White Australia policy
The term White Australia policy was used to encapsulate a set of historical policies that aimed to exclude people of non-European origin Asians and Pacific Islanders from immigrating to Australia. Governments progressively dismantled such policies between 1949 and 1973. Competition in the gold fields between British and Chinese miners, labour-union opposition to the importation of Pacific Islanders into the sugar plantations of Queensland, reinforced demands to eliminate or minimize low-wage immigration from Asia and the Pacific Islands. From the 1850s colonial governments imposed restrictions on family members joining Chinese miners in Australia; the colonial authorities levied a special tax on Chinese immigrants that other immigrants were exempted from. Towards the end of the 19th century labour unions pushed to stop Chinese immigrants working in the furniture and market-garden industries. Australian furniture had to be labelled "Made with Chinese Labour". Soon after Australia became a federation in January 1901, the federal government of Edmund Barton passed the Immigration Restriction Act of 1901, drafted by the man who would become Australia's second Prime Minister, Alfred Deakin.
The passage of this bill marked the commencement of the White Australia Policy as Australian federal government policy. Subsequent acts further strengthened the policy up to the start of the Second World War; these policies gave British migrants preference over all others through the first four decades of the 20th century. During the Second World War, Prime Minister John Curtin reinforced the policy, saying "This country shall remain forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace in order to establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race."Successive governments dismantled the policy in stages after the conclusion of the Second World War of 1939-1945, with the encouragement of first non-British, non-white immigration, allowing for a large multi-ethnic post-war program of immigration. The Menzies and Holt Governments dismantled the policies between 1949 and 1966, the Whitlam Government passed laws to ensure that race would be disregarded as a component for immigration to Australia in 1973.
In 1975 the Whitlam Government passed the Racial Discrimination Act, which made racially-based selection criteria unlawful. In the decades since, Australia has maintained large-scale multi-ethnic immigration; as of 2018, Australia's migration program allows people from any country to apply to migrate to Australia, regardless of their nationality, culture, religion, or language, provided that they meet the criteria set out in law. The discovery of gold in Australia in 1851 led to an influx of immigrants from all around the world; the colony of New South Wales had a population of just 200,000 in 1851, but the huge influx of settlers spurred by the gold rushes transformed the Australian colonies economically and demographically. Over the next 20 years, 40,000 Chinese men and over 9,000 women immigrated to the goldfields seeking prosperity. Gold brought great wealth but new social tensions. Multi-ethnic migrants came to New South Wales in large numbers for the first time. Competition on the goldfields resentment among white miners towards the successes of Chinese miners, led to tensions between groups and a series of significant protests and riots, including the Buckland Riot in 1857 and the Lambing Flat Riots between 1860 and 1861.
Governor Hotham, on 16 November 1854, appointed a Royal Commission on Victorian goldfields problems and grievances. This led to restrictions being placed on Chinese immigration and residency taxes levied from Chinese residents in Victoria from 1855 with New South Wales following suit in 1861; these restrictions remained in force until the early 1870s. Reference does not support the argument of this paragraph Melbourne Trades Hall was opened in 1859 with Trades and Labour Councils and Trades Halls opening in all cities and most regional towns in the following forty years. During the 1880s Trade unions developed among shearers and stevedores, but soon spread to cover all blue-collar jobs. Shortages of labour led to high wages for a prosperous skilled working class, whose unions demanded and got an eight-hour day and other benefits unheard of in Europe. Australia gained a reputation as "the working man's paradise." Some employers tried to undercut the unions by importing Chinese labour. This produced a reaction which led to all the colonies restricting Chinese and other Asian immigration.
This was the foundation of the White Australia Policy. The "Australian compact", based around centralised industrial arbitration, a degree of government assistance for primary industries, White Australia, was to continue for many years before dissolving in the second half of the 20th century; the growth of the sugar industry in Queensland in the 1870s led to searching for labourers prepared to work in a tropical environment. During this time, thousands of "Kanakas" were brought into Australia as indentured workers; this and related practices of bringing in non-white labour to be cheaply employed was termed "blackbirding" and refers to the recruitment of people through trickery and kidnappings to work on plantations the sugar cane plantations of Queensland and Fiji. In the 1870s and 1880s, the trade union movement began a series of protests against foreign labour, their arguments were that Asians and Chinese took jobs away from white men, worked for "substandard" wages, lowered working conditions and refused unionisation.
