The Associated Press is a U. S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a unincorporated association, its members are U. S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its practices; the AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917. The AP has counted the vote in U. S. elections since 1848, including national and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish and town across the U. S. and declares winners in over 5,000 contests. The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English and Arabic. AP content is available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher; as of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters.
The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative; as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.
The Associated Press was formed in May 1846 by five daily newspapers in New York City to share the cost of transmitting news of the Mexican–American War. The venture was organized by Moses Yale Beach, second publisher of The Sun, joined by the New York Herald, the New York Courier and Enquirer, The Journal of Commerce, the New York Evening Express; some historians believe. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851. Known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. An investigation completed in 1892 by Victor Lawson and publisher of the Chicago Daily News, revealed that several principals of the NYAP had entered into a secret agreement with United Press, a rival organization, to share NYAP news and the profits of reselling it; the revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, the Western Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois as The Associated Press.
A 1900 Illinois Supreme Court decision —that the AP was a public utility and operating in restraint of trade—resulted in AP's move from Chicago to New York City, where corporation laws were more favorable to cooperatives. When the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity; the invention of the rotary press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour. During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, on-the-spot reporting. Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921, he embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity. The cooperative grew under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East, he introduced the "telegraph typewriter" or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914. In 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken.
This gave AP a major advantage over other news media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco AP had its network across the whole United States. In 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. United States that the AP had been violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by prohibiting member newspapers from selling or providing news to nonmember organizations as well as making it difficult for nonmember newspapers to join the AP; the decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. AP entered the broadcast field in 1941. In 1994, it established a global video newsgathering agency. APTV merged with WorldWide Television News in 1998 to form APTN, which provides video to international broadcasters and websites. In 2004, AP moved its world headquarters from its longtime home at 50 Rockefeller Plaza to a huge building at 450 West 33rd Street in Manhattan—which houses the New York Daily News and the studios of New York's public television station, WNET.
In 2009, AP had more than 240 bureaus globally. Its mission—"to gather with economy and efficiency an accurate and impartial report of the news"—has not changed since its founding, but digital technology has made the distribution of the AP news report an interact
1992 Summer Olympics
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Spain from July 25 to August 9, 1992. Beginning in 1994, the International Olympic Committee decided to hold the games in alternating even-numbered years; the games were the first to be unaffected by boycotts since 1972 and the first summer games since the end of the Cold War. The Unified Team topped the medal table, winning 112 overall medals. Barcelona is the second-largest city in Spain, the hometown of then-IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch; the city was a host for the 1982 FIFA World Cup. On October 17, 1986, Barcelona was selected to host the 1992 Summer Games over Amsterdam, The Netherlands. With 85 out of 89 members of the IOC voting by secret ballot, Barcelona won a majority of 47 votes. Samaranch abstained from voting. In the same IOC meeting, France, won the right to host the 1992 Winter Games. Barcelona had bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics, but they lost to Berlin.
At the Opening Ceremony Greek mezzo-soprano Agnes Baltsa sang "Romiossini" as the Olympic flag was paraded around the stadium. Alfredo Kraus sang the Olympic Hymn in both Catalan and Spanish as the flag was hoisted; the Olympic flame cauldron was lit by a flaming arrow, shot by Paralympic archer Antonio Rebollo. The arrow had been lit by the flame of the Olympic Torch. Rebollo shot above the cauldron; the arrow landed outside the stadium. This was the original design of the lighting scheme, to avoid any chance that the arrow would land in the stadium if Rebollo missed his target. South Africa was allowed to compete in the Olympic Games for the first time since the 1960 Summer Olympics, after a long suspension for its apartheid policy. After a close race in the Women's 10,000 metres event, white South African runner Elana Meyer and black Ethiopian runner Derartu Tulu ran a victory lap together, hand-in-hand. Following its reunification in 1990, Germany sent a single, unified Olympic team for the first time since the 1964 Summer Olympics.
