Shakshouka is a dish of eggs poached in a sauce of tomatoes, chili peppers, garlic spiced with cumin, cayenne pepper, nutmeg. Although the dish has existed in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions, its more recent egg and vegetable-based form originated in North Africa; the word "Shakshouka" means "a mixture" in Arabic slang in Tunisian Arabic. The word is derived from the Arabic verb شَكَّ translit. Shakka, meaning "stick together, clump together, adhere or cohere". Tomato-based stews were common throughout the Yemen, Ottoman Empire in Egypt, the Balkans and the Maghreb; these stews were called shakshouka in the Maghreb. The Ottoman dish şakşuka was a dish of cooked vegetables with minced meat or liver. Tomato and pepper were introduced to the dish and meatless variations evolved. Jewish communities in the Ottoman Maghreb served a parve vegetarian variation and Tunisian Jews were known for creating spicy versions of egg shakshouka; the exact origins of the dish are disputed. According to The Jewish Chronicle, some food historians believe the dish spread to Spain and the greater Middle East from Ottoman Turkey, while others think it originated in Morocco.
A third theory is that it hails from Yemen, where it is served with a hot green paste. Although the dish is not native to the Levant, it was brought to Israel by Tunisian Jews as part of the mass Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim lands, where it has become a staple due to large Tunisian and Moroccan communities. In Israel, shakshouka is made with eggs which are poached but can be scrambled like the Turkish menemen. Shakshouka is a quintessential meal of Arab cuisine and is traditionally served in a cast iron pan or tajine as in Morocco; some variations of shakshouka can be made with lamb mince, toasted whole spices and fresh herbs. Others may include salty cheeses such as feta. Spices can include ground coriander, paprika and cayenne pepper. In Israel, shakshouka is made with eggs which are poached but can be scrambled like the Turkish menemen. A 1979 Israeli cookbook Bishul la-Gever ha-Meshuhrar includes a recipe for "Lufgania Shakshuka"; this is shakshouka made with a kosher version of Spam, added to IDF army rations in the 1950s.
According to food writer Claudia Roden, Tunisian cooks added artichoke hearts and broad beans to the dish. Because eggs are the main ingredient, it is on breakfast menus, but in Israel, it is a popular evening meal, like hummus and falafel, is a national favorite. Huevos rancheros Menemen Galayet bandora
Kebabs are various cooked meat dishes, with their origins in Middle Eastern cuisine. Many variants are popular throughout Asia, around the world. In most English-speaking countries, a kebab is the internationally-known shish kebab or shashlik, though outside of North America a kebab may be the ubiquitous fast-food doner kebab or its variants. In contrast, in Indian English and in the languages of the Middle East, other parts of Asia, the Muslim world, a kebab is any of a wide variety of grilled meat dishes; some dishes derived from Middle Eastern kebab may have different names in their local languages, such as the Chinese chuanr. Although kebabs are cooked on a skewer, many types of kebab are not. Kebab dishes can consist of ground meat or seafood, sometimes with fruits and vegetables; the traditional meat for kebabs is most mutton or lamb, but regional recipes may include beef, chicken, fish, or more due to religious prohibitions, pork. Evidence of hominin use of fire and cooking in the Middle East dates back as far as 790,000 years, prehistoric hearths, earth ovens, burnt animal bones were spread across Europe and the Middle East by at least 250,000 years ago.
Excavations of the Minoan settlement of Akrotiri unearthed stone supports for skewers used before the 17th century BC. In ancient times, Homer in the Iliad mentions pieces of meat roasted on spits, the Mahabharata, an ancient Indian text mentions large pieces of meat roasted on spits. In Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq's 10th-century Baghdadi cookbook Kitab al-Tabikh, a compendium of much of the legacy of Mesopotamian and Arab cuisine, there are descriptions of kabāb as cut-up meat, either fried in a pan or grilled over a fire; the method of cooking smaller chunks or slices of meat on skewers has a long history in the region, where it would be practical in cities where small cuts of meat were available in butchers' shops, where fuel for cooking was scarce, compared to Europe, where extensive forests enabled farmers to roast large cuts of meat whole. Indeed, many cultures have dishes consisting of chunks of meat cooked over a fire on skewers, such as the anticucho, prepared in South America since long before contact with Europe and Asia.
