Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, formally known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It had a population of 403,131 with 316,701 in the urban area centred on Halifax Harbour; the regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth and Halifax County. Halifax is a major economic centre in Atlantic Canada with a large concentration of government services and private sector companies. Major employers and economic generators include the Department of National Defence, Dalhousie University, Saint Mary's University, the Halifax Shipyard, various levels of government, the Port of Halifax. Agriculture, mining and natural gas extraction are major resource industries found in the rural areas of the municipality. Halifax is located within the traditional ancestral lands of the Mi'kmaq indigenous peoples, known as Mi'kma'ki; the Mi'kmaq have resided in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island since prior to European landings in North America in the 1400s and 1500s to set up fisheries.
The Mi'kmaq name for Halifax is K'jipuktuk, pronounced "che-book-took". The first permanent European settlement in the region was on the Halifax Peninsula; the establishment of the Town of Halifax, named after the 2nd Earl of Halifax, in 1749 led to the colonial capital being transferred from Annapolis Royal. The establishment of Halifax marked the beginning of Father Le Loutre's War; the war began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports and a sloop of war on June 21, 1749. By unilaterally establishing Halifax, the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi'kmaq, which were signed after Father Rale's War. Cornwallis brought along their families. To guard against Mi'kmaq and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax, Bedford and Lawrencetown, all areas within the modern-day Regional Municipality. St. Margaret's Bay was first settled by French-speaking Foreign Protestants at French Village, Nova Scotia who migrated from Lunenburg, Nova Scotia during the American Revolution.
December 1917 saw one of the greatest disasters in Canadian history, when the SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship carrying munitions, collided with the Belgian Relief vessel SS Imo in "The Narrows" between upper Halifax Harbour and Bedford Basin. The resulting explosion, the Halifax Explosion, devastated the Richmond District of Halifax, killing 2,000 people and injuring nearly 9,000 others; the blast was the largest artificial explosion before the development of nuclear weapons. Significant aid came from Boston; the four municipalities in the Halifax urban area had been coordinating service delivery through the Metropolitan Authority since the late 1970s, but remained independent towns and cities until April 1, 1996, when the provincial government amalgamated all municipal governments within Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional Municipality. The municipal boundary thus now includes all of Halifax County except for several First Nation reserves. Since amalgamation, the region has been known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, although "Halifax" has remained in common usage for brevity.
On April 15, 2014, the regional council approved the implementation of a new branding campaign for the region developed by the local firm Revolve Marketing. The campaign would see the region referred to in promotional materials as "Halifax", although "Halifax Regional Municipality" would remain the region's official name; the proposed rebranding was met with mixed reaction from residents, some of whom felt that the change would alienate other communities in the municipality through a perception that the marketing scheme would focus on Metropolitan Halifax only, while others expressed relief that the longer formal name would no longer be primary. Mayor Mike Savage defended the decision, stating: "I'm a Westphal guy, I'm a Dartmouth man, but Halifax is my city, we’re all part of Halifax. Why does that matter? Because when I go and travel on behalf of this municipality, there isn’t a person out there who cares what HRM means." Unlike most municipalities with a sizeable metropolitan area, the Halifax Regional Municipality's suburbs have been incorporated into the "central" municipality by referendum.
For example, the community of Spryfield, in the Mainland South area, voted to amalgamate with Halifax in 1968. The most recent amalgamation, which brought the entirety of Halifax County into the Municipality, has created a situation where a large "rural commutershed" area encompasses half the municipality's landmass; the Halifax Regional Municipality occupies an area of 5,577 km2, 10% of the total land area of Nova Scotia. The land area of HRM is comparable in size to the total land area of the province of Prince Edward Island, measures 165 km in length between its eastern and western-most extremities, excluding Sable Island; the nearest point of land to Sable Island is not in HRM, but rather in adjacent Guysborough County. However, Sable Island is considered part of District 7 of the Halifax Regional Council; the coastline is indented, accounting for its length of 400 km, with the northern boundary of the municipality being between 50–60 km inland. The coast is rock with small isolated sand beaches in sheltered bays.