As the Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991, the Baltic nations of Estonia and Lithuania, sent their own teams for the first time since 1936. Other former Soviet republics preferred to compete as the Unified Team; this team consisted of present-day Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The team finished first in the medal standings; the separation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia led to the Olympic debuts of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Due to United Nations sanctions, athletes from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia were not allowed to participate with their own team. However, some individual athletes competed under the Olympic flag as Independent Olympic Participants. In basketball, the admittance of NBA players led to the formation of the "Dream Team" of the United States, featuring Michael Jordan, Magic Johnson, Larry Bird and other NBA stars. Prior to 1992, only European and South American professionals were allowed to compete, while the Americans used college players.
The Dream Team won the gold medal and was inducted as a unit into the Basketball Hall of Fame in 2010. Fermín Cacho won the 1,500 metres in his home country, earning Spain's first-ever Olympic gold medal in a running event. Chinese diver Fu Mingxia, age 13, became one of the youngest Olympic gold medalists of all time. In men's artistic gymnastics, Vitaly Scherbo from Belarus, won six gold medals, including four in a single day. Scherbo tied Eric Heiden's record for individual gold medals at a single Olympics, winning five medals in an individual event. In women's artistic gymnastics, Tatiana Gutsu took gold in the All-Around competition edging the United States' Shannon Miller. Russian swimmers dominated the men’s freestyle events, with Alexander Popov and Yevgeny Sadovyi each winning two events. Sadovyi won in the relays. Evelyn Ashford won her fourth Olympic gold medal in the 4×100-metre relay, making her one of only four female athletes to have achieved this in history; the young Krisztina Egerszegi of Hungary won three individual swimming gold medals.
In women's 200 metre breaststroke, Kyoko Iwasaki of Japan won a gold medal at age of 14 years and six days, making her the youngest-ever gold medalist in swimming competitions at the Olympics. Algerian athlete Hassiba Boulmerka, criticized by Muslim groups in Algeria who thought she showed too much of her body when racing, received death threats and was forced to move to Europe to train, won the 1,500 metres holding the African women's record in this distance. After being demonstrated in six previous Summer Olympic Games, baseball became an Olympic sport. Badminton and women's judo became part of the Olympic program, while slalom canoeing returned to the Games after a 20-year absence. Roller hockey, Basque pelota, taekwondo were all demonstrated at the 1992 Summer Olympics. Several of the U. S. men's volleyball gold medal team from the 1988 Olympics returned to vie for another medal. In the preliminary round, they lost a controversial match to Japan, sparking them to shave their heads in protest.
This notably included player Steve
Doping in sport
In competitive sports, doping is the use of banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs by athletic competitors. The term doping is used by organizations that regulate sporting competitions; the use of drugs to enhance performance is considered unethical, therefore prohibited, by most international sports organizations, including the International Olympic Committee. Furthermore, athletes taking explicit measures to evade detection exacerbates the ethical violation with overt deception and cheating. Speaking, the origins of doping in sports go back to the creation of sport itself. From ancient usage of substances in chariot racing to more recent controversies in baseball and cycling, popular views among athletes have varied from country to country over the years; the general trend among authorities and sporting organizations over the past several decades has been to regulate the use of drugs in sport. The reasons for the ban are the health risks of performance-enhancing drugs, the equality of opportunity for athletes, the exemplary effect of drug-free sport for the public.
Anti-doping authorities state that using performance-enhancing drugs goes against the "spirit of sport". The use of drugs in sports goes back centuries, about all the way back to the invention of the concept of sports. In ancient times, when the fittest of a nation were selected as athletes or combatants, they were fed diets and given treatments considered beneficial to help increase muscle. For instance, Scandinavian mythology says Berserkers could drink a mixture called "butotens", to increase their physical power at the risk of insanity. One theory is that the mixture was prepared from the Amanita muscaria mushroom, though this has been disputed; the ancient Olympics in Greece have been alleged to have had forms of doping. In ancient Rome, where chariot racing had become a huge part of their culture, athletes drank herbal infusions to strengthen them before chariot races. More a participant in an endurance walking race in Britain, Abraham Wood, said in 1807 that he had used laudanum to keep him awake for 24 hours while competing against Robert Barclay Allardyce.