Objections to these arguments came from wealthy
Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right in terms of extreme nationalism, nativist ideologies, authoritarian tendencies. The term is used to describe Nazism, neo-Nazism, neo-fascism and other ideologies or organizations that feature ultranationalist, xenophobic, anti-communist, or reactionary views; these can lead to oppression and violence against groups of people based on their supposed inferiority, or their perceived threat to the native ethnic group, state or ultraconservative traditional social institutions. Far-right politics includes but is not limited to aspects of authoritarianism, anti-communism and nativism. Claims that superior people should have greater rights than inferior people are associated with the far-right; the far-right has favored an elitist society based on its belief in the legitimacy of the rule of a supposed superior minority over the inferior masses. Some aspects of fascist ideology have been identified with right-wing political parties: in particular, the fascist idea that superior persons should dominate society while undesirable elements should be purged, which in the case of Nazism resulted in genocide.
Charles Grant, director of the Centre for European Reform in London, has distinguished between right-wing nationalist parties—which are described as far-right such as the National Front in France—and fascism. One issue is whether parties should be labelled radical or extreme, a distinction, made by the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany when determining whether or not a party should be banned. Another question is what the label "right" implies when it is applied to the extreme right, given the fact that many parties that were labeled right-wing extremist tended to advance neoliberal and free market agendas as late as the 1980s, but now advocate economic policies which are more traditionally associated with the left, such as anti-globalisation and protectionism. One approach, drawing on the writings of Norberto Bobbio, argues that attitudes towards political equality are what distinguish the left from the right and they therefore allow these parties to be positioned on the right of the political spectrum.
There is debate about how appropriate the labels fascist or neo-Fascist are. According to Cas Mudde, "the labels Neo-Nazi and to a lesser extent neo-Fascism are now used for parties and groups that explicitly state a desire to restore the Third Reich or quote historical National Socialism as their ideological influence". Right-wing populism, a political ideology that combines laissez-faire capitalism, nationalism and anti-elitism, is sometimes described as far-right. Right-wing populism involves appeals to the "common man" and opposition to immigration. Far-right politics sometimes involves anti-immigration and anti-integration stances towards groups that are deemed inferior and undesirable. Concerning the socio-cultural dimension of nationality and migration, one far-right position is the view that certain ethnic, racial or religious groups should stay separate and it is based on the belief that the interests of one's own group should be prioritised. Proponents of the horseshoe theory interpretation of the left-right spectrum identify the far-left and the far-right as having more in common with each other as extremists than each of them has with moderate centrists.
In the United States, the term hard right has been used to describe groups such as the Tea Party movement and the Patriot movement. The term has been used to describe ideologies such as paleoconservatism, Dominion Theology and white nationalism; the German political scientist Klaus von Beyme describes three historical phases in the development of far-right parties in Western Europe after World War II. From 1945 to the mid-1950s, far-right parties were marginalised and their ideologies were discredited due to the recent existence and defeat of Nazism, thus in the years following World War II, the main objective of far-right parties was survival and achieving any political impact at all was not expected. From the mid-1950s to the 1970s, the so-called "populist protest phase" emerged with sporadic electoral success. During this period, far-right parties drew to them charismatic leaders whose profound mistrust of the political establishment led to an "us-versus-them" mind set: "us" being the nation's citizenry, "them" being the politicians and bureaucrats who were in office.
Beginning in the 1980s, the electoral successes of far-right political candidates made it possible for far-right political parties to revitalize anti-immigration as a mainstream issue. Jens Rydgren describes a number of theories as to why individuals support far-right political parties and the academic literature on this topic distinguishes between demand-side theories that have changed the "interests, emotions and preferences of voters" and supply-side theories which focus on the programmes of parties, their organisation and the opportunity structures within individual political systems; the most common demand-side theories are the social breakdown thesis, the relative deprivation thesis, the modernisation losers thesis and the ethnic competition thesis. The rise of far-right political parties has been viewed as a rejection of post-materialist values on the part of some voters; this theory, known as the reverse post-material thesis blames both left-wing and progressive parties for embracing a post-material agenda that alienates traditional working class voters.