The largest coastal features include St. Margarets Bay, Halifax Harbour/Bedford Basin, Cole Harbour, Musquodoboit Harbour, Jeddore Harbour, Ship Harbour, Sheet Harbou
Peoria is the county seat of Peoria County and the largest city on the Illinois River. Established in 1691 by the French explorer Henri de Tonti, Peoria is the oldest European settlement in Illinois, is named after the Peoria tribe; as of the 2010 census, the city was the seventh-most populated in Illinois, with a population of 115,007. The Peoria Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 373,590 in 2011; until 2018, Peoria was the global and national headquarters for Caterpillar Inc. one of the 30 companies composing the Dow Jones Industrial Average, listed on the Fortune 100. Peoria is one of the oldest settlements in Illinois, as explorers first ventured up the Illinois River from the Mississippi; the lands that would become Peoria were first settled by Europeans in 1680, when French explorers René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Henri de Tonti constructed Fort Crevecoeur. This fort would burn to the ground, in 1813 Fort Clark, Illinois was built; when the County of Peoria was organized in 1825, Fort Clark was named Peoria.
Peoria was named after a member of the Illinois Confederation. The original meaning of the word is uncertain. A 21st-century proposal suggests a derivation from a Proto-Algonquian word meaning "to dream with the help of a manitou."Peoria was incorporated as a village on March 11, 1835. The city did not have a mayor, though they had a village president, Rudolphus Rouse, who served from 1835 to 1836; the first Chief of Police, John B Lishk, was appointed in 1837. The city was incorporated on April 21, 1845; this was the end of a village president and the start of the mayoral system, with the first mayor being William Hale. Peoria, Arizona, a suburb of Phoenix, was named after Peoria, Illinois because the two men who founded it in 1890 − Joseph B. Greenhut and Deloss S. Brown − wished to name it after their hometown. For much of the twentieth century, a red-light district of brothels and bars known as the Merry-Go-Round distinguished Peoria. Betty Friedan recalled driving through the neighborhood on dares during her high school years.
Richard Pryor got his start as a performer on North Washington Street in the early 1960s. According to the 2010 census, Peoria has a total area of 50.23 square miles, of which 48.01 square miles is land and 2.22 square miles is water. Peoria has a humid continental climate, with cold, snowy winters, hot, humid summers. Monthly daily mean temperatures range from 22.5 °F to 75.2 °F. Snowfall is common in the winter, averaging 26.3 inches, but this figure varies from year to year. Precipitation, averaging 36 inches, peaks in the spring and summer, is the lowest in winter. Extremes have ranged from −27 °F in January 1884 to 113 °F in July 1936; the city of Peoria is home to the Peoria Civic Center. The world headquarters for Caterpillar Inc. was based in Peoria for over 110 years until announcing their move to Deerfield, Illinois in late 2017. Medicine has become a major part of Peoria's economy. In addition to three major hospitals, the USDA's National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research called the USDA Northern Regional Research Lab, is located in Peoria.
This is one of the labs. Grandview Drive, which Theodore Roosevelt purportedly called the "world's most beautiful drive" during a 1910 visit, runs through Peoria and Peoria Heights. In addition to Grandview Drive, the Peoria Park District contains 9,000 acres of trails; the Illinois River Bluff Trail connects four Peoria Park District parks: Camp Wokanda, Robinson Park, Green Valley Camp, Detweiller Park, the Rock Island Greenway connects to the State of Illinois Rock Island trail traveling north to Toulon, IL and connects southeast to East Peoria, IL and to the Morton Community Bikeway. Other parks include the Forest Park Nature Center, which features seven miles of hiking trails through prairie openings and forested woodlands, Glen Oak Park, Bradley Park, which features Frisbee golf as well as a dog park. Peoria has five public golf courses as well as several semi-private golf courses; the Peoria Park District, the first and still largest park district in Illinois, was the 2001 Winner of the National Gold Medal Award for Excellence in Parks and Recreation for Class II Parks.