However, while the word kebab or shish kebab may sometimes be used in English as a culinary term that refers to any type of small chunks of meat cooked on a skewer, kebab is associated with a diversity of meat dishes that originated in the medieval kitchens of Persia and Turkey. Though the word has ancient origins, it was popularized by Turks to refer to this range of grilled and broiled meat, which may be cooked on skewers, but as stews and other forms; this cuisine has spread in parallel with Muslim influence. According to Ibn Battuta, a Moroccan traveller, kebab was served in the royal houses during the Delhi Sultanate, commoners would enjoy it for breakfast with naan. Kebab dishes have been adopted and integrated with local cooking styles and innovations, from the now-ubiquitous doner kebab fast food, to the many variations of shish kebab, such as the satays of Southeast Asia; the word kebab came to English in the late 17th century from the Arabic kabāb through Urdu and Turkish. According to linguist Sevan Nişanyan, the Turkish word kebap is derived from the Arabic word kabāb, meaning roasted meat.
It appears in Turkish texts as early as the 14th century, in Kyssa-i Yusuf, though still in the Arabic form. Nişanyan states that the word has the equivalent meaning of "frying/burning" with "kabābu" in the old Akkadian language, "kbabā/כבבא" in Aramaic. In contrast, food historian Gil Marks says that the medieval Arabic and Turkish terms were adopted from the Persian kabab, which derived from the Aramaic; the American Heritage Dictionary gives a probable East Semitic root origin with the meaning of "burn", "char", or "roast", from the Aramaic and Akkadian. The Babylonian Talmud instructs; these words point to an origin in the prehistoric Proto-Afroasiatic language: *kab-, to burn or roast. Suya is a spicy kebab, a popular food item in West Africa, it is traditionally prepared by the Hausa people of northern Nigeria, Niger and some parts of Sudan. Kyinkyinga is popular in West Africa, it is a Ghanian dish similar to or synonymous with the Hausa suya kebab known as sooya, chichinga, tsire agashi, chachanga or tankora.
Sosatie is a traditional South African dish of meat cooked on skewers. The term derives from sate and saus, it is of Cape Malay origin. Sosatie recipes vary, but the ingredients can include cubes of lamb, chicken, dried apricots, red onions and mixed peppers. Afghan kebab is most found in restaurants and outdoor vendor stalls; the most used meat is lamb. Recipes differ with every restaurant. Afghan kebab is served with naan rice, customers have the option to sprinkle sumac or ghora, dried ground sour grapes, on their kebab; the quality of kebab is dependent on the quality of the meat. Pieces of fat from the sheep's tail are added with the lamb skewers to add extra flavor. Other popular kebabs include the lamb chop, beef and chicken, all of which are found in better restaurants. Chapli kebab, a specialty of Eastern Afghanistan, is a patty made from beef mince, it is a popula
Butter is a dairy product with high butterfat content, solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions, liquid when warmed. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk, it is used as a spread on plain or toasted bread products and a condiment on cooked vegetables, as well as in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, pan frying. Butter consists of butterfat, milk proteins and water, added salt. Most made from cow's milk, butter can be manufactured from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats and yaks. Salt and preservatives are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter, removing the water and milk solids, produces clarified butter or ghee, entirely butterfat. Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion resulting from an inversion of the cream, where the milk proteins are the emulsifiers. Butter remains a firm solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32 to 35 °C.
The density of butter is 911 grams per Litre. It has a pale yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white, its natural, unmodified color is dependent on the source animal's feed and genetics, but the commercial manufacturing process manipulates the color with food colorings like annatto or carotene. The word butter derives from the Latin butyrum, the latinisation of the Greek βούτυρον; this may be a compound of βοῦς, "ox, cow" + τυρός, "cheese", "cow-cheese". The word turos is attested in Mycenaean Greek; the unlatinized form is found in the name butyric acid, a compound found in rancid butter and dairy products such as Parmesan cheese. In general use, the term "butter" refers to the spread dairy product when unqualified by other descriptors; the word is used to describe puréed vegetable or seed and nut products such as peanut butter and almond butter. It is applied to spread fruit products such as apple butter. Fats such as cocoa butter and shea butter that remain solid at room temperature are known as "butters".