Another study argues that individuals who join far-right parties determine whether those parties develop into major political players
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model. It lies between green on the spectrum of visible light; the eye perceives blue when observing light with a dominant wavelength between 450 and 495 nanometres. Most blues contain a slight mixture of other colours; the clear daytime sky and the deep sea appear blue because of an optical effect known as Rayleigh scattering. An optical effect called. Distant objects appear. Blue has been an important colour in decoration since ancient times; the semi-precious stone lapis lazuli was used in ancient Egypt for jewellery and ornament and in the Renaissance, to make the pigment ultramarine, the most expensive of all pigments. In the eighth century Chinese artists used cobalt blue to white porcelain. In the Middle Ages, European artists used it in the windows of Cathedrals. Europeans wore clothing coloured with the vegetable dye woad until it was replaced by the finer indigo from America.
In the 19th century, synthetic blue dyes and pigments replaced mineral pigments and synthetic dyes. Dark blue became a common colour for military uniforms and in the late 20th century, for business suits; because blue has been associated with harmony, it was chosen as the colour of the flags of the United Nations and the European Union. Surveys in the US and Europe show that blue is the colour most associated with harmony, confidence, infinity, the imagination and sometimes with sadness. In US and European public opinion polls it is the most popular colour, chosen by half of both men and women as their favourite colour; the same surveys showed that blue was the colour most associated with the masculine, just ahead of black, was the colour most associated with intelligence, knowledge and concentration. Blue is the colour of light between green on the visible spectrum. Hues of blue include ultramarine, closer to violet. Blue varies in shade or tint. Darker shades of blue include ultramarine, cobalt blue, navy blue, Prussian blue.
Blue pigments were made from minerals such as lapis lazuli and azurite, blue dyes were made from plants. Today most blue dyes are made by a chemical process; the modern English word blue comes from Middle English bleu or blewe, from the Old French bleu, a word of Germanic origin, related to the Old High German word blao. In heraldry, the word azure is used for blue. In Russian and some other languages, there is no single word for blue, but rather different words for light blue and dark blue. See Colour term. Several languages, including Japanese, Thai and Lakota Sioux, use the same word to describe blue and green. For example, in Vietnamese the colour of both tree leaves and the sky is xanh. In Japanese, the word for blue is used for colours that English speakers would refer to as green, such as the colour of a traffic signal meaning "go". Linguistic research indicates. Colour names developed individually in natural languages beginning with black and white, adding red, only much – as the last main category of colour accepted in a language – adding the colour blue when blue pigments could be manufactured reliably in the culture using that language.
Human eyes perceive blue when observing light which has a dominant wavelength of 450–495 nanometres. Blues with a higher frequency and thus a shorter wavelength look more violet, while those with a lower frequency and a longer wavelength appear more green. Pure blue, in the middle, has a wavelength of 470 nanometres. Isaac Newton included blue as one of the seven colours in his first description the visible spectrum, He chose seven colours because, the number of notes in the musical scale, which he believed was related to the optical spectrum, he included indigo, the hue between blue and violet, as one of the separate colours, though today it is considered a hue of blue. In painting and traditional colour theory, blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments, which can be mixed to form a wide gamut of colours. Red and blue mixed together form violet and yellow together form green. Mixing all three primary colours together produces a dark grey. From the Renaissance onwards, painters used this system to create their colours.