Museums in Peoria include the Pettengill-Morron House, the John C Flanagan House of the Peoria Historical Society, the Wheels o' Time Museum. A new Museum Square, opened on October 12, 2012, houses the Peoria Riverfront Museum, a planetarium, the Caterpillar World Visitors Center; the Peoria Art Guild hosts the Annual Art Fair, continually rated as one of the 100 top art fairs in the nation. Three cultural institutions are located in Glen Oak Park; the Peoria Zoo Glen Oak Zoo, was expanded and refurbished in recent years. Finished in 2009, the new zoo improvements more than triple the size of the zoo and feature a major African safari exhibit. Luthy Garden, established in 1951, encompasses five acres and offers over a dozen theme gardens and a Conservatory; the Peoria PlayHouse Children's Museum opened in June 2015 in the Glen Oak Pavilion. The Steamboat Classic, held every summer, is the world's largest four-mile running race and draws international runners; the Peoria Santa Claus Parade, which started in 1888, is the oldest running holiday parade in the United States.
Peoria's sister cities include Friedrichshafen, G
Keolis is a Franco-Québécois private operator of public transport. The company manages bus, metro and coach networks, rental bikes, car parks, boat shuttles, cable cars and airport services. Based in Paris, the company is 70%-owned by the SNCF and 30%-owned by the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec. Keolis operates a number of networks in France. Internationally, it manages buses in Stockholm, commuter trains in Boston, the Las Vegas bus network, the Hyderabad automated metro, the Melbourne tramway, the Docklands Light Railway in London, the Pujiang Shanghai Metro, the Manchester Metrolink tramway, the Wales & Borders rail network. In 2017, the company had 63,000 employees. Keolis has been led by Jean-Pierre Farandou since 2012. Keolis was formed from several former companies: Société des transports automobiles, created in 1908, its subsidiary Société générale des transports départementaux Lesexel, an electricity company created in 1911 to support the development of tramways Société de transports routiers de voyageurs, a subsidiary of SCETE and SNCF, renamed Cariane in 1988 during its merger with STVThese companies underwent a series of reorganizations and acquisitions, which resulted in two companies: VIA-GTA, focused on urban transport, Cariane, specialized in interurban public transport.
In 1999, SNCF became the leading shareholder in VIA-GTI, which merged with Cariane in 2001 to become Keolis. In 2005, through its stake in GoVia, Keolis became co-owner of the Southeastern rail franchise in the United Kingdom. In 2006, Keolis won the franchise for Hellweg Net in Germany. In 2007, Keolis acquired City-Trafic in Denmark. In 2008, Keolis took control of Eurobus Holding in Belgium. In 2009, Keolis set up operations in Melbourne, Washington, D. C. Bergen and Bordeaux. In 2010, EFFIA became a Keolis subsidiary. In 2012, Keolis acquired 100% of Syntus in the Netherlands and Orléans Express in Canada; the company set up operations in Hyderabad, India. In 2013, Keolis won part of the Las Vegas urban network. In 2014, Keolis won a 30-year public-private partnership contract to maintain and operate a 19-km light rail transport line in Waterloo and Cambridge in Ontario. In the same year, Keolis won the operations and maintenance contract for Metrolink, the United Kingdom's largest tramway network, in Manchester, was selected by FootHill Transit to operate and maintain the Los Angeles Country bus network.
The company expands in Asia, starting operation of Hyderabad's automatic air metro network, winning, as part of a joint venture with RATP Dev and the Qatar Hamad Group, the contract to operate and maintain Qatar's first public transport network, including the operation of the future automatic metro in Doha and the tramway network in the new city of Lusail. In 2018, Keolis starts operating the Pujiang metro line, the first automatic metro line in the Shanghai network, a contract to operate the Wales & Borders rail network in Wales. Keolis holds a 51% shareholding in Keolis Downer, which has operated the Melbourne tram network since November 2009. Keolis Downer has operated the G:link light rail line on the Gold Coast since July 2014. In March 2015, Keolis Downer purchased bus operator Australian Transit Enterprises, which operates the Hornibrook Bus Lines, LinkSA, Path Transit and SouthLink operations with 930 buses. In July 2017, Keolis Downer trading as Newcastle Transport took over the Newcastle Buses & Ferries business under a 10-year contract.
