A totem is a spirit being, sacred object, or symbol that serves as an emblem of a group of people, such as a family, lineage, or tribe. While the term totem is derived from the North American Ojibwe language, belief in tutelary spirits and deities is not limited to indigenous peoples of the Americas but common to a number of cultures worldwide. However, the traditional people of those cultures have words for their guardian spirits in their own languages, do not call these spirits or symbols "totems". Contemporary neoshamanic, New Age, mythopoetic men's movements not otherwise involved in the practice of a tribal religion have been known to use "totem" terminology for the personal identification with a tutelary spirit or guide, however this is seen by the originating cultures as cultural misappropriation. Totem poles of the Pacific Northwest of North America are monumental poles of heraldry, they feature many different designs that function as crests of chiefs. They commemorate special occasions.
These stories are known to be read from the bottom of the pole to the top. The spiritual, mutual relationships between Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders and the natural world are described as totems. Many Indigenous groups object to using the imported Ojibwe term "totem" to describe a pre-existing and independent practice, although others use the term; the term "token" has replaced "totem" in some areas. In some cases, such as the Yuin of coastal New South Wales, a person may have multiple totems of different types; the lakinyeri or clans of the Ngarrindjeri were each associated with one or two plant or animal totems, called ngaitji. Totems are sometimes attached to moiety relations. Torres Strait Islanders have auguds translated as totems. An augud could be a kai mugina augud. Early anthropologists sometimes attributed Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander totemism to ignorance about procreation, with the entrance of an ancestral spirit individual into the woman believed to be the cause of pregnancy.
James George Frazer in Totemism and Exogamy wrote that Aboriginal people "have no idea of procreation as being directly associated with sexual intercourse, believe that children can be born without this taking place". Frazer's thesis has been criticised by other anthropologists, including Alfred Radcliffe-Brown in Nature in 1938. Totemism is a belief associated with animistic religions; the totem is an animal or other natural figure that spiritually represents a group of related people such as a clan. Early anthropologists and ethnologists like James George Frazer, Alfred Cort Haddon, John Ferguson McLennan and W. H. R. Rivers identified totemism as a shared practice across indigenous groups in unconnected parts of the world reflecting a stage of human development. Scottish ethnologist John Ferguson McLennan, following the vogue of 19th-century research, addressed totemism in a broad perspective in his study The Worship of Animals and Plants. McLennan did not seek to explain the specific origin of the totemistic phenomenon but sought to indicate that all of the human race had, in ancient times, gone through a totemistic stage.
Another Scottish scholar, Andrew Lang, early in the 20th century, advocated a nominalistic explanation of totemism, that local groups or clans, in selecting a totemistic name from the realm of nature, were reacting to a need to be differentiated. If the origin of the name was forgotten, Lang argued, there followed a mystical relationship between the object — from which the name was once derived — and the groups that bore these names. Through nature myths and natural objects were considered as the relatives, patrons, or ancestors of the respective social units. British anthropologist Sir James George Frazer published Totemism and Exogamy in 1910, a four-volume work based on his research among Indigenous peoples of Australia and Melanesia, along with a compilation of the work of other writers in the field. By 1910, the idea of totemism as having common properties across cultures was being challenged, with Russian American ethnologist Alexander Goldenweiser subjecting totemistic phenomena to sharp criticism.
Goldenweiser compared Indigenous Australians and First Nations in British Columbia to show that the shared qualities of totemism - exogamy, descent from the totem, ceremony, guardian spirits and secret societies and art - were expressed differently between Australia and British Columbia, between different peoples in Australia and between different peoples in British Columbia. He expands his analysis to other groups to show that they share some of the customs associated with totemism, without having totems, he concludes by offering two general definitions of totemism, one of which is: "Totemism is the tendency of definite social units to become associated with objects and symbols of emotional value". The founder of a French school of sociology, Émile Durkheim, examined totemism from a sociological and theological point of view, attempting to discover a pure religion in ancient forms and claimed to see the origin of religion in totemism; the leading representative of British social anthropology, A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, took a different view of totemism.