The RYB model was used for colour printing by Jacob Christoph Le Blon as early as 1725. Printers discovered that more accurate colours could be created by using combinations of magenta, cyan and black ink, put onto separate inked plates and overlaid one at a time onto paper; this method could produce all the colours in the spectrum with reasonable accuracy. In the 19th century the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell found a new way of explaining colours, by the wa
Fraser Anning is an Australian politician, a senator for Queensland since 10 November 2017. Anning has sat in the Senate as an independent, though in April 2019 he registered Fraser Anning's Conservative National Party with the Australian Electoral Commission, he was elected to the Senate after a special recount was triggered by the removal of One Nation senator Malcolm Roberts, found ineligible to be chosen as a senator due to his status as a dual citizen. Anning chose not to join One Nation in the Senate, sitting as an independent until June 2018, when he joined Katter's Australian Party as its first senator, before being expelled from KAP in October 2018 for his views on race and immigration. Anning holds far-right and anti-immigration views and has faced criticism for his remarks on Islam, including his use of the Nazi euphemism for genocide, calling for a "final solution" to "the immigration problem" in his maiden speech and statements shortly after the Christchurch mosque shootings in New Zealand, which blamed them on "the immigration program which allowed Muslim fanatics to migrate".
Anning was born to his wife, who owned the family cattle station at Wetherby. Anning grew up in north-west Queensland on Wetherby Station, one of the Anning family's pastoral properties near Richmond, his great-grandfather was Charles Cumming Stone Anning, a British pastoral squatter who migrated to Australia in the mid-19th century. Charles and several of his adult sons established several properties in the area north of Hughenden; the Anning family was involved in frontier conflicts taking land from local Aboriginal people. In response to attacks on their cattle, the Annings would attack Aboriginal campsites and capture adolescent boys who survived to use them as labour on their cattle and sheep stations; the Annings requested the services of local Native Police paramilitary units to assist in removing Aboriginal people. Anning and his wife live in Gladstone, they have two daughters. Anning is a Catholic, but not a regular churchgoer. Anning holds anti-abortion views, he has been a public opponent of same sex marriage and was one of twelve senators who voted against the 2017 bill.
In 2017, when Cory Bernardi moved a motion opposing Medicare funding of gender-selective abortion, Anning was one of ten senators who voted for the motion, defeated with 36 votes against. On 22 March 2018 Anning announced that he would support the Turnbull Government's proposed company tax cuts. Anning introduced a private members' bill calling for less stringent import laws for mace, pepper spray and tasers, to "allow women to defend themselves", it was supported by David Leyonhjelm, Peter Georgiou, Cory Bernardi and Brian Burston, but rejected by both major parties and the Greens. On 4 June 2018 Anning joined Katter's Australian Party. In 2018 Anning described the perpetrators of attacks on South African farms as "subhuman" claiming that a state-orchestrated "genocide" was underway in South Africa. Anning stated in a Senate speech that he believed Safe Schools was "sexually deviant propaganda" and undermined "the white family", he criticised the curriculum as "gender fluidity garbage". On 5 January 2019 Anning attended a far-right rally in Melbourne, led by Blair Cottrell, the neo-Nazi founder of the United Patriots Front.
In January 2019 he began the process with the Australian Electoral Commission to register a new political party, called "Fraser Anning's Conservative National Party" with a registered abbreviation of "The Conservative Nationals". After the proposal to register that abbreviation was withdrawn, the AEC granted formal registration on 2 April 2019. In 1998, he stood as a One Nation candidate for the lower house division of Fairfax at that year's federal election. Anning was third on the One Nation senate ticket in Queensland at the 2016 federal election, he gained just 19 below-the-line first-preference votes under the optional preferential voting system. Due to its high statewide count, One Nation elected two senators in Queensland at the 2016 election – party leader Pauline Hanson and Malcolm Roberts. In October 2017, during the parliamentary eligibility crisis, the Court of Disputed Returns ruled Roberts was ineligible to be elected to the Senate due to his failure to renounce his British citizenship.
The following month, on 10 November, Anning was declared elected in place of Roberts following a special recount. Prior to his elevation to the Senate, he was facing bankruptcy legal action due to money owed to the Bendigo and Adelaide Bank; this could have made him ineligible to sit in parliament. Upon his swearing in to the Senate on 13 November 2017, Anning was vouched for by two crossbenchers from other parties: Cory Bernardi and David Leyonhjelm. One Nation leader Pauline Hanson subsequently issued a media release saying that Anning had "abandoned" the party to sit as an independent "until something else comes along". Anning responded that "she made my position pretty much untenable with her conditions." On 16 November, it was reported that neither Anning nor Hanson had formally made their intentions clear to the Senate chamber regarding his party status, he therefore remained a One Nation senator in the eyes of the Senate. It was unclear whether Hanson intended to expel Anning from the parliamentary group or the wider organisational party as well.