Newcastle Transport operate the Newcastle Light Rail. Keolis Canada operates as a subsidiary of Keolis America; the majority of its Canadian operations are located in Montreal, where it operates the Quebec intercity bus company Orléans Express and part of the Exo Mascouche sector. From 2004 to 2012 it operated Acadian Lines intercity buses in The Maritimes; the latter services have since been taken over by independent operator Maritime Bus. Keolis is a partner in the GrandLinq consortium and will operate the Ion rapid transit system in Waterloo Region, Ontario. In China and Shanghai Shentong Metro Group, the owner of Shanghai Metro, created a joint venture called Shanghai Keolis in March 2014. Shanghai Keolis started operating the Pujiang line in March 2018, it would be operating Shanghai Pudong International Airport's people mover system in 2019, which will link the proposed satellite concourse building with the existing Terminal 1 and Terminal 2. as well as the Songjiang tram network within the Songjiang Region, a suburb west of Shanghai downtown, in 2020.
An agreement had been signed between Keolis and Hubei Government, Keolis will be responsible for Greater Wuhan area's suburban railway operation. Keolis Danmark is the second biggest bus operator in Denmark with 500 buses and 1.500 employees, Keolis entered the Danish market in 1999 when they bought 49% of the Danish bus operator City-Trafik in 2007 City-Trafik became a wholly owned subsidiary of Keolis, in 2014 City-Trafik surprised the Danish bus industry when they announced their plans to merger with Nettbuss Danish subsidiary in a joint venture where Keolis owned 75% and Nettbuss 25%, until the merger was accepted by the Danish authorities the former City-Trafik was named Keolis Bus Danmark and the former Nettbuss Danmark was named Keolis Danmark the Danish authorities accepted the merger in late 2014 and in 2015 both the companies were merged into Keolis Danmark
Victoria, British Columbia
Victoria is the capital city of the Canadian province of British Columbia, located on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific coast. The city has a population of 85,792, while the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria has a population of 367,770, making it the 15th most populous Canadian metropolitan area. Victoria is the 7th most densely populated city in Canada with 4,405.8 people per square kilometre, a greater population density than Toronto. Victoria is the southernmost major city in Western Canada, is about 100 kilometres from British Columbia's largest city of Vancouver on the mainland; the city is about 100 km from Seattle by airplane, ferry, or the Victoria Clipper passenger-only ferry which operates daily, year round between Seattle and Victoria, 40 kilometres from Port Angeles, Washington, by ferry Coho across the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Named after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and, at the time, British North America, Victoria is one of the oldest cities in the Pacific Northwest, with British settlement beginning in 1843.
The city has retained a large number of its historic buildings, in particular its two most famous landmarks, Parliament Buildings and the Empress hotel. The city's Chinatown is the second oldest in North America after San Francisco's; the region's Coast Salish First Nations peoples established communities in the area long before non-native settlement several thousand years earlier, which had large populations at the time of European exploration. Known as "The Garden City", Victoria is an attractive city and a popular tourism destination with a thriving technology sector that has risen to be its largest revenue-generating private industry. Victoria is according to Numbeo; the city has a large non-local student population, who come to attend the University of Victoria, Camosun College, Royal Roads University, the Victoria College of Art, the Canadian College of Performing Arts, high school programs run by the region's three school districts. Victoria is popular with boaters with its rugged beaches.
