legal amendments", he personally created and promulgated the Korean alphabet Hangul, encouraged advancements of scientific technology, instituted many other efforts to stabilize and improve prosperity. He dispatched military campaigns to the north and instituted the Samin policy to attract new settlers to the region. To the south, he captured Tsushima Island. During his reign from 1418 to 1450, he governed along with his father, the King Emeritus Taejong from 1418 to 1422 governing as the sole monarch from 1422 to 1450. Since 1442, the king was ill so his son Crown Prince Munjong acted as regent for him.
Although the appellation "the Great" / "" was given posthumously to every ruler of Goryeo and Joseon, this title is associated with Gwanggaeto and Sejong. Sejong was born on 7 May 1397, the third son of King Taejong; when he was twelve, he became Grand Prince Chungnyeong. As a young prince, Sejong excelled in various studies and was favored by King Taejong over his two older brothers; as the third son of Taejong, Sejong's ascension to the throne was unique. Taejong's eldest son, was named heir apparent in 1404. However, Yangnyeong's free spirited nature as well as his preference for hunting and leisure activities resulted in his removal from the position of heir apparent in June 1418. Though it is said that Yangnyeong abdicated in favor of his younger brother, there are no definitive records regarding Yangnyeong's removal. Taejong's second son Grand Prince Hyoryeong became a monk upon the elevation of his younger brother Sejong. Following the removal of Yangnyeong as heir apparent, Taejong moved to secure his youngest son's position as heir apparent.
The government was purged of officials. In August 1418, Taejong abdicated in favour of Sejong; however in retirement Taejong continued to influence government policy. Sejong's surprising political skill and creativity did not become apparent until after Taejong's death in 1422. King Sejong revolutionized the Korean government by appointing people from different social classes as civil servants. Furthermore, he performed official government events according to Confucianism, he encouraged people to behave according to the teachings of Confucianism; as a result, Confucianism became the social norm of Korea at the time. He published books about Confucianism. At first, he suppressed Buddhism by banning all Buddhist monks from Seoul, drastically reducing the power and wealth of the Buddhist hierarchy, but he alleviated his action by building temples and accepting Buddhism by making a test to become a monk. In 1427, Sejong ordered a decree against the Huihui community that had had special status and stipends since the Yuan dynasty.
The Huihui were forced to abandon their headgear, to close down their "ceremonial hall" and worship like everyone else. No further mention of Muslims exist during the era of the Joseon. In relationship with the Chinese Ming, he made some successful agreements. In relationship with Jurchen people, he installed 10 military posts, 4 counties and 6 garrisons, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, he maintained good relations with Japan by allowing trade with them. But he suppressed Tsukishima island with military forces in order to stop pirating in the South Sea since Tsushima island was a base for Japanese pirates. King Sejong was an effective military planner, he created various military regulations to strengthen the safety of his kingdom, supported the advancement of Korean military technology, including cannon development. Different kinds of mortars and fire arrows were tested as well as the use of gunpowder. In May 1419, King Sejong, under the advice and guidance of his father Taejong, embarked upon the Gihae Eastern Expedition, the ultimate goal of this military expedition to remove the nuisance of Japanese pirates, operating out of Tsushima Island.