On 15 January 2018, Anning advised the Senate President that he would henceforth sit as an independent. On 5 February
True Blue Crew
The True Blue Crew is an Australian anti-Islam far-right street protest group whose members and supporters have been involved in Right-wing terrorism. Described as being far-right and has been referred to as a neo-Nazi hate group; the group is based in Melton, Victoria. They have been described by academics as displaying "overt white racism and social conservatism aimed at bolstering male values and privilege, they understand themselves as Australian patriots preserving and protecting white, Anglo-Saxon heritage against particular groups including Muslims, Jews and indigenous Australians.” The True Blue Crew was formed in 2015 as a splinter group from the anti-Islamic Reclaim Australia group, along with a number of small far-right nationalist groups such as the United Patriots Front. Beginning in 2014, members of what would become the TBC were involved in the Voices of Bendigo and Stop the Mosques Bendigo protests; the group was one of a number of far-right groups, including the Q Society, Reclaim Australia, the Australian Defence League and the United Patriots Front, that opposed the construction of a $3 million mosque and Islamic community centre in Bendigo, Victoria.
In May 2016, the group was reported to have attended an anti-mosque protest in Melton, Victoria along with members of the United Patriots Front and the Love Australia or Leave Party. About 150 attended, opposing a housing development which they falsely claimed was being built for Muslims only. At the time, Labor leader Bill Shorten said the protesters were taking Australia "down the wrong path and the wrong direction" adding that "Australia's a diverse country and I don't believe in fermenting religious paranoia or hatred"; as the crowd dispersed following a similar protest in August the same year, fighting broke out between members of the True Blue Crew and the Sons of Odin. On 25 June 2016, police seized weapons including knuckle duster. In August 2016, a member of True Blue Crew, Phillip Galea, was charged with terrorism related offences including collecting or making documents to prepare for terrorist acts and carrying out acts in preparation for a terrorist act. Police investigators claim Galea is linked to several far-right groups including Reclaim Australia, United Patriots Front, True Blue Crew and the neo-Nazi group Combat 18.
Galea was accused of ordering ingredients for explosives and video footage seized in raids showed Galea carrying out reconnaissance of a target, the documents allege. His intended target was a small anarchist bookshop on a busy main road in Northcote, opposite Northcote High School. Police stated that “Galea outlined his intentions were to cause as much devastation to these locations as possible in a team coordinated attack, using smoke bombs and improvised explosive devices”. Galea was accused of researching homemade bombs, ballistic armour and guns, preparing a terrorist document entitled “Patriot’s Cookbook”. Galea is incarcerated at a high-security mental health facility. In January 2018, United Patriots Front and True Blue Crew were reported by Channel 7 news to be attempting to arrange vigilante patrols to monitor young African men; the report led to accusations. In March 2019, in the wake of the Christchurch mosque shootings, it emerged that the alleged perpetrator, Brenton Tarrant, had three years earlier given fulsome praise to Blair Cottrell as a leader of the far-right movements on social media.
He made more than 30 comments on the now deleted UPF and TBC Facebook pages, singling out Cottrell for praise and disparaging Neil Erikson and Shermon Burgess as "useful idiots". Antipodean Resistance Australian neo-Nazi group that emerged around the same time as Reclaim Australia. Australian Defence League Australia First Party Australian far-right political party associated with Reclaim Australia. Australian Liberty Alliance Islamophobia in Australia National Action Australian neo-Nazi group. Q Society Reclaim Australia - True Blue Crew is a Reclaim Australia splinter group Romper Stomper - TV series featuring a group similar to Reclaim Australia United Patriots Front - Reclaim Australia splinter group
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, normal, or desirable supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics, or tradition. Hierarchy and inequality may be viewed as natural results of traditional social differences or the competition in market economies; the term right-wing can refer to "the conservative or reactionary section of a political party or system". The political terms "Left" and "Right" were first used during the French Revolution and referred to seating arrangements in the French parliament: those who sat to the right of the chair of the parliamentary president were broadly supportive of the institutions of the monarchist Old Regime; the original Right in France was formed as a reaction against the "Left" and comprised those politicians supporting hierarchy and clericalism. The use of the expression la droite became prominent in France after the restoration of the monarchy in 1815, when it was applied to the Ultra-royalists.