Like Franz Boas, he was skeptical. In this he opposed the other pioneer of social anthropology in England, Bronisław Malino
Chen Shou, courtesy name Chengzuo, was an official and writer who lived during the Three Kingdoms period and Jin dynasty of China. He started his career as an official in the state of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era but was demoted and sent out of the capital for his refusal to fawn on Huang Hao, an influential court eunuch in Shu in its twilight years. After the fall of Shu in 263, Chen Shou's career entered a period of stagnation before Zhang Hua recommended him to serve in the Jin government, he held scribal and secretarial positions under the Jin government before dying from illness in 297. He had over 200 writings -- -- attributed to him. Chen Shou's most celebrated work, the Records of the Three Kingdoms, which records the history of the late Eastern Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period in the form of biographies of notable persons of those eras, is part of the Twenty-Four Histories canon of Chinese history. Despite his achievements, Chen Shou's life was marred by disgraceful incidents, including his making of false accusations against another official and the controversies surrounding his writing of the Sanguozhi.
There are two biographies of Chen Shou. The first one is in the Book of Jin, written by Fang Xuanling and others in the seventh century during the Tang dynasty; the second one is in the Chronicles of Huayang, written by Chang Qu in the fourth century during the Eastern Jin dynasty. Chen Shou was from Anhan County, Baxi Commandery, in present-day Nanchong, Sichuan, he was known for being studious since he was young and was described as intelligent and knowledgeable. He was mentored by the Shu official Qiao Zhou, from Baxi Commandery. Under Qiao Zhou's tutelage, he read the Classic of History and Three Commentaries on the Spring and Autumn Annals, he was well versed in the Records of the Grand Historian and Book of Han. According to the Jin Shu, Chen Shou served as a guange lingshi in Shu. However, the Huayang Guozhi mentioned that he held the following appointments consecutively: Registrar of the General of the Guards. In the final years of Shu, many officials fawned on Huang Hao, an influential court eunuch, in their bid to win his favour.
Chen Shou's refusal to engage in such flattering and obsequious behaviour took a toll on his career: He was demoted on several occasions and sent out of the Shu capital, Chengdu. After the fall of Shu in 263, Chen Shou's career entered a period of stagnation until Zhang Hua recommended him to serve in the government of the Jin dynasty. Zhang Hua appreciated Chen Shou's talent and felt that though Chen did not have an untarnished reputation, he did not deserve to be demoted and dismissed while he was in Shu. Chen Shou was recommended as a xiaolian, appointed as a zuo zhuzuo lang and the acting Prefect of Yangping County. In 274, he collected and compiled the writings of Zhuge Liang, the first chancellor of Shu, submitted them to the Jin imperial court, he was appointed as the zhongzheng of Baxi Commandery. The Huayang Guozhi mentioned that he served as the Chancellor to the Marquis of Pingyang; when Zhang Hua recommended Chen Shou to serve as a Gentleman Palace Writer, the Ministry of Personnel appointed Chen Shou as the Administrator of Changguang Commandery instead on the recommendation of Xun Xu.
The Jin Shu mentioned that Xun Xu detested Zhang Hua and disliked Chen Shou for his association with Zhang Hua, so he urged the Ministry of Personnel to reassign Chen Shou to another position. Chen Shou declined the appointment on the grounds; the Huayang Guozhi gave a different account of Chen Shou's relationship with Xun Xu. It stated that Xun Xu and Zhang Hua were pleased with Chen Shou's Sanguozhi and they remarked that Chen Shou surpassed Ban Gu and Sima Qian; however Xun Xu was displeased by the Wei Shu – one of the three sections in the Sanguozhi – and did not want Chen Shou to work in the same office as him, so he had Chen Shou reassigned to be the Administrator of Changguang. In 278, before the general Du Yu assumed his appointment as the commander of the Jin military forces in Jing Province, he recommended Chen Shou to Emperor Wu and stated that Chen Shou was capable of serving as a Gentleman of the Yellow Gate or Gentleman of Scattered Cavalry. Emperor Wu appointed Chen Shou as a yushi zhishu.