During the expedition, 245 Japanese were killed, another 110 were captured in combat, while 180 Korean soldiers were killed. 146 Chinese and 8 Korean kidnapped were liberated by this expedition. In September 1419 a truce was made and the Korean army returned to Korea, but the Treaty of Gyehae was signed in 1443, in which the Daimyo of Tsushima promised to pay tribute to the King of Joseon. In 1433, Sejong sent a prominent general, north to destroy the Jurchens. Kim's military campaign captured several castles, pushed north, expanded Korean territory, to the Songhua River. 4 counties and 6 garrisons were established to safeguard the people from the Jurchens. Sejong is credited with great advances in science during his reign, he wanted to help farmers. The book—the Nongsa jikseol —contained information about the different farming techniques that he tol
Sunjong of Korea
Sunjong, the Emperor Yunghui, was the second and the last Emperor of Korea, of the Yi dynasty, ruling from 1907 until 1910. Sunjong was the second son of Empress Myeongseong; when he was two years old, Sunjong was proclaimed the crown prince. In 1882, he married a daughter of the Min clan, who became Empress Sunmyeonghyo; the Korean Empire was established in 1897, Sunjong became the imperial crown prince. In July 1907, Gojong was deposed as a result of Japanese coercion, Sunjong was made emperor of Korea, he was proclaimed heir to the throne of Prince Imperial Yeong, the younger brother of Sunjong, moved from Deoksugung Palace to the imperial residence at Changdeokgung Palace. Sunjong's reign was limited by the increasing armed intervention of the Japanese government in Korea. In July 1907, he was proclaimed emperor of Korea but was forced to enter into the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1907; this treaty allowed the Japanese government to supervise and intervene in the administration and governance of Korea, which allowed for the appointment of Japanese ministers within the government.
While under Japanese supervision, the Korean army was dismissed on the pretext of lack of public finance regulations. In 1909, Japan implemented the Japan–Korea Protocol which removed Korea's judicial power. Meanwhile, Japan dispatched Itō Hirobumi, Japanese Resident-General of Korea, to negotiate with Russia over problems involving Korea and Manchuria. However, Itō was assassinated by Ahn Jung-geun at Harbin, which led to the Japanese occupation of Korea. Pro-Japanese politicians, such as Song Byung-jun and Lee Wan-yong, merging Korea with Japan by fabricating Korea's willingness and establishing the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty on August 29, 1910. Although still existent on paper, the intervention by the Japanese government ended Sunjong's reign over the Korean Empire and he became powerless within three years of ruling. Japan, in effect, abolished the Korean Empire on August 29 1910, ending 519 years of the Joseon dynasty. After the annexation treaty, the former Emperor Sunjong and his wife, Empress Sunjeong, lived the rest of their lives imprisoned in Changdeokgung Palace in Seoul.
Sunjong could not exercise any power as emperor because there were only pro-Japanese politicians in government. After the Korean Empire collapsed, Sunjong was demoted from emperor to king. Japan allowed him the title of King Yi of Changdeok Palace and allowed for the title to be inherited. Sunjong died on April 24, 1926, in Changdeokgung and is buried with his two wives at the imperial tomb of Yureung in the city of Namyangju, his state funeral on June 10, 1926, was a catalyst for the June 10th Movement against Japanese rule. He had no children. Father: Emperor Gojong Mother: Empress Myeongseong of the Yeoheung Min clan Consorts:Empress Sunmyeong of the Yeoheung Min clan – born to Min Tae-ho, leader of the Yeoheung Min clan, she died. Empress Sunjeong of the Haepyeong Yun clan – daughter of Marquis Yun Taek-yeong, his Imperial Majesty Emperor Sunjong Munon Muryeong Donin Seonggyeong of Korea 대한제국순종문온무령돈인성경황제폐하 大韓帝國純宗文溫武寧敦仁誠敬皇帝陛下 Daehan Jeguk Sunjong Munon Muryeong Donin Seonggyeong Hwangje Pyeha Korea: Founder of the Order of the Auspicious Phoenix Japan: Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Royal Order of Leopold Portrayed by Ahn Sang-woo in the 2016 film The Last Princess.
List of Korea-related topics History of Korea Korean Empire Rulers of Korea House of Yi
Danjong of Joseon
Danjong of Joseon was the sixth king of the Joseon Dynasty. He was forced to abdicate by his uncle, who became Sejo of Joseon, exiled to Yeongwol County, where he was put to death and his remains are buried; the day after his birth, Queen Hyeondeok, died in childbirth. King Danjong succeeded his father, Munjong of Joseon, at the age of 12. Since he was too young to rule, the government of the kingdom fell to the premier, Hwangbo In, his vice-premier, General Kim Jong-seo, with his sister, Princess Gyeonghye acting as his guardian. In 1453, this government was overthrown in a coup led by the king's uncle, Sejo of Joseon, who persuaded a number of scholars and officials who had served in the court of Sejong the Great to support his claim to the throne. Hwangbo In and Kim Jong-seo were murdered in front of the gate of Gyeongbokgung; the following year, six officials of the court attempted to restore him to power, but their plot was discovered and they were executed. Perceiving that he would present a continuing threat to his rule, Sejo accepted the advice of the court and ordered that Danjong be disposed of.