Victoria is popular with retirees, who come to enjoy the temperate and snow-free climate of the area as well as the relaxed pace of the city. Prior to the arrival of European navigators in the late 1700s, the Victoria area was home to several communities of Coast Salish peoples, including the Songhees; the Spanish and British took up the exploration of the northwest coast, beginning with the visits of Juan Pérez in 1774, of James Cook in 1778. Although the Victoria area of the Strait of Juan de Fuca was not penetrated until 1790, Spanish sailors visited Esquimalt Harbour in 1790, 1791, 1792. In 1841 James Douglas was charged with the duty of setting up a trading post on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, upon the recommendation by George Simpson a new more northerly post be built in case Fort Vancouver fell into American hands. Douglas founded Fort Victoria on the site of present-day Victoria in anticipation of the outcome of the Oregon Treaty in 1846, extending the British North America/United States border along the 49th parallel from the Rockies to the Strait of Georgia.
Erected in 1843 as a Hudson's Bay Company trading post on a site called Camosun known as "Fort Albert", the settlement was renamed Fort Victoria in November 1843, in honour of Queen Victoria. The Songhees established a village across the harbour from the fort; the Songhees' village was moved north of Esquimalt. The crown colony was established in 1849. Between the years 1850-1854 a series of treaty agreements known as the Douglas Treaties were made with indigenous communities to purchase certain plots of land in exchange for goods; these agreements contributed to a town being laid out on the site and made the capital of the colony, though controversy has followed about the ethical negotiation and upholding of rights by the colonial government. The superintendent of the fort, Chief Factor James Douglas was made the second governor of the Vancouver Island Colony, would be the leading figure in the early development of the city until his retirement in 1864; when news of the discovery of gold on the British Columbia mainland reached San Francisco in 1858, Victoria became the port, supply base, outfitting centre for miners on their way to the Fraser Canyon gold fields, mushrooming from a population of 300 to over 5000 within a few days.
Victoria was incorporated as a city in 1862. In 1865, the North Pacific home of the Royal Navy was established in Esquimalt and today is Canada's Pacific coast naval base. In 1866 when the island was politically united with the mainland, Victoria was designated the capital of the new united colony instead of New Westminster – an unpopular move on the Mainland – and became the provincial capital when British Columbia joined the Canadian Confederation in 1871. In the latter half of the 19th century, the Port of Victoria became one of North America's largest importers of opium, serving the opium trade from Hong Kong and distribution into North America. Opium trade was legal and unregulated until 1865 the legislature issued licences and levied duties on its import and sale; the opium trade was banned in 1908. In 1886, with the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway terminus on Burrard Inlet, Victoria's position as the commercial centre of British Columbia was irrevocably lost to the city of Vancouver, British Columbia.
The city subsequently began culti
Taxicabs of New York City
In New York City, taxicabs come in two varieties: yellow and green. Taxis painted yellow are able to pick up passengers anywhere in the five boroughs; those painted apple green, which began to appear in August 2013, are allowed to pick up passengers in Upper Manhattan, the Bronx, Brooklyn and Staten Island. Both types have the same fare structure. Taxicabs are operated by private companies and licensed by the New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission, it oversees over 40,000 other for-hire vehicles, including "black cars", commuter vans and ambulettes. Taxicab vehicles, each of which must have a medallion to operate, are driven an average of 180 miles per shift; as of March 14, 2014, there were 51,398 individuals licensed to drive medallion taxicabs. There were 13,605 taxicab medallion licenses in existence. By July 2016, that number had dropped to 13,587 medallions, or 18 lower than the 2014 total. Taxi patronage has declined since 2011 due to competition from rideshare services; the medallion system was created in 1937 as a government imposed limitation on the supply of taxicabs, requiring that a "medallion" be purchased for the right to operate a taxi.
Thereafter, New York did not sell any medallions until 1996, when it auctioned more than 2,000. The lack of new medallions resulted in such a shortage that by 2014 they were selling for more than $1 million each, with about 14,000 medallions in existence. Since the increase in rideshare vehicles, which numbered about 63,000 in 2015 and 100,000 by August 2018, has drastically reduced the market price of medallions; as of September 2012, there are around 7,990 hybrid taxi vehicles, representing 59% of the taxis in service—the most in any city in North America. The Nissan NV200 won the city's bid to become the "Taxi of Tomorrow" to replace most of the city's taxi fleet, with its introduction scheduled for October 2012; this decision has faced several lawsuits and criticism, with the NV200 subject to comparisons with more cost-effective and adopted models. As of March 14, 2014, 6,000 Street Hail Livery permits have been issued, 20% of which must be used with wheelchair-accessible vehicles, with 4,478 Street Hail Livery vehicles in use by that time.