Non-dairy items that have a dairy-butter consistency may use "butter" to call that consistency to mind, including food items such as maple butter and witch's butter and nonfood items such as baby bottom butter, hyena butter, rock butter. Unhomogenized milk and cream contain butterfat in microscopic globules; these globules are surrounded by membranes made of phospholipids and proteins, which prevent the fat in milk from pooling together into a single mass. Butter is produced by agitating cream, which damages these membranes and allows the milk fats to conjoin, separating from the other parts of the cream. Variations in the production method will create butters with different consistencies due to the butterfat composition in the finished product. Butter contains fat in three separate forms: free butterfat, butterfat crystals, undamaged fat globules. In the finished product, different proportions of these forms result in different consistencies within the butter. Churning produces small butter grains floating in the water-based portion of the cream.
This watery liquid is called buttermilk—although the buttermilk most common today is instead a directly fermented skimmed milk. The buttermilk is drained off; the grains are "worked": pressed and kneaded together. When prepared manually, this is done using wooden boards called scotch hands; this consolidates the butter into a solid mass and breaks up embedded pockets of buttermilk or water into tiny droplets. Commercial butter is about 15 % water. Butterfat is a mixture of triglyceride, a triester derived from glycerol and three of any of several fatty acid groups. Butter becomes rancid when these chains break down into smaller components, like butyric acid and diacetyl; the density of butter is about the same as ice. In some countries, butter is given a grade before commercial distribution. Before modern factory butter making, cream was collected from several milkings and was therefore several days old and somewhat fermented by the time it was made into butter. Butter made from a fermented cream is known as cultured butter.
During fermentation, the cream sours as bacteria convert milk sugars into lactic acid. The fermentation process produces additional aroma compounds, including diacetyl, which makes for a fuller-flavored and more "buttery" tasting product. Today, cultured butter is made from pasteurized cream whose fermentation is produced by the introduction of Lactococcus and Leuconostoc bacteria. Another method for producing cultured butter, developed in the early 1970s, is to produce butter from fresh cream and incorporate bacterial cultures and lactic acid. Using this method, the cultured butter flavor grows. For manufacturers, this method is more efficient, since aging the cream used to make butter takes more space than storing the finished butter product. A method to make an artificial simulation of cultured butter is to add lactic acid and flavor compounds directly to the fresh-cream butter. Dairy products are pasteurized during production to kill pathogenic bacteria and other
Mughlai cuisine consists of dishes developed in Medieval India at the centres of the Mughal Empire. It represents a combination of South Asian cuisine with the cooking styles and recipes of Central Asian cuisine. Mughlai cuisine is influenced by the cuisine of Central Asia, the region where the early Turko-Mongol Mughal emperors hailed from, it has in turn influenced the regional cuisines of modern Northern India and Bangladesh; the tastes of Mughlai cuisine vary from mild to spicy, are associated with a distinctive aroma and the taste of ground and whole spices. A Mughlai course is an elaborate buffet of main course dishes with a variety of accompaniments. Although the ruling class and administrative elite of the Mughal Empire could variously identify themselves as Turani, Irani and Hindu Rajput, the empire itself was Indo-Persian, having a hybridized, pluralistic Persianate culture. Decorated Indo-Persian cookbooks and culinary manuscripts adorned the personal libraries of the Mughal elite, serving as both culinary guides and for aesthetic value.