By April 1877, walking races had stretched to 500 miles and the following year at the Agricultural Hall in Islington, London, to 520 miles. The Illustrated London News chided: It may be an advantage to know that a man can travel 520 miles in 138 hours, manage to live through a week with an infinitesimal amount of rest, though we fail to perceive that anyone could be placed in a position where his ability in this respect would be of any use to him what is to be gained by a constant repetition of the fact; the event proved popular, with 20,000 spectators attending each day. Encouraged, the promoters soon held similar races for cyclists. "...and much more to endure their miseries publicly. That's much more fun"; the fascination with six-day bicycle races spread across the Atlantic and the same appeal brought in the crowds in America as well. And the more spectators paid at the gate, the higher the prizes could be and the greater was the incentive of riders to stay awake—or be kept awake—to ride the greatest distance.
Their exhaustion was countered by helpers akin to seconds in boxing. Among the treatments they supplied was nitroglycerine, a drug used to stimulate the heart after cardiac attacks and, credited with improving riders' breathing. Riders suffered hallucinations from the exhaustion and the drugs; the American champion Major Taylor refused to continue the New York race, saying: "I cannot go on with safety, for there is a man chasing me around the ring with a knife in his hand."Public reaction turned against such trials, whether individual races or in teams of two. One report said: An athletic contest in which the participants'go queer' in their heads, strain their powers until their faces become hideous with the tortures that rack them, is not sport, it is brutality, it appears from the reports of this singular performance that some of the bicycle riders have become temporarily insane during the contest... Days and weeks of recuperation will be needed to put the racers in condition, it is that some of them will never recover from the strain.
The father of anabolic steroids in the United States was John Ziegler, a physician for the U. S. weightlifting team in the mid-20th century. In 1954, on his tour to Vienna with his team for the world championship, Ziegler learned from his Russian colleague that the Soviet weightlifting team's success was due to their use of testosterone as a performance-enhancing drug. Deciding that U. S. athletes needed chemical assistance to remain competitive, Ziegler worked with the CIBA Pharmaceutical Company to develop an oral anabolic steroid. This resulted in the creation of methandrostenolone, which appeared on the market in 1960. During the Olympics that year, the Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen collapsed and died while competing in the 100-kilometer race. An autopsy revealed the presence of amphetamines and a drug called nicotinyl tartrate in his system; the American specialist in doping, Max M. Novich, wrote: "Trainers of the old school who supplied treatments which had cocaine as their base declared with assurance that a rider tired by a six-day race would get his second breath after absorbing these mixtures."
John Hoberman, a professor at the University of Texas in Austin, said six-day races were "de facto experiments investigating the physiology of stress as well as the substances that might all
Michael Johnson (sprinter)
Michael Duane Johnson is a retired American sprinter. In the span of his career, he won four Olympic gold medals and eight World Championships gold medals, he held the world and Olympic records in the 200 m and 400 m, as well as the world record in the indoor 400 m. He once held the world's best time in the 300 m. Johnson is considered one of the greatest and most consistent sprinters in the history of track and field. Johnson is the only male athlete in history to win both the 200 metres and 400 metres events at the same Olympics, a feat he accomplished at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta. Johnson is the only man to defend his Olympic title in the 400 m, having done so at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. Aside from his Olympic success, Johnson accumulated eight gold medals at the World Championships, is thus tied with Carl Lewis for the second most gold medals won by a runner. Johnson's stiff upright running position and short steps defied the conventional wisdom that a high knee lift was necessary for maximum speed.