All types of taxis are licensed by the New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission, which oversees for-hire vehicles, commuter vans, paratransit vehicles. The iconic taxicabs come in two colors; the apple green taxis, which are called street hail livery vehicles or "boro taxis," operate only outside the Manhattan central business district, excluding John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport; these taxis started operating in August 2013, with 18,000 licenses being added in three waves of 6,000. The yellow "medallion" taxicabs can pick up anywhere in the city, numbered 13,437 licenses in 2014; the TLC oversees over 100,000 for-hire vehicles, including "black cars". Black cars can not be hailed on the street; these businesses use luxury cars such as a Lincoln Town Car due to their almost-exclusively business clientele, drivers ordinarily get less than 10% of their income in cash. There were around 500 base stations for black cars, comprising a total fleet of 25,000 vehicles, as of the 2014 TLC Factbook.
Livery cars are used by a greater range of people. There were 80 livery bases and 10,000 livery vehicles in 2014. Commuter vans carry more people between 9 and 20 passengers per trip. Commuter van licenses were held by 50 entities, which collectively owned 500 vehicles, in 2014. Luxury limousine providers and private paratransit companies numbered 200 each in 2014, collectively chartering 7,000 luxury limousine vehicles and 2,000 paratransit vehicles. In 2015, there were 14,000 for-hire vehicles associated with one of four ride-sharing companies: Juno, Lyft and Via. By 2018, over 80,000 such vehicles were associated with one of the four companies; the average hourly gross income for a medallion driver in 2015 was $30.41, not including tips, according to the 2016 TLC Factbook. Boro taxi drivers made $20.63 excluding tips. Evening hours are more lucrative. Medallion Taxis make between 300,000 and 400,000 trips a day, while Green Taxis, which hit the road in New York City in 2013, do 50,000 daily on average.
While the TLC does not regulate specific shifts, the morning shift for a medallion taxi begins at 6:30 a.m. and the evening shift starts at 5:15 p.m.. Trips peak Friday evenings for medallion cabs, Saturday night for Green Taxis. There were about 143,674 taxis and for-hire vehicles licensed by the TLC in 2015, according to the 2016 Factbook; these include 13,587 Medallion Taxicabs. Passengers in New York City can arrange rides using smartphone apps in yellow medallion taxicabs, Boro cabs, for-hire vehicles; each type of TLC-licensed vehicle has its own set of guidelines in regards to app usage, the TLC has adopted new rules that codify these standards. Any companies that want to operate point-to-point for-hire service within the five boroughs, whether through an app or a phone call, need a TLC license to operate, they must work only with TLC-licensed drivers and vehicles. TLC-licensed drivers self-reported 167 different countries as their place of birth in the 2000 U
Louisville is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the 29th most-populous city in the United States. It is one of two cities in Kentucky designated as first-class, the other being Lexington, the state's second-largest city. Louisville is the historical seat and, since 2003, the nominal seat of Jefferson County, located in the northern region of the state, on the border with Indiana. Louisville, named for King Louis XVI of France, was founded in 1778 by George Rogers Clark, making it one of the oldest cities west of the Appalachian Mountains. Sited beside the Falls of the Ohio, the only major obstruction to river traffic between the upper Ohio River and the Gulf of Mexico, the settlement first grew as a portage site, it was the founding city of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, which grew into a 6,000-mile system across 13 states. Today, the city is known as the home of legendary boxer Muhammad Ali, the Kentucky Derby, Kentucky Fried Chicken, the University of Louisville and its Louisville Cardinals athletic teams, Louisville Slugger baseball bats, three of Kentucky's six Fortune 500 companies, being Humana, Kindred Healthcare and Yum!