One example was the Ni'matnama, a 15th century work illustrated with Persian miniatures. This was commissioned by Sultan Ghiyas Shah, a sultan of Malwa in modern-day Madhya Pradesh, features Central Asian dishes such as samosas, pilaf, sikh and yakhni, as well as western and southern Indian dishes, such as karhi and khandawi. From the Mughal period itself, one popular culinary work was the Nuskha-i-Shahjahani, a record of the dishes believed to be prepared for the court of Emperor Shahjahan; this Persian manuscript features ten chapters, on nānhā, āsh-hā, qalīyas and dopiyāzas, zerbiryāns, pulāʾo, kabābs, harīsas, shishrangas and ḵẖāgīnas, khichṛī. Another famous textbook was Ḵẖulāṣat-i Mākūlāt u Mashrūbāt dating to the era of the emperor Aurangzeb, while another was Alwān-i Niʿmat, a work dedicated to sweetmeats. Divya Narayanan writes:These include varieties of sweet breads such as nān ḵẖatā̤ʾī, sweet pūrīs, sweet samosas, laḍḍū and ḥalwā; the cookbook introduces each recipe with a line of praise: for instance saṃbosa-i yak tuhī dam dāda is declared as being ‘among the famous and well-known sweets.
There are many commonalities between Indo-Persian cookbooks used at the Mughal court and contemporary culinary works from Safavid Iran, such as the Kārnāma dar bāb-i T̤abāḵẖī wa ṣanʿat-i ān of Ḥājī Muḥammad ʿAlī Bāwarchī Bag̱ẖdādī. Dishes include: Haleem Tikkas Biryani Mughlai Paratha Qeema Matar Murg Kababs Mughlai Murgh Musallam Pasanda Rezala Falooda Gulab Jamun Jalebi Kesari Firni is a rice based sweet dish streaked with Saffron Shahi Tukra is a rich bread pudding with dry fruits, flavoured with cardamom. Sheer korma Karachi cuisine Mughlai Cook Book, Diamond Pocket Books, ISBN 81-7182-547-8 Nita Mehta's Vegetarian Mughlai Khaana By Nita Mehta, Published 1999 ISBN 81-86004-10-6 Mughlai By Amrita Patel Published 2004, Sterling Publishers, 160 pages ISBN 81-207-2646-4 Mughlai Recipes Mughal Emperors' Food
The tomato is the edible red, berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum known as a tomato plant. The species originated in western South America; the Nahuatl word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word tomate, from which the English word tomato derived. Its use as a cultivated food may have originated with the indigenous peoples of Mexico; the Spanish encountered the tomato from their contact with the Aztec during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and brought it to Europe. From there, the tomato was introduced to other parts of the European-colonized world during the 16th century; the tomato is consumed in diverse ways, raw or cooked, in many dishes, sauces and drinks. While tomatoes are fruits — botanically classified as berries — they are used as a vegetable ingredient or side dish. Numerous varieties of the tomato plant are grown in temperate climates across the world, with greenhouses allowing for the production of tomatoes throughout all seasons of the year. Tomato plants grow to 1–3 meters in height.
They are vines that have a weak stem that sprawls and needs support. Indeterminate tomato plants are cultivated as annuals. Determinate, or bush, plants are annuals that stop growing at a certain height and produce a crop all at once; the size of the tomato varies according to the cultivar, with a range of 0.5–4 inches in width. The word "tomato" comes from the Spanish tomate, which in turn comes from the Nahuatl word tomatl, meaning "the swelling fruit"; the native Mexican tomatillo is tomate. When Aztecs started to cultivate the Andean fruit to be larger and red, they called the new species xitomatl; the scientific species epithet lycopersicum is interpreted from Latin in the 1753 book, Species Plantarum, as "wolfpeach", where wolf is from lyco and peach is from persicum. The usual pronunciations of "tomato" are and; the word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" and have become a symbol for nitpicking pronunciation disputes.
In this capacity, it has become an American and British slang term: saying "" when presented with two choices can mean "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me". Botanically, a tomato is a fruit—a berry, consisting of the ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant. However, the tomato is considered a "culinary vegetable" because it has a much lower sugar content than culinary fruits. Tomatoes are not the only food source with this ambiguity; this has led to legal dispute in the United States. In 1887, U. S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables, but not on fruit, caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. The U. S. Supreme Court settled this controversy on May 10, 1893, by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable, based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use—they are served with dinner and not dessert; the holding of this case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff of 1883, the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purposes.