The Jin Shu mentioned that Chen Shou took a leave of absence when his mother died, he fulfilled her dying wish to be buried in Luoyang. However, he ended up being castigated and demoted because his act of burying his mother in Luoyang – instead of in his hometown in Anhan County – was a violation of the proprieties of his time; the Huayang Guozhi gave a varying account of the events: It was Chen Shou's stepmother who died. She did not want to be buried together with his father, so Chen Shou buried her in Luoyang. According to the Jin Shu, many years after his demotion, Chen Shou was appointed as a zhongshuzi to the crown prince Sima Yu, but he did not assume his role, he died of illness at the age of 65 in 297 during the reign of Emperor Hui. The Huayang Guozhi gave a different account of the events before Chen Shou's death, it stated that Chen Shou was appointed as a zhongshuzi to Sima Yu, but was reassigned to be a Regu
Baekje was a kingdom located in southwestern Korea. It was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, together with Silla. Baekje was founded at Wiryeseong. Baekje, like Goguryeo, claimed to succeed Buyeo, a state established in present-day Manchuria around the time of Gojoseon's fall. Baekje alternately battled and allied with Goguryeo and Silla as the three kingdoms expanded control over the peninsula. At its peak in the 4th century, Baekje controlled most of the western Korean peninsula, as far north as Pyongyang, may have held territories in China, such as in Liaoxi, though this view is controversial, it became a significant regional sea power, with political and trade relations with Japan. Baekje was a great maritime power. In 660 it was defeated, by an alliance of Silla and the Chinese Tang Dynasty, submitted to Unified Silla. Baekje was founded in 18 BC by King Onjo, who led a group of people from Goguryeo south to the Han River basin. According to the Chinese Records of the Three Kingdoms, during the Samhan period, one of the chiefdoms of the Mahan confederacy was called Baekje.
The Samguk Sagi provides a detailed account of Baekje's founding. Jumong had left his son Yuri in Buyeo when he left that kingdom to establish the new kingdom of Goguryeo. Jumong became Divine King Dongmyeong, had two more sons with So Seo-no, Onjo and Biryu; when Yuri arrived in Goguryeo, Jumong promptly made him the crown prince. Realizing Yuri would become the next king, So Seo-no left Goguryeo, taking her two sons Biryu and Onjo south to found their own kingdoms with their people, along with ten vassals, she is remembered as a key figure in the founding of both Baekje. Onjo settled in Wiryeseong, called his country Sipje, while Biryu settled in Michuhol, against the vassals' advice; the salty water and marshes in Michuhol made settlement difficult, while the people of Wiryeseong lived prosperously. Biryu went to his brother Onjo, asking for the throne of Sipje; when Onjo refused, Biryu lost. In shame, Biryu committed suicide, his people moved to Wiryeseong, where King Onjo welcomed them and renamed his country Baekje.
King Onjo moved the capital from the south to the north of the Han river, south again all within present Seoul, under pressure from other Mahan states. King Gaeru is believed to have moved the capital north of the river to Bukhansanseong in 132 in present-day Goyang to the northwest of Seoul. Through the early centuries of the Common Era, sometimes called the Proto–Three Kingdoms Period, Baekje gained control over the other Mahan tribes. During the reign of King Goi, Baekje became a full-fledged kingdom, as it continued consolidating the Mahan confederacy. In 249, according to the ancient Japanese text Nihonshoki, Baekje's expansion reached the Gaya confederacy to its east, around the Nakdong River valley. Baekje is first described in Chinese records as a kingdom in 345; the first diplomatic missions from Baekje reached Japan around 367. King Geunchogo expanded Baekje's territory to the north through war against Goguryeo, while annexing the remaining Mahan societies in the south. During Geunchogo's reign, the territories of Baekje included most of the western Korean Peninsula, in 371, Baekje defeated Goguryeo at Pyongyang.