As of 2012, Johnson holds 13 of the top 100 times for the 200 metres and 27 of the top 100 times for the 400 metres. Of those, he holds 14 of the top 25 times for the 400 metres, he broke 44 seconds for the 400 metres twenty-two times, more than twice as many times as any other athlete. Johnson holds the national records for the 200, 300 and 400 metres; the 4 x 400 metres relay world record was anchored by Johnson. In 1991 at the World Championships in Tokyo, Johnson won his first world title by winning the 200 m race by the unusual margin of victory of 0.33 of a second over Frankie Fredericks. Two weeks before the 1992 Summer Olympics began and his agent both contracted food poisoning at a restaurant in Spain. Johnson lost both strength, he was the favorite to win the 200 m going into the Olympics, but he could do no better than sixth in his semifinal heat, failed to reach the 200 m final by 0.16 seconds. He was able to race as a member of the 4 × 400 m relay team, which won a gold medal and set a new world record time of 2:55.74.
Johnson ran his leg in a time of 44.73. He won the 1993 U. S. title in the 400 m, followed it with world titles in both the 400 m and 4 × 400 m relay. His 42.91 second split time in the 4 × 400 m relay remains the fastest 400 metres in history. At the 1995 World Championships in Gothenburg, Johnson won his first 200 m and 400 m "double". No elite-level male track athlete had accomplished this in a major meet in the 20th century. At the end he made it a "triple" by adding another title in the 4 × 400 m relay. In June 1996, aged 29 years 9 months, Johnson ran 19.66 seconds in the 200 m at the U. S. Olympic Trials, breaking Pietro Mennea's record of 19.72 seconds, which had stood for nearly 17 years. With that performance he qualified to run at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta and prepared to attempt to win both the 200 metres and 400 metres events, a feat never before achieved by a male athlete. Johnson entered the Olympic finals donning a custom-designed pair of golden-colored Nike racing spikes made with Zytel, causing him to be nicknamed "The Man With the Golden Shoes".
Sources differ on the exact weight of these shoes. The left shoe was a US size 10.5 while the right shoe was a US size 11, to account for Johnson's shorter left foot. On July 29, Johnson captured the 400 m Olympic title with an Olympic Record time of 43.49 seconds, 0.92 seconds ahead of silver medalist Roger Black of Great Britain. At the 200 m final on August 1, Johnson ran the opening 100 metres in 10.12 seconds and finished the race in a world record time of 19.32 seconds, breaking by more than three tenths of a second the previous record he had set in the U. S. Olympic Trials, on the same track one month earlier—the largest improvement on a 200 m world record; some commentators compared the performance to Bob Beamon's record-shattering long jump at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City. During the race, Johnson strapped his leg, which prevented him from winning his third gold medal of the Olympics in the 4 × 400 m relay as Team USA went on to win the gold without him. After the 1996 season ended, Johnson received the James E. Sullivan Award as the top amateur athlete in any sport in the United States, was named ABC's Wide World of Sports Athlete of the Year.
In August, HarperCollins published his biographical/motivational book, Slaying the Dragon: How to Turn Your Small Steps to Great Feats. Johnson's clocking of 19.32s en route to breaking the 200 metre world record at the 1996 Olympics led some in the United States to consider him the fastest man in the world. In 1997 Johnson began appearing in Nike television advertisements in which he was billed as "World's fastest man" as a result of his 200 m world record; this was despite the fact that the 100 metres world record holder, at the time Donovan Bailey, was given that unofficial title. In a much hyped competition in June 1997, he raced against Bailey in a 150-metre race at the SkyDome in Toronto; the event was unsanctioned, its unique course consisted of 75 metres of curved track and a 75-metre straight. The race was billed as a competition for the title of "World's Fastest Man". However, Johnson failed to live up to expectations when he pulled up around the 100 metre mark, having injured his hamstring.
Bailey won the race and the $1.5 million prize that came with the vi
Marion Lois Jones known as Marion Jones-Thompson, is an American former world champion track and field athlete and a former professional basketball player for Tulsa Shock in the WNBA. She won three gold medals and two bronze medals at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, but was stripped of the medals after admitting to steroid use. Jones did retain her three titles as a world champion from 1997 and 1999. At the time of her admission and subsequent guilty plea, Jones was one of the most famous athletes to be linked to the BALCO scandal; the case against BALCO covered more than 20 top level athletes, including Jones's ex-husband, shot putter C. J. Hunter, 100 m sprinter Tim Montgomery, the father of Jones' first child. Marion Jones was born to his Belizean wife, Marion, in Los Angeles, California, she holds dual citizenship with the United States and Belize. Her parents split when she was young, Jones's mother remarried a retired postal worker, Ira Toler, three years later. Toler became a stay-at-home dad to Jones and her older half-brother, Albert Kelly, until his sudden death in 1987.
