The som is the currency of the Kyrgyz Republic. The ISO 4217 currency code is KGS; the som is sub-divided into 100 tyiyn. After the collapse of the Soviet Union attempts were made by most republics to maintain a common currency. Certain politicians were hoping to at the least maintain "special relations" among former Soviet republics, or the "near abroad". Another reason were the economic considerations for maintaining the ruble zone; the wish to preserve the strong trade relations between former Soviet republics was considered the most important goal. The break-up of the Soviet Union was not accompanied by any formal changes in monetary arrangements; the Central Bank of Russia was authorized to take over the State Bank of the USSR on 1 January 1992. It continued to ship USSR ruble notes and coins to the central banks of the fourteen newly independent countries, the main branches of Gosbank in the republics; the political situation, was not favorable for maintaining a common currency. Maintaining a common currency requires a strong political consensus in respect to monetary and fiscal targets, a common institution in charge of implementing these targets, some minimum of common legislation.
These conditions were far from being met amidst the turbulent political situation. During the first half of 1992, a monetary union with 15 independent states all using the ruble existed. Since it was clear that the situation would not last, each of them was using its position as "free-riders" to issue huge amounts of money in the form of credit; as a result, some countries were issuing coupons in order to "protect" their markets from buyers from other states. The Russian central bank responded in July 1992 by setting up restrictions to the flow of credit between Russia and other states; the final collapse of the ruble zone began when Russia pulled out with the exchange of banknotes by the Central Bank of Russia on Russian territory at the end of July 1993. The som was introduced on May 1993, replacing the Soviet ruble at a rate of 1 som = 200 rubles. Only banknotes were issued, coins were not introduced until 2008. In the Soviet Union, speakers of Kazakh and Uzbek called the ruble the som, this name appeared written on the back of banknotes, among the texts for the value of the bill in all 15 official languages of the Union.
The word som means "pure" in Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Uzbek, as well as in many other Turkic languages. The word implies "pure gold"; the National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic 2017 approved an underlined С as the official currency symbol for the KGS. No Unicode currency symbol is registered, although it can be represented by the sequence С̲. Circulation coins were first introduced in January 2008, making Kyrgyzstan second to last of the former Soviet republics to issue them. Belarus became the last of the former Soviet republics that did not issue coins for general circulation until the July 1, 2016 revaluation of their currency; this move came with growing demand from vendors for coins from slot machine industries and those desiring a more efficient system for collecting fare money. The coins were issued in denominations of 10 and 50 tiyin made of brass-plated steel, 1, 3 and 5 som, made of nickel-plated steel. A nickel-plated steel 10 som coin was issued a year for 2009. All coins are minted by the Kazakhstan mint in Ust-Kamenogorsk and bear some resemblance to coins of the Russian Federation in their designs.
There are several commemorative non circulation coins made of silver and gold, a special collector's issue of brass 1 tyiyn coin. On 10 May 1993, the government issued 1, 10 and 50 tyiyn notes and the Kyrgyzstan Bank issued notes for 1, 5 and 20 som. In 1994, the Kyrgyz Bank issued a second series of notes in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 som. A third series followed from 1997 onwards in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 som. A fourth series was issued in 2009 and 2010 in denominations of 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 5000 som. Starting in 1997, a new series of banknotes was introduced with similar themes, but enhanced design, compared to the previous series. In January 2008 coins of 1 and 5 som and in December 2009 coins of 10 som where introduced; as a result, production of banknotes of these values ceased. The banknotes are instead being phased out. In January 2008 the Kyrgyz National Bank estimated that within 2 years the 1 and 5 som banknotes would have completely disappeared from circulation.
In 2009 the National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic issued a 5000 som note. New editions for 20, 50 and 100 som denominations followed. Among other things, these notes have enhanced security features compared to the previous series; the National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic issues commemorative currencies that not only commemorate local or international events that the Kyrgyz Republic is involved in, but highlights the culture and wildlife of the republic too. Several of these commemorative currencies have won international awards. Economy of Kyrgyzstan Biographies of the figures depicted on Kyrgyz bank notes from the Spektator magazine Coins of Kyrgyzstan at CISCoins.net
South Yemeni dinar
The dinar was the currency of South Arabia and South Yemen between 1965 and 1990. It was subdivided into 1000 fils. After Yemen's monetary unification on 1 July 1990, it was one of the two official currencies used in Yemen Republic until 11 June 1996; the dinar was introduced in 1965