In 1457, he was put to death at his place of exile. Danjong had been stripped of his title at the time he was exiled, was afterwards referred to as "Prince Nosan". In the reign of King Sukjong, scholars at his court proposed that his title be restored, in 1698, the demoted Prince Nosan was posthumously restored, receiving the posthumous name of "Danjong", thereafter was referred to as King Danjong. Father: King Munjong of Joseon Grandfather: King Sejong of Joseon Grandmother: Queen Soheon of the Cheongsong Shim clan Mother: Queen Hyeondeok of the Andong Kwon clan Grandfather: Kwon Jeon Grandmother: Lady Choi of the Haeju Choi clan Sister: Princess Gyeonghye Consorts and their Respective Issue:Queen Jeongsun of the Yeosan Song clan Consort Suk-Ui of the Sangsan Kim clan Consort Suk-Ui of the Andong Kwon clan King Danjong Gongeui Onmun Sunjeong Anjang Gyungsun Donhyo the Great of Korea 단종공의온문순정안장경순돈효대왕 端宗恭懿溫文純定安莊景順敦孝大王 Portrayed by Lee Min-woo in the 1983 MBC TV series 500 Years of Joseon:Tree with deep roots.
Portrayed by Jung Tae-woo in the 1998-2000 KBS TV series King and Queen. Portrayed by Noh Tae-yeob in the 2011 KBS2 TV series The Princess' Man. Portrayed by Chae Sang-woo in the 2011 JTBC TV series Insu, The Queen Mother and the 2013 film The Face Reader. List of Korean monarchs Joseon Dynasty politics List of Korea-related topics
Gojong of Korea
Gojong, the Emperor Gwangmu, was the last king of Joseon and the first Emperor of Korea. Gojong took the Joseon throne in 1863 when still a child; as a minor, his father, the Heungseon Daewongun, ruled as regent for him until Gojong reached adulthood. During the mid-1860s, the Heungseon Daewongun was the main proponent of isolationism and the instrument of the persecution of native and foreign Catholics, a policy that led directly to the French invasion and the United States expedition to Korea in 1871; the early years of the Daewongun's rule witnessed a concerted effort to restore the dilapidated Gyeongbok Palace, the seat of royal authority. During the Daewongun's reign, Joseon factional politics, the Seowon, the power wielded by the Andong Kim clan disappeared as political forces within Korean state life. In 1873, Gojong announced his assumption of direct royal rule. In November 1874, with the retirement of the Heungseon Daewongun, Gojong's consort, Queen Min, gained complete control over the court, filling senior court positions with members of her family.
This angered Heungseon Daewongun, exiled from the court. Some relatives of Heungseon Daewongun and members of the Southerner faction plotted a coup. In the 19th century tensions mounted between Qing China and Japan, culminating in the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894–1895. Much of this war was fought on the Korean peninsula. Japan, after the Meiji Restoration, had acquired Western military technology and had forced Joseon to sign the Treaty of Ganghwa in 1876. Japan encroached upon Korean territory in search of fish, iron ore, other natural resources, it established a strong economic presence in the peninsula, heralding the beginning of Japanese Imperial expansion in East Asia. The French campaign against Korea of 1866, United States expedition to Korea in 1871 and the Incident of the Japanese gunboat Unyo put pressure on many of Joseon's officials, including King Gojong; the Treaty of Ganghwa became the first unequal treaty signed between a foreign country. With the signing of its first unequal treaty, Korea became easy prey for many imperialistic powers, the treaty led to Korea being annexed by Japan.