Brands. Its main airport is the site of United Parcel Service's worldwide air hub. Since 2003, Louisville's borders have been the same as those of Jefferson County, after a city-county merger; the official name of this consolidated city-county government is the Louisville/Jefferson County Metro Government, abbreviated to Louisville Metro. Despite the merger and renaming, the term "Jefferson County" continues to be used in some contexts in reference to Louisville Metro including the incorporated cities outside the "balance" which make up Louisville proper; the city's total consolidated population as of the 2017 census estimate was 771,158. However, the balance total of 621,349 excludes other incorporated places and semiautonomous towns within the county and is the population listed in most sources and national rankings; the Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area, sometimes referred to as Kentuckiana, includes Louisville-Jefferson County and 12 surrounding counties, seven in Kentucky and five in Southern Indiana.
As of 2017, the MSA had a population of 1,293,953. The history of Louisville spans hundreds of years, has been influenced by the area's geography and location; the rapids at the Falls of the Ohio created a barrier to river travel, as a result, settlements grew up at this stopping point. The first European settlement in the vicinity of modern-day Louisville was on Corn Island in 1778 by Col. George Rogers Clark, credited as the founder of Louisville. Several landmarks in the community are named after him. Two years in 1780, the Virginia General Assembly approved the town charter of Louisville; the city was named in honor of King Louis XVI of France, whose soldiers were aiding Americans in the Revolutionary War. Early residents lived in forts to protect themselves from Indian raids, but moved out by the late 1780s. In 1803, explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark organized their expedition across America in the town of Clarksville, Indiana at the present-day Falls of the Ohio opposite Louisville, Kentucky.
The city's early growth was influenced by the fact that river boats had to be unloaded and moved downriver before reaching the falls. By 1828, the population had grown to 7,000 and Louisville became an incorporated city. Early Louisville was slaves worked in a variety of associated trades; the city was a point of escape for slaves to the north, as Indiana was a free state. During this point in the 1850s, the city was growing and vibrant, but that came with negativity, it was the center of planning, supplies and transportation for numerous campaigns in the Western Theater. By the year 1855, ethnic tension was arising. Nobody knew. On August 6, 1855 "Bloody Monday" happened. By 1861, the civil war broke out. During the Civil War, Louisville was a major stronghold of Union forces, which kept Kentucky in the Union. By the end of the war, Louisville had not been attacked, although skirmishes and battles, including the battles of Perryville and Corydon, took place nearby. After Reconstruction, returning Confederate veterans took political control of the city, leading to the jibe that Louisville joined the Confederacy after the war was over.
The first Kentucky Derby was held on May 1875, at the Louisville Jockey Club track. The Derby was shepherded by Meriwether Lewis Clark, Jr. the grandson of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, grandnephew of the city's founder George Rogers Clark. Horse racing had a strong tradition in Kentucky, whose Inner Bluegrass Region had been a center of breeding high-quality livestock throughout the 19th century. Ten thousand spectators watched the first Derby. On March 27, 1890, the city was devastated and its downtown nearly destroyed when an F4 tornado tore through as part of the middle Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak. An estimated 74 to 120 people were killed and 200 were injured; the damage cost the city $2.5 million. In 1914, the City of Louisville passed a racially-based zoning residential zoning code, following Baltimore, a handful of cities in the Carolinas; the NAACP challenged the ordinance in two cases. Two weeks after the ordinance enacted, an African-American named Arthur Harris moved into a house on a block designated for whites.