Baekje continued substantial trade with Goguryeo, adopted Chinese culture and technology. Buddhism became the official state religion in 384. Baekje became a sea power and continued mutual goodwill relationships with the Japanese rulers of the Kofun period, transmitting continental cultural influences to Japan; the Chinese writing system, advanced pottery, ceremonial burial, other aspects of culture were introduced by aristocrats, artisans and monks throughout their relationship. During this period, the Han River basin remained the heartland of the country. In the 5th century, Baekje retreated under the southward military threat of Goguryeo, in 475, the Seoul region fell to Goguryeo. Baekje's capital was located at Ungjin from 475 to 538. Isolated in mountainous terrain, the new capital was secure against the north but disconnected from the outside world, it was closer to Silla than Wiryeseong had been, a military alliance was forged between Silla and Baekje against Goguryeo. Most maps of the Three Kingdoms period show Baekje occupying the Chungcheong and Jeolla provinces, the core of the country in the Ungjin and Sabi periods.
In 538, King Seong moved the capital to Sabi, rebuilt his kingdom into a strong state. From this time, the official name of the country was Nambuyeo, a reference to Buyeo to which Baekje traced its origins; the Sabi Period witnessed the flowering of Baekje culture, alongside the growth of Buddhism. Under pressure from Goguryeo to the north and Silla to the east, Seong sought to strengthen Baekje's relationship with China; the location of Sabi, on the navigable Geum River, made contact with China much easier, both trade and diplomacy flourished during his reign and continuing on into the 7th century. In the 7th century, with the growing influence of Silla in the southern and central Korean peninsula, Baekje began its decline. In 660, the coalition troops of Silla and Tang of China attacked Ba
Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province. Governed as a prefecture-level city, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the east, Pingdingshan to the southeast, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia to the west, Jiyuan to the north, Jiaozuo to the northeast; as of the final 2010 census, Luoyang had a population of 6,549,941 inhabitants with 1,857,003 people living in the built-up area made of the city's five urban districts, all of which except the Jili District are not urbanized yet. Situated on the central plain of China, Luoyang is one of the cradles of Chinese civilization, is one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China; the name "Luoyang" originates from sunny side of the Luo River. Since the river flows from west to east and the sun is to the south of the river, the sun always shines on the north side of the river. Luoyang has had several names over the centuries, including "Luoyi" and "Luozhou", though Luoyang has been its primary name.
It has been called, during various periods, "Dongdu", "Xijing", or "Jingluo". During the rule of Wu Zetian, the city was known as Shendu The greater Luoyang area has been sacred ground since the late Neolithic period; this area at the intersection of the Luo river and Yi River was considered to be the geographical center of China. Because of this sacred aspect, several cities – all of which are referred to as "Luoyang" – have been built in this area. In 2070 BC, the Xia dynasty king Tai Kang moved the Xia capital to the intersection of the Luo and Yi and named the city Zhenxun. In 1600 BC, Tang of Shang defeated Jie, the final Xia dynasty king, built Western Bo, a new capital on the Luo River; the ruins of Western Bo are located in Luoyang Prefecture. In the 1036 BC a settlement named Chengzhou was constructed by the Duke of Zhou for the remnants of the captured Shang nobility; the Duke moved the Nine Tripod Cauldrons to Chengzhou from the Zhou dynasty capital at Haojing. A second Western Zhou capital, Wangcheng was built 15 km west of Chengzhou.