King Gojong began to rely on a new paid army of rifle-equipped soldiers. The old army, armed with swords and old matchlocks revolted as a result of their mediocre wages and loss of prestige, the Heungseon Daewongun was restored to power; however Chinese troops led by the Qing Chinese general Yuan Shikai soon abducted the Daewongun and took him to China, thus foiling his return to power. Four years the Daewongun returned to Korea. On 4 December 1884, five revolutionaries initiated the Gapsin Coup, an attempted coup d'état, by leading a small anti-old minister army, attempting to detain King Gojong and Queen Min; the coup failed after 3 days. Some of its leaders, including Kim Okgyun, fled to Japan, others were executed. Widespread poverty presented significant challenges to the 19th century Joseon Dynasty. One indication of this poverty was the poor conditions of life suffered by those of the lower classes, who had little to eat and lived in little more than run down shanties lined along roads of dirt and mud.
A number of factors, including famine, high taxes and corruption among the ruling class, led to several notable peasant revolts in the 19th century. King Gojong's predecessors had suppressed an 1811–1812 revolt in the Pyeongan Province, led by Hong Gyeong-nae. In 1894, another major revolt, the Donghak Peasant Revolution took hold as an anti-government, anti-yangban and anti-foreign campaign. To suppress the rebellion, the Joseon government requested military aid from Japan, thus deepening Japanese claims to Korea as a protectorate. In the end the revolution failed, but many of the peasants' grievances were dealt with by the Gabo Reform. In 1895, Empress Myeongseong known as Queen Min, was assassinated by Japanese agents; the Japanese minister to Korea, Miura Gorō orchestrated the plot against her. A group of Japanese agents entered the Gyeongbokgung in Seoul, under guard by Korean troops sympathetic to the Japanese, the Queen was killed in the palace; the Queen had attempted to counter Japanese interference in Korea and was considering turning to Russia or China for support.
By 1895 Japan had won the First Sino-Japanese War, gaining much more influence over the Korean government. The Gabo reforms and the assassination of the Queen stirred controversy in Korea, fomenting Korean anti-Japanese sentiments; some Confucian scholars, as well as farmers, formed over 60 successive righteous armies to fight for Korean freedom. These armies were preceded by the Donghak movement and succeeded by various Korean independence movements. On 11 February 1896, King Gojong and his crown prince fled from the Gyeongbokgung to the Russian legation in Seoul, from which they governed for about one year, an event known as Korea royal refuge at the Russian legation. In 1897, King Gojong, yielding to rising pressure from overseas and the demands of the Independence Association-led public opinion, returned to Gyeongungung. There he proclaimed the founding of the Empire of Korea redesignated the national title as such, declared a new era name Gwangmu (meaning, "shining and ma
Taejong of Joseon
Taejong of Joseon was the third king of the Joseon dynasty in Korea and the father of King Sejong the Great. He was born as Yi Bang-won in 1367 as the fifth son of King Taejo, was qualified as an official of Goryeo Dynasty in 1382. During his early days, he helped his father to extend his support with the citizens and many influential figures of the government. Taejong helped his father and founded a new dynasty by assassinating powerful officials such as Jeong Mong-ju, who remained loyal to the Goryeo dynasty, he was called Prince Jeong Ahn during the reign of King Taejo. In 1392 he helped his father overthrow Goryeo in order to establish Joseon, he expected to be appointed as the successor to the throne for he contributed most to the founding of Joseon, but his father and prime minister Jeong Do-jeon favored Taejo's eighth son and Yi Bangwon's half-brother, Yi Bangseok, as the crown prince. This conflict arose chiefly because Jeong Dojeon, who shaped and laid down ideological and legal foundations of the new dynasty more than anyone else, saw Joseon as a kingdom led by ministers appointed by the king while Yi Bangwon wanted to establish the absolute monarchy ruled directly by the king.