Jones turned to sports as an outlet for her grief. By the age of 15 she was dominating California high school athletics both on the track and the basketball court. Jones is a 1997 graduate of the University of North Carolina. While there, she met and began dating one of the track coaches, shot putter C. J. Hunter. Hunter voluntarily resigned his position at UNC to comply with the requirements of university rules prohibiting coach-athlete dating. Jones and Hunter were married October 3, 1998, trained for the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics. In the run-up to the 2000 Olympics, Jones declared that she intended to win gold medals in all five of her competition events at Sydney. Jones' husband, C. J. Hunter, had withdrawn from the shot-put competition for a knee injury, though he was allowed to keep his coaching credentials and attend the games to support his wife. However, just hours after Marion Jones won her first of the planned five golds, the International Olympic Committee announced that Hunter had failed four pre-Olympic drug tests, testing positive each time for the banned anabolic steroid nandrolone.
Hunter was suspended from taking any role at the Sydney games, he was ordered to surrender his on-field coaching credentials. At a press conference where Hunter broke down in tears, he denied taking any performance-enhancing drugs, much less the detected nandrolone; as late as 2004, Hunter was still denying the charges and was attempting to gain access to the results to see if they could be analyzed further. Jones would write in her autobiography, Marion Jones: Life in the Fast Lane, that Hunter's positive drug tests hurt their marriage and her image as a drug-free athlete; the couple divorced in 2002. On June 28, 2003, Jones gave birth to a son, Tim Montgomery Jr, with then-boyfriend Tim Montgomery, a world-class sprinter himself; because of her pregnancy, Jones missed the 2003 World Championships but spent a year preparing for the 2004 Olympics. Montgomery, who did not qualify for the 2004 Olympic Track and Field team for poor performance, was charged by the United States Anti-Doping Agency, as part of the investigation into the BALCO doping scandal, with receiving and using banned performance-enhancing drugs.
The USADA sought a four-year suspension for Montgomery. Montgomery fought the ban but lost the appeal on December 13, 2005, receiving a two-year ban from track and field competition. Montgomery announced his retirement; the investigation into Montgomery's illegal substance use once more called into question Jones' own protests about not using steroids and never having been tested positive for steroids in light of former trainer Trevor Graham's visible role in the BALCO case. On February 24, 2007, Jones married Barbadian sprinter and 2000 Olympic 100m bronze medalist Obadele Thompson, their first child together, a son named Ahmir, was born in June 2007. She gave birth to daughter Eva-Marie on June 28, 2009. In 2010, Jones released a book, On the Right Track: From Olympic Downfall to Finding Forgiveness and the Strength to Overcome and Succeed, published by Simon & Schuster. In high school, Jones won the CIF California State Meet in the 100 m sprint four years in a row, representing Rio Mesa the first two years and Thousand Oaks high school the last two.
She was defended by attorney Johnnie Cochran on charges of doping during her high school track career. She was selected the Gatorade Player of the Year for track and field three years in a row, once at Rio Mesa and twice at Thousand Oaks. Angela Burnham preceded her with the award at Rio Mesa, Kim Mortensen followed her with the award at Thousand Oaks; those schools joined Jesuit High School and Long Beach Polytechnic High School in having two athletes win the award. She was Track and Field News "High School Athlete of the Year" in 1991 and 1992, she was the third female athlete to achieve the title twice following Angela Burnham at Rio Mesa High School, the second to achieve the title twice. She w
BBC Online known as BBCi, is the BBC's online service. It is a large network of websites including such high-profile sites as BBC News and Sport, the on-demand video and radio services co-branded BBC iPlayer, the children's sites CBBC and CBeebies, learning services such as Bitesize; the BBC has had an online presence supporting its TV and radio programmes and web-only initiatives since 1994 but did not launch until December 1997, following government approval to fund it by TV licence fee revenue as a service in its own right. Throughout its short history, the online plans of the BBC have been subject to harassment from its commercial rivals, which has resulted in various public consultations and government reviews to investigate their claims that its large presence and public funding distorts the UK market; the website has gone through several branding changes. Named BBC Online, it was rebranded as BBCi before being named bbc.co.uk. It was renamed BBC Online again in 2008, however the service uses the branding "BBC".