Tomato plants are vines decumbent growing 180 cm or more above the ground if supported, although erect bush varieties have been bred 100 cm tall or shorter. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials, dying annually in temperate climates, although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Determinate types are annual in all climates. Tomato plants are dicots, grow as a series of branching stems, with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing; when that tip stops growing, whether because of pruning or flowering, lateral buds take over and grow into other functional, vines. Tomato vines are pubescent, meaning covered with fine short hairs; these hairs facilitate the vining process, turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture if the vine's connection to its original root has been damaged or severed. Most tomato plants have compound leaves, are called regular leaf plants, but some cultivars have simple leaves known as potato leaf style because of their resemblance to that particular relative.
Of RL plants, there are variations, such as rugose leaves, which are grooved, variegated, angora leaves, which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves. The leaves are 10–25 cm long, odd pinnate, with five to 9 leaflets on petioles, each leaflet up to 8 cm long, with a serrated margin, their flowers, appearing on the apical meristem, have the anthers fused along the edges, forming a column surrounding the pistil's style. Flowers in domestic cultivars can be self-fertilizing; the flowers are 1–2 cm across, with five pointed lobes on the corolla. Tomato fruit is classified as a berry; as a true fruit, it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization, its flesh comprising
Ghee, is a class of clarified butter that originated in ancient India. It is used in Middle Eastern cuisine, cuisine of the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asian cuisine, traditional medicine, religious rituals. Ghee is prepared by simmering butter, churned from cream, skimming any impurities from the surface pouring and retaining the clear liquid fat while discarding the solid residue that has settled to the bottom. Spices can be added for flavor; the texture and taste of ghee depends on the quality of the butter, the milk source used in the process and the duration of time spent boiling. The word ghee comes from Sanskrit: घृत'clarified butter', from ghṛ-'to sprinkle'. Traditionally, ghee is always made from bovine milk, as cows are considered sacred, it is a sacred requirement in Vedic yajña and homa, through the medium of Agni to offer oblations to various deities.. Fire ritual have been performed dating back over 5,000 years, they are thought to be auspicious for ceremonies such as marriage, etc.
Ghee is necessary in Vedic worship of mūrtis, with aarti called diyā or dīpa and for Pañcāmṛta where ghee along with mishri, honey and dahi is used for bathing the deities on the appearance day of Krishna on Janmashtami, Śiva on Mahā-śivarātrī. There is a hymn to ghee. In the Mahabharata, the kaurava were born from pots of ghee. Finding ghee pure enough to use for sacred purposes is a problem these days for devout Hindus, since many large-scale producers add salt to their product. Ghee is used in bhang in order to heat the cannabis to cause decarboxylation, making the drink psychoactive. Ghee is common in cuisines including traditional rice preparations. In Maharashtra, polis or Indian breads are accompanied with ghee. For example,'Puranpoli', a typical Maharashtrian dish is eaten with lots of ghee. In Rajasthan, ghee accompanies baati. All over north India, ghee tops roti. In Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, ghee tops dosa, kesari bhath. In Bengal and Gujarat, khichdi is a traditional evening meal of rice with lentils, cooked in curry made from dahi, cumin seeds, curry leaves, turmeric, garlic and ghee.
It is an ingredient in kadhi and Indian sweets, such as Mysore pak and varieties of halva and laddu. Pakistani and Punjabi restaurants incorporate large amounts of ghee, sometimes brushing naan and roti with it, either during preparation or just before serving. In the state of Odisha ghee is used in regional Odia cusines such as'Khechedi' and'Dalma'; the satwik type of food prepared in temples in Odisha use a ghee as a major ingredient for their culnary skills. Ghee is used in South Indian cuisine for tempering curries, in preparation of rice dishes and sweets. South Indians have a habit of adding ghee to their rice before eating it with curries. South Indians are one of the biggest consumers of ghee; the people from Telangana and Andhra Pradesh use ghee for preparation of savoury and sweet dishes alike. Ghee is important to traditional Punjabi cuisine, with parathas and curries using ghee instead of oil for a richer taste; the type of ghee, in terms of animal source, tends to vary with the dish.