Both sides were getting ready to strike first. After the sudden death of Queen Sindeok, while King Taejo was still in mourning for his second wife, Yi Bang-won struck first by raiding the palace and killed Jeong Do-jeon and his supporters, as well as Queen Sindeok's two sons including the crown prince in 1398; this incident became known as the First Strife of Princes. Aghast at the fact that his sons were willing to kill each other for the crown, psychologically exhausted from the death of his second wife, King Taejo abdicated and crowned his second son Yi Bang-gwa, or King Jeongjong, as the new ruler. One of King Jeongjong's first acts as monarch was to revert the capital to Gaeseong, where he is believed to have been more comfortable, yet Yi Bangwon retained real power and was soon in conflict with his disgruntled older brother Yi Bang-gan, who yearned for power. In 1400, General Bak Po, disappointed by Yi Bangwon for not rewarding him enough for his action in the First Strife of Princes, allied with Bangwon's older brother Yi Bang-gan and rebelled against him in what came to be known as the Second Strife of Princes.
Yi Bangwon defeated his brother's forces executed Bak Po and sent Yi Bang-gan into exile. King Jeongjong, afraid of his powerful brother, named Yi Bangwon as crown prince and abdicated in the same year. Yi Bangwon assumed the throne of Joseon at long last as the third king of Joseon. In the beginning of Taejong's reign, the Grand King Former, refused to relinquish the royal seal that signified the legitimacy of any king's rule. Taejong began to initiate policies. One of his first acts as king was to abolish the privilege enjoyed by the upper echelons of government and the aristocracy to maintain private armies, his revoking of such rights to field independent forces severed their ability to muster large-scale revolts, drastically increased the number of men employed in the national military. Taejong's next act as king was to revise the existing legislation concerning the taxation of land ownership and the recording of state of subjects. With the discovery of hidden land, national income increased twofold.
He initiated the system of hopae, an early form of identification recording the bearer's name and residence, used to control the movement of people. He set a big drum in front of his court, so that the common people, when they had some problems, could come to the palace and consult the king. In addition, he created an absolute monarchy. In 1399, Taejong had played an influential role in scrapping the Dopyeong Assembly, a council of the old government administration that held a monopoly in court power during the waning years of the Goryeo dynasty, in favor of the State Council of Joseon, a new branch of central administration that revolved around the king and his edicts. After passing the subject documentation and taxation legislation, King Taejong issued a new decree in which all decisions passed by the State Council could only come into effect with the approval of the king; this ended the custom of court ministers and advisors making decisions through debate and negotiations amongst themselves, thus brought the royal power to new heights.
Shortly thereafter, Taejong installed an office, known as the Sinmun Office, to hear cases in which aggrieved subjects felt that they had been exploited or treated unjustly by government officials or aristocrats. However, Taejong kept Jeong Do-jeon's reforms intact for the most part, he promoted Confucianism, more like political philosophy rather than a religion, thus demoting Buddhism, far from daily living and decayed from the power given by Goryeo kings back then. He closed many temples that were established by Goryeo kings, seized their large possessions and added them to the national treasury. Meanwhile, he honored Jeong Mong-ju with the posthumous title of Chief State Councillor though it was he who assassinated Jeong — leading to an irony of history, in which Jeong Do-jeon was vilified throughout the Joseon dynasty while Jeong Mong-ju was honored despite his opposition to its birth. In foreign policy, he was a straight hardliner — he attacked the Jurchens on the northern border and Japanese pirates on the southern
Korean Broadcasting System
Korean Broadcasting System is the national public broadcaster of South Korea. It was founded in 1927, operates radio and online services, being one of the biggest South Korean television networks. KBS began as Kyeongseong Broadcasting Corporation and was established by the Governor-General of Korea on 16 February 1927; this second radio station started using the call sign HLKA in 1947 after the Republic of Korea got the call sign HL of the International Telecommunication Union. After doing a national broadcast, the radio was renamed Seoul Central Broadcasting Station in 1948. Television broadcasts in South Korea began on 12 May 1956 with the first television station HLKZ-TV, it was sold to KBS in 1961. KBS station status changed from government to public broadcasting station on 3 March 1973. Construction of KBS headquarters in Yeouido started in 1976. In 1979, KBS radio began broadcasting on the FM wave with the launch of KBS Stereo. KBS began accepting advertising in 1980, differing from the norm of advert-free broadcasting by public broadcasters, after the forced merger of several private broadcasters into KBS by the military government of Chun Doo-hwan.