The web-based service of the BBC is one of the most visited websites and the world's largest news website. As of 2007, it contained over two million pages. On 26 February 2010 The Times claimed that Mark Thompson Director General of the BBC, proposed that the BBC's web output should be cut by 50%, with online staff numbers and budgets reduced by 25% in a bid to scale back BBC operations and allow commercial rivals more room. On 2 March 2010, the BBC reported that it will cut its website spending by 25% and close BBC 6 Music and Asian Network. On 24 January 2011, the confirmed cuts of 25% were announced leaving a £34 million shortfall; this resulted in the closure of several sites, including BBC Switch, BBC Blast, 6-0-6, the announcement of plans to sell on the Douglas Adams created site h2g2. The service's original home was www.bbcnc.org.uk launched by BBC Education on 11 May 1994 as a non-profit paid subscription service. For a joining fee of £25 and a monthly subscription of £12, members of the club were given access to an early type of social networking site featuring a bulletin board for sharing information and real-time conversation, along with a dialup Internet connection service.
Within 12 months, the BBC offered "auntie" on-line discussion groups. The BBC Director General John Birt sought government approval to direct licence fee revenue into the service, describing planned BBC Internet services as the "third medium" joining the BBC's existing TV and Radio networks, achieving a change in the BBC Charter; this led to the official launch of BBC Online at the www.bbc.co.uk address in December 1997. As well as the licence fee funded www.bbc.co.uk, BBC Worldwide launched the commercially funded beeb.com, featuring entertainment focused content, with sites including Radio Times, Top Gear and Top of the Pops. BBC Online launched licence fee funded web sites for Top of the Pops and Top Gear, resulting in some duplication. Beeb.com was refocussed as an online shopping guide, was closed in 2002. Beeb.com redirected to the BBC Shop website, run by BBC Worldwide. In 1999, the BBC bought the www.bbc.com domain name for $375,000 owned by Boston Business Computing, but the price of this purchase was not revealed until 6 years later.
As of 2005, www.bbcnc.org.uk no longer exists. In 2001, BBC Online was rebranded as BBCi; the BBCi name was conceived as an umbrella brand for all the BBC's digital interactive services across web, digital teletext, interactive TV and on mobile platforms. The use of letter "i" prefixes and suffixes to denote information technology or interactivity was much in vogue at this time; as part of the rebrand, BBC website pages all displayed a standard navigation bar across the top of the screen, offering category-based navigation: Categories, TV, Communicate, Where I Live, A-Z Index and a search function. The navbar was designed to offer a similar navigation system to the i-bar on BBCi interactive television. After three years of consistent use across different platforms, the BBC began to drop the BBCi brand gradually. Interactive TV services continued under the BBCi brand until it was dropped in 2008; the BBC's online video player, the iPlayer has, retained an i-prefix in its branding. On 14 December 2007, a beta version of a new bbc.co.uk homepage was launched, with the ability to customise the page by adding and rearranging different categories, such as'News','Weather' and'Entertainment'.
The widget-based design was inspired by sites such as Facebook and iGoogle, allowed the BBC to add new content to the homepage while still retaining users' customisations. The new homepage incorporated the clock design used in the 1970s on the BBC's television service into the large header and a box containing featured content of the website; the new BBC homepage left beta on Wednesday, 27 February 2008 to serve as the new BBC Homepage under the same URL as the previous version. On 30 January 2010, a new webpage design became available as a beta version, that by May 2010, replaced the old homepage; this homepage expanded on the customisation theme. The website all