Wangcheng became the capital of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty in 771 BC. The Eastern Zhou Dynasty capital was moved to Chengzhou in 510 BC; the Eastern Han Dynasty capital of Luoyang would be built over Chengzhou. Modern Luoyang is built over the ruins of Wangcheng, which are still visible today at Wangcheng Park. In 25 AD, Luoyang was declared the capital of the Eastern Han Dynasty on November 27 by Emperor Guangwu of Han. For several centuries, Luoyang was the focal point of China. In AD 68, the White Horse Temple, the first Buddhist temple in China, was founded in Luoyang; the temple still exists, though the architecture is of origin from the 16th century. An Shigao was one of the first monks to popularize Buddhism in Luoyang; the ambassador Banchao restored the Silk Road in Eastern Han dynasty and this has made the capital city Luoyang the start of Silk Road In 166 AD, the first Roman mission, sent by "the king of Da Qin, Andun", reached Luoyang after arriving by sea in Rinan Commandery in what is now central Vietnam.
The late 2nd century saw China decline into anarchy: The decline was accelerated by the rebellion of the Yellow Turbans, although defeated by the Imperial troops in 184 AD, weakened the state to the point where there was a continuing series of rebellions degenerating into civil war, culminating in the burning of the Han capital of Luoyang on 24 September 189 AD. This was followed by a state of continual unrest and wars in China until a modicum of stability returned in the 220s, but with the establishment of three separate kingdoms, rather than a unified empire. In 190 AD, Chancellor Dong Zhuo ordered his soldiers to ransack and raze the city as he retreated from the coalition set up against him by regional lords all across China; the court was subsequently moved to the more defensible western city of Chang'an. Following a period of disorder, during which warlord Cao Cao held the last Han emperor Xian in Xuchang, Luoyang was restored to prominence when his son Cao Pi, Emperor Wen of the Wei dynasty, declared it his capital in 220 AD.
The Jin dynasty, successor to Wei, was established in Luoyang. When Jin was overrun by Xiongnu forces in 311 AD, it was forced to move its capital to Jiankang; the Xiongnu warriors sacked and nearly destroyed Luoyang. The same fate befell Chang'an in 316 AD. In winter 416, Luoyang fell to Liu Yu's general Tan Daoji. In 422, Luoyang was captured by Northern Wei. Liu Song general Dao Yanzhi took the city back. In 493 AD, Emperor Xiaowen of the Northern Wei dynasty moved the capital from Datong to Luoyang and started the construction of the rock-cut Longmen Grottoes. More than 30,000 Buddhist statues from the time of this dynasty have been found in the caves. Many of these sculptures were two-faced. At the same time, the Shaolin Temple was built by the Emperor to accommodate an Indian monk on the Mont Song right next to Luoyang City; the Yongning Temple, the tallest pagoda in China, was built in Luoyang. When Emperor Yang of Sui took control in 604 AD he founded the new Luoyang on the site of the existing city using a layout inspired by his father Emperor Wen of Sui's work in newly rebuilt Chang'an.
During the Tang dynasty, Luoyang was Dongdu, the "Eastern Capital", at its height had a population of around one million, second only to Chang'an, which, at the t
History of Korea
The Lower Paleolithic era in the Korean Peninsula and Manchuria began half a million years ago. The earliest known Korean pottery dates to around 8000 BCE, the Neolithic period began after 6000 BCE, followed by the Bronze Age by 2000 BCE, the Iron Age around 700 BCE. According to the mythic account recounted in the Samguk yusa, the Gojoseon kingdom was founded in northern Korea and southern Manchuria in 2333 BCE; the Gija Joseon state was purportedly founded in 12th century BCE. Its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era, seen as mythology; the first written historical record on Gojoseon can be found from the early 7th century BCE. The Jin state was formed in southern Korea by the 3rd century BCE. In the 2nd century BCE, Gija Joseon was replaced by Wiman Joseon, which fell to the Han dynasty of China near the end of the century; this resulted in the fall of Gojoseon and led to succeeding warring states, the Proto–Three Kingdoms period that spanned the Iron Age. From the 1st century, Goguryeo and Silla grew to control the peninsula and Manchuria as the Three Kingdoms of Korea, until unification by Silla in 676.