Ghee is an ideal fat for deep frying because its smoke point is 250 °C, well above typical cooking temperatures of around 200 °C and above that of most vegetable oils. The main flavor components of ghee are carbonyls, free fatty acids and alcohols. Along with the flavor of milk fat, the ripening of the butter and temperature at which it is clarified affect the flavor. For example, ghee produced by the clarification of butter at 100 °C or less results in a mild flavor, whereas batches produced at 120 °C produce a strong flavor. Ghee differs in its production; the process of creating traditional clarified butter is complete once the water is evaporated and the fat is separated from the milk solids. However, the production of ghee includes simmering the butter, which makes it nutty-tasting and aromatic. A traditional Ayurvedic recipe for ghee is to boil raw milk, let it cool to 110 °F. After letting it sit covered at room temperature for around 12 hours, add a bit of dahi to it and let it sit overnight.
This makes more yogurt. This is churned with water, to obtain cultured butter, used to simmer into ghee. Ayurveda considers pure ghee to be sattva-guṇi, when used as food, it is the main ingredient in some of the Ayurvedic medicines, is included under catuh mahā sneha along with sesame oil, muscle fat, bone marrow. Though eight types of ghee are mentioned in Ayurvedic classics, ghee made of human breast milk and cow's ghee are favored. Ghee is used in Ayurvedas for constipation and ulcers. In Sri Lankan indigenous medical traditions, ghee is included in pas tel. Like any clarified butter, ghee is composed entirely of fat, 62% of which consists of saturated fats, it is rich in oxidized cholesterol
Harees or Jareesh is a dish of boiled, cracked, or coarsely-ground wheat, mixed with meat. Its consistency varies between a dumpling. Harees is a popular dish known in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf in the month of Ramadan. Harees is derived from the verb which means to squash. Harees is documented in Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq's 10th-century cookbook Kitab Al Tabikh. as well as in al-Baghdadi's 13th-century cookbook Kitab Al Tabikh and ibn Razin al-Tujibi's 13th-century Andalusian cookbook Kitab Fadalat al-khiwan fi tayyibat al-ta'am w'al-alwan. Harees is the origin of Haleem; the wheat is soaked overnight simmered in water along with meat and butter or sheep tail fat. Any remaining liquid is strained and the mixture is beaten and seasoned. Harees may be garnished with cinnamon and clarified butter. There is a different traditional way of preparing Harees in each of the Arab countries in the Persian Gulf area, among the tribes of these countries, but there is a difference simple, optional in some countries.
For example, in Saudi Arabia, cardamom pods are added. It is decorated with parsley. Harees was only made by the wealthy during Ramadan and Eid, for the duration of a three- to seven-day wedding, it was, customary for the Harees dishes to be shared with poorer neighbours on such occasions. Harees is a popular dish in Arab cuisine, from the Levant to the Persian Gulf, it is served during Ramadan, festivals such as Eid ul-Fitr, at weddings. In Lebanese villages, it is cooked on religious occasions in a communal pot. Found only in homes, it is now served in restaurants as well. Arizah is traditionally served on Easter day, is considered the national dish of Armenia. Harees is a popular dish among the North Malabar Muslims of Kerala in Kannur District calls Alsa or Aleesa, it is regarded as one of the important Thalassery Cuisine and is the usual Mappila wedding dish across the Kannur District and at Mahe and Southern part of Kasargod District. It is known as Haleem. Hyderabad City being famous for Hyderabadi Haleem.
Harees is an essential part of Kashmiri cuisine. Harees is a typical Kashmiri winter cuisine made from mutton & rice flour and eaten with Kashmiri Bread called Girda. Kashmiri made this dish popular in Punjab; this dish is one of the unique dishes eaten in Pakistani part of Punjab as well. List of porridges