The people of English-speaking countries did not apply the terms "right" and "left" to their own politics until the 20th century. Although the right-wing originated with traditional conservatives and reactionaries, the term extreme right-wing has been applied to movements including fascism and racial supremacy. From the 1830s to the 1880s, there was a shift in the Western world of social class structure and the economy, moving away from nobility and aristocracy towards capitalism; this general economic shift toward capitalism affected centre-right movements such as the British Conservative Party, which responded by becoming supportive of capitalism. In the United States, the Right includes both social conservatives. In Europe, economic conservatives are considered liberal and the Right includes nationalists, nativist opposition to immigration, religious conservatives, a significant presence of right-wing movements with anti-capitalist sentiments including conservatives and fascists who opposed what they saw as the selfishness and excessive materialism inherent in contemporary capitalism.
The political term right-wing was first used during the French Revolution, when liberal deputies of the Third Estate sat to the left of the president's chair, a custom that began in the Estates General of 1789. The nobility, members of the Second Estate sat to the right. In the successive legislative assemblies, monarchists who supported the Old Regime were referred to as rightists because they sat on the right side. A major figure on the right was Joseph de Maistre, who argued for an authoritarian form of conservatism. Throughout the 19th century, the main line dividing Left and Right in France was between supporters of the republic and supporters of the monarchy. On the right, the Legitimists and Ultra-royalists held counter-revolutionary views, while the Orléanists hoped to create a constitutional monarchy under their preferred branch of the royal family, a brief reality after the 1830 July Revolution; the centre-right Gaullists in post-World War II France advocated considerable social spending on education and infrastructure development as well as extensive economic regulation, but limited the wealth redistribution measures characteristic of social democracy.
In British politics, the terms "right" and "left" came into common use for the first time in the late 1930s in debates over the Spanish Civil War. The Right has gone through five distinct historical stages: the reactionary right sought a return to aristocracy and established religion; the meaning of right-wing "varies across societies, historical epochs, political systems and ideologies". According to The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, in liberal democracies, the political right opposes socialism and social democracy. Right-wing parties include conservatives, Christian democrats, classical liberals, nationalists and on the far-right. Roger Eatwell and Neal O'Sullivan divide the right into five types: reactionary, radical and new. Chip Berlet argues that each of these "styles of thought" are "responses to the left", including liberalism and socialism, which have arisen since the 1789 French Revolution; the reactionary right looks toward the past and is "aristocratic and authoritarian".
The moderate right, typified by the writings of Edmund Burke, is tolerant of change, provided it is gradual and accepts some aspects of liberalism, including the rule of law and capitalism, although it sees radical laissez-faire and individualism as harmful to society. The moderate right promotes nationalism and social welfare policies. Radical right is a term developed after World War II to describe groups and ideologies such as McCarthyism, the John Birch Society and the Republikaner Party. Eatwell stresses that this use has "major typological problems" and that the term "has been applied to democratic developments"; the radical right includes various other subtypes. Eatwell argues that the extreme right' has four traits: "1) anti-democracy; the New Right consists of the liberal conservatives, who stress small government, free markets and individual initiative. Other authors make a distinction between the cent
Soldiers of Odin
Soldiers of Odin is an anti-immigrant group founded in Kemi, Finland, in October 2015. The group was established as a response to thousands of migrants arriving in Finland amid the European migrant crisis. SOO has denied claims of being a racist or neo-Nazi group in interviews and on their public Facebook page. However, the group's founder, Mika Ranta, has connections to the far-right, neo-Nazi Nordic Resistance Movement and a criminal conviction stemming from a racially motivated assault in 2005. According to the Finnish public broadcaster Yle, a private Facebook page for selected members of SOO shows that racism and Nazi sympathies are rampant among higher-ranking members; the group's nature has raised concerns of anti-immigrant vigilantism. In addition to Finland, affiliates of the group have a presence in Australia, Canada, Sweden, the United States and the United Kingdom. Soldiers of Odin was founded in the town of Kemi in Northern Finland in October 2015 in response to an ten-fold increase in the number of migrants to Finland following the European migrant crisis in 2015.