In 698, Go of Balhae established the Kingdom of Balhae in old territories of Goguryeo, which led to the North–South States Period of Balhae and Silla coexisting. In the late 9th century, Silla was divided into the Later Three Kingdoms, which ended with the unification by Wang Geon's Goryeo dynasty. Meanwhile, Balhae fell after invasions by the Khitan Liao dynasty and the refugees including the last crown prince emigrated to Goryeo, where the crown prince was warmly welcomed and included into the ruling family by Wang Geon, thus unifying the two successor states of Goguryeo. During the Goryeo period, laws were codified, a civil service system was introduced, culture influenced by Buddhism flourished. However, Mongol invasions in the 13th century brought Goryeo under its influence until the mid-14th century. In 1392, General Yi Seong-gye established the Joseon dynasty after a coup d'état that overthrew the Goryeo dynasty in 1388. King Sejong the Great implemented numerous administrative, social and economic reforms, established royal authority in the early years of the dynasty, is attributed with creating Hangul, the Korean alphabet.
After enjoying a period of peace for nearly two centuries, the Joseon dynasty faced foreign invasions and internal factional strife from 1592 to 1637. Most notable of these invasions is the Japanese invasions of Korea, which marked the end of the Joseon dynasty's early period; the combined force of Ming dynasty of China and the Joseon dynasty repelled these Japanese invasions, but at cost to the countries. Henceforth, Joseon became more and more isolationist and stagnant. By the mid 19th century, with the country unwilling to modernize, under encroachment of European powers, Joseon Korea was forced to sign unequal treaties with foreign powers. After the assassination of Empress Myeongseong in 1895, the Donghak Peasant Revolution, the Gabo Reforms of 1894 to 1896, the Korean Empire came into existence, heralding a brief but rapid period of social reform and modernization. However, in 1905, the Korean Empire signed a protectorate treaty and in 1910, Japan annexed the Korean Empire. Korean resistance manifested in the widespread nonviolent March 1st Movement of 1919.
Thereafter the resistance movements, coordinated by the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in exile, became active in neighboring Manchuria and Siberia, influenced by Korea's peaceful demonstrations. Figures from these exile organizations would become important in post-WWII Korea. After the end of World War II in 1945, the Allies divided the country into a northern area and a southern area. In 1948, when the powers failed to agree on the formation of a single government, this partition became the modern states of North and South Korea; the peninsula was divided at the 38th Parallel: the "Republic of Korea" was created in the south, with the backing of the US and Western Europe, the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea" in the north, with the backing of the Soviets and the communist People's Republic of China. The new premier of North Korea, Kim il-Sung, launched the Korean War in 1950 in an attempt to reunify the country under Communist rule. After immense material and human destruction, the conflict ended with a cease-fire in 1953.
In 2018, the two nations agreed to work toward a final settlement to formally end the Korean War. In 1991, both states were accepted into the United Nations. While both countries were under military rule after the war, South Korea liberalized. Since 1987 it has had a competitive electoral system; the South Korean economy has prospered, the country is now considered to be developed, with a similar capital economic standing to Western Europe and the United States. North Korea has maintained a militarized dictatorship rule, with a cult of personality constructed around the Kim family. Economically, North Korea has remained dependent on foreign aid. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, that aid fell precipitously; the country's economic situation has been quite marginal since. No fossil proven to be Homo erectus has been found in the Korean Peninsula, though a candidate has been reported. Tool-making artifacts from the Palaeolithic period have been found in present-day North Hamgyong, South Pyongan and north and south Chungcheong Provinces of Korea, which dates the Paleolithic Age to half a million years ago, though it may have begun as late as 400,000 years ago or as early as 600,000–700,000
The Korean Peninsula is located in East Asia. It extends southwards for about 1,100 km from continental Asia into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Sea of Japan to the east and the Yellow Sea to the west, the Korea Strait connecting the two bodies of water; the peninsula's names, in Korean and Japanese, all share the same origin, that being Joseon, the old name of Korea under the Joseon Dynasty and Gojoseon longer before that. In North Korea's standard language, the peninsula is called Chosŏn Pando, while in China, as well as in Singapore and Malaysia it is called Cháoxiǎn Bàndǎo. In Japan, it is either Chōsenhantō or Kanhantō. In Vietnam, it is called Bán đảo Triều Tiên. Meanwhile, in South Korea, it is called Hanbando, referring to the Samhan the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula, they both use "Korea" as part of their official English names, a name that comes from the Goryeo dynasty. Until the end of World War II, Korea was a single political entity whose territory coincided with the Korean Peninsula.