In 1981, KBS launched KBS 3TV and Educational FM, on 27 December 1990, the channels split from KBS to form the Educational Broadcasting System. After a revision of the television licensing fee system in 1994, KBS1 stopped broadcasting commercials. KBS is a public corporation funded by the South Korean government and license fees, but is managed independently; as part of the Constitution, the president of KBS is chosen by the President of South Korea, after being recommended by its board of directors. Political parties in South Korea have the right to name members of the KBS board of directors; because of this system, which gives politicians effective control over choosing the president of KBS, as well as its board of directors, people who are critical of the system cite political intervention in KBS's governance as reason for revising the current system of recruiting. Around 37.8% of KBS' revenue comes from a mandatory television licence fee of 2,200 won, with another 47.6% coming from commercial advertisement sales.
KBS' international output such as KBS World, as well as specialised services such as KBS Radio 3 for the disabled, receive public funding from the South Korean government. KBS1 - KBS' flagship channel, it broadcasts news and current affairs, education and culture, it launched in 1961 as HLKA-TV and is funded by the license fee, airing commercial-free. It is available nationally on broadcasting via digital terrestrial television. KBS1 airs public information films and minor entertainment programming, but the majority of, on KBS2. KBS2 - KBS' entertainment and drama channel, it was launched in 1980 as a replacement for the Tongyang Broadcasting Corporation, controversially merged with KBS, it is available on digital channel 7 via digital terrestrial television. KBS2 airs public information films and less news and current affairs programming, but the majority of, on KBS1. KBS UHD - The Ultra High Definition channel. Airs music videos and re-runs of dramas, it is on national terrestrial digital channel 66.
KBS1 and KBS2 phased out analogue services on 31 December 2012 as part of the switchover to digital television. KBS Prime - A culture and drama channel, launched in 1995 as KBS Satellite 2, it was renamed before becoming Prime. KBS Drama - KBS Sky Drama, launched in 2002 KBS N Sports - KBS Sports/KBS Sky Sports, launched in 2002 KBS Joy - a comedy and quiz show channel, launched in 2006 KBS Kids - the children's channel, launched in 2012 KBS W - a channel aimed at a female audience, launched in 2013 KBS - K Picture Media - distribution paid cartoons onlineThese six channels are carried by cable and satellite operators in South Korea. There are 100+ cable operators in South Korea, Skylife is the sole satellite television service provider; these channels are managed and operated by KBS N, a subsidiary company of KBS. KBS World is the international television and radio service of KBS, it launched on 1 July 2003. It is broadcast on a 24-hour schedule with programs including news, television dramas and children's.
KBS World television is broadcast locally and around the world. As of July 2007, around 65% of its programs are broadcast with English subtitles, it is available in 32 countries, more than 40 million households around the world can access KBS World, it has two overseas subsidiaries: KBS Japan. KBS Japan is independently operated by a KBS subsidiary in Japan, most programs are provided with Japanese subtitles. KBS World television is a television channel that broadcasts programs commissioned for KBS' 2 terrestrial networks: KBS1 and KBS2. KBS World television is distributed over several international communication and broadcasting satellites such as IS-19, IS-20, IS-21, Measat 3, Apstar 6 & 7, Eutelsat Hotbird 13A, Galaxy 11, 18 & 23, Badr 6, Vinasat 1, Palapa D, SES 7, Telkom 1, Thaicom 5, EchoStar 15, Anik F3. Local cable and/or satellite operators receive the signal from one of these satellite and carry the signal to end subscribers of their own networks. KBS doesn't allow individual viewer to receive the signal from IS-19, IS-20, IS-21, Measat 3, Asiasat 5, Galaxy 18.
The signal from Badr 6 and Eutelsat Hotbird 13A is Free-to-Air. KBS Radio 1 - news, current affairs, drama and culture. Launched in 1927 as Kyeongseong Broadcasting Corporation JODK and it became KBS Radio 1 in 1965. KBS