The founder is Mika Ranta, while a self-declared neo-Nazi and member of the Finnish Resistance Movement, maintains that his personal views do not represent the group as a whole. The group is named after the god that rules asgard, home of the gods, in Norse mythology. Soldiers of Odin gained momentum in 2016 after incidents such as the New Year's Eve sexual assaults in Germany, the January 2016 stabbing death of Alexandra Mezher, a Lebanese social worker in Sweden, other migrant-related crime incidents. On 15 March 2016, Soldiers of Odin announced on their Facebook page that they had intervened in the attempted sexual harassment of two underage girls; the group claimed that the perpetrators were two refugees and that the police thanked Soldiers of Odin for their actions. Further investigation revealed that neither the police nor any bystanders had any knowledge of the event. On March 16, 2016, Soldiers of Odin admitted; the group said that the member would be expelled. The group's number of Facebook likes in Finland alone was more than 49,000 in December 2017.
The group began patrolling in Norway in February 2016. Which was profiled temporarily in the start-up phase by Ronny Alte, a former leader of the Norwegian Defence League and Pegida activist; the group began patrols in Sweden in March 2016, marching in several cities and towns, however they met with opposition from militant leftist groups and in Gothenburg they themselves had to ask the police for protection of their patrols. According to Yle, Soldiers of Odin has connections to the Finnish MV-media alternative media website and has been promised good visibility on the site. MV-media website and its owner Ilja Janitskin have ties to the Russian-backed Donetsk People's Republic. Soldiers of Odin claims a membership of 600 in Finland; the group has a presence in Sweden and Norway. The group has a presence in Estonia though Estonia "has no asylum seekers or refugees". Additionally, Soldiers of Odin has a following in the United States, England and Germany; the membership of the Soldiers of Odin Australia was registered as a non-profit association with the Victorian government in June 2016.
In 2016, the group ran "safety patrols" of Federation Square, Birrarung Marr and Bourke Street Mall and outside city train stations at night in Melbourne, Victoria to counteract what it claims was the inability of police to protect the public from rising street crime and gangs such as Apex. However, the group has not been publicly active since; the Quebec chapter of Soldiers of Odin was established by Dave Tregget, who left to found the anti-immigration group Storm Alliance in 2016. Soldiers of Odin established a group in Yukon, Canada, in 2016. Soldiers of Odin were seen patrolling the streets of Edmonton, Canada, in July 2016; the group told the police that they were not "anti-immigration", the police confirmed the group had not engaged in any criminal activity as of September 2016. The Edmonton police did say that "If they are the Soldiers of Odin like they are in Europe, we are going to be concerned". A soldiers of Odin group began patrols in Grande Prairie, where they not only patrol but are involved in helping the community in a variety of ways, including sending children to summer camps and helping to restore a vandalized war monument.
The Grande Prairie chapter's Facebook describes them as "Soldiers of Odin is a charitable non-profit organization in Grand Prairie Alberta, with an eye on the community and helping hands for those in need". A Soldiers of Odin group began patrols in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in September 2016 but claimed to be independent and not affiliated with racist and biker groups. A chapter appeared in Winnipeg, Manitoba, in fall 2016, though they claimed to be unaffiliated with the European groups; the national chapter is based in Manitoba. An educator at MacEwan University counters their claims of non-hate stating "Why name yourself after that group if you don't want to be associated with that ideology? If you are interested in community safety, community patrols, there's more than enough volunteer organizations that could have been joined."A chapter of the Soldiers of Odin formed in Sudbury, Ontario, in summer 2016, around the same time that the leader of the Finnish Soldiers of Odin was sentenced for aggravated assault.
Members soon began volunteering at a local soup kitchen and cleaning up discarded needles in public parks and trails and posting photos of their efforts on social media in an a