In August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Imperial Japan, as a result of an agreement with the United States, liberated Korea north of the 38th parallel. U. S. forces subsequently moved into the south. By 1948, as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea was divided into two regions, with separate governments. Both claimed to be the legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—moved into the south on 25 June 1950. Since the Armistice Agreement ended the Korean War in 1953, the northern section of the peninsula has been governed by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, while the southern portion has been governed by the Republic of Korea; the northern boundaries for the Korean Peninsula are taken to coincide with today's political borders between North Korea and its northern neighbors and Russia. These borders are formed by the rivers Amnok and Duman.
Taking this definition, the Korean Peninsula has an area of 220,847 km2. The Korean Peninsula has a temperate climate with comparatively fewer typhoons than other countries in East Asia. Due to the peninsula's position, it has a unique climate influenced from Siberia in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the east and the rest of Eurasia in the west; the peninsula has four distinct seasons: spring, summer and winter. As influence from Siberia weakens, temperatures begin to increase while the high pressure begins to move away. If the weather is abnormally dry, Siberia will have more influence on the peninsula leading to wintry weather such as snow. During June at the start of the summer, there tends to be a lot of rain due to the cold and wet air from the Sea of Okhotsk and the hot and humid air from the Pacific Ocean combining; when these fronts combine, it leads to a so-called rainy season with cloudy days with rain, sometimes heavy. The hot and humid winds from the south west blow causing an increasing amount of humidity and this leads to the fronts moving towards Manchuria in China and thus there is less rain and this is known as midsummer.
High pressure is dominant during autumn leading to clear conditions. Furthermore, temperatures remain high but the humidity becomes low; the weather becomes dominated by Siberia during winter and the jet stream moves further south causing a drop in temperature. This season is dry with some snow falling at times. Temperatures can drop to -20 °C in the mountainous areas; the Korean Peninsula is located in East Asia. To the northwest, the Amnok River separates the peninsula from China and to the northeast, the Duman River separates it from China and Russia; the peninsula is surrounded by the Yellow Sea to the west, the East China Sea and Korea Strait to the south, the Sea of Japan to the east. Notable islands include Ulleung Island, Dokdo; the southern and western parts of the peninsula have well-developed plains, while the eastern and northern parts are mountainous. The highest mountain in Korea is Mount Paektu; the southern extension of Mount Paektu is a highland called Gaema Heights. This highland was raised during the Cenozoic orogeny and covered by volcanic matter.
To the south of Gaema Gowon, successive high mountains are located along the eastern coast of the peninsula. This mountain range is named Baekdudaegan; some significant mountains include Mount Sobaek or Sobaeksan, Mount Kumgang, Mount Seorak, Mount Taebaek, Mount Jiri. There are several lower, secondary mountain series whose direction is perpendicular to that of Baekdudaegan, they are developed along the tectonic line of Mesozoic orogeny and their directions are northwest. Unlike most ancient mountains on the mainland, many important islands in Korea were formed by volcanic activity in the Cenozoic orogeny. Jeju Island, situated off the southern coast, is a large volcanic island whose main mountain Mount Halla or Hallasan is the highest in South Korea. Ulleung Island is a volcanic island in the Sea of