He was found guilty. The second case was planned to create a test case. William Warley, the president of the local chapter
A limousine is a luxury vehicle driven by a chauffeur with a partition between the driver's compartment and the passenger's compartment. A car with a partition and a lengthened wheelbase is called a "stretch limousine". In some countries, a "limousine service" is a pre-booked hire car with driver, regardless of the type of vehicle. In German-speaking countries, a Limousine is a sedan, while a lengthened-wheelbase car is called Stretch-Limousine; the word limousine is derived from the name of the French region Limousin. A particular type of carriage hood or roof physically resembled the raised hood of the cloak worn by the shepherds there. An alternate etymology has the chauffeur wearing a Limousin-style cloak in the open driver's compartment, for protection from the weather; the name was extended to this particular type of car with a permanent top projecting over the chauffeur. Rich owners of expensive carriages and their passengers were accustomed to their own private compartment leaving their coachman or driver outside in all weathers.
When automobiles arrived the same people required a similar arrangement for their chauffeurs. As such, the 1916 definition of limousine by the US Society of Automobile Engineers is "a closed car seating three to five inside, with driver's seat outside". In Great Britain, the limousine de-ville was a version of the limousine town car where the driver's compartment was outside and had no weather protection; the limousine-landaulet variant had a removable or folding roof section over the rear passenger seat.. In the United States, sub-categories of limousines in 1916 were the berline defined as "a limousine having the driver's seat enclosed", the brougham, defined as "a limousine with no roof over the driver's seat." The limousine body style has a partition separating the driver from the rear passenger compartment. This partition includes a openable glass section so passengers may see the road. Communication with the driver is possible either by opening the window in the partition or by using an intercom system.
Limousines are long-wheelbase vehicles, in order to provide extra legroom in the passenger compartment. There will be occasional or jump seat at the front of the compartment. Stretch limousines are longer than normal limousines in order to accommodate more passengers. Stretch limousines may have seating along the sides of the cabin. A "stretch limousine" was created in Fort Smith, around 1928 by a coach company named Armbruster. Armbruster's cars were used to transport famous "big band" leaders, such as Glenn Miller and Benny Goodman, their bands and equipment; these early stretch limousines were called "big band buses". Armbruster called their lengthened cars "extended-wheelbase multi-door auto-coaches", their 12-passenger people movers were used by hotels, airlines and tour companies. A variety of vehicles have been converted into novelty limousines, they are used for weddings and other social occasions. Another style of novelty limousine are those painted in bright colours, such as pink. Vehicles converted into novelty stretch limousines include the East German Trabant, Volkswagen Beetle, Fiat Panda, Citroën 2CV.
There are instances of Corvettes and Mini Coopers being stretched to accommodate up to 10 passengers. The last production limousine, by Cadillac, with forward-facing jump seats was in 1987, the last Packard in 1954, the last Lincoln in 1939, though Lincoln has offered limousines through their dealers as special order vehicles at times. Several Lincoln Premier cars were built, one being owned by Elvis Presley. Vehicles of this type in private use may contain expensive audio players, video players, bars with refrigerators; the President of the United States has ridden in a variety of types of limousine stretching back to 1899. In the United States the most popular vehicles for stretch limousines conversion are the Lincoln Town Car, Cadillac XTS, Cadillac Escalade, Chrysler 300, Hummer H2, Ford Excursion, the Lincoln Navigator. Due to the partition behind the driver, the London black cabs are a type of limousine; the jump seats referred to as taxi-tip-seats carry advertising on the underside. Limousines produced by vehicle manufacturers include: Cadillac One‡ Cadillac XTS Limousine Chrysler 300 Limousine Great Wall Hover π FAW Hongqi Limousine Hyundai Equus Limousine IKCO Samand Sarir Lincoln MKS Limousine Lincoln MKT Livery Lincoln Navigator L Lincoln Town Car Limousine Mitsubishi Dignity SsangYong Chairman W Limousine Toyota Century Royal‡ Aurus Senat Limousine‡ Proton Perdana Limousine‡ Proton chancellor‡‡ = Only available for government customers In the U.
S. Canada and Australia, "limousine service" is the process of pre-booked hire of any car with a driver; the car is a luxury car, but not a limousine. The difference between a limousine service and a taxi service is that limousines are pre-booked and cannot be hired on the spot. Car classification Chauffeur Luxury vehicle Official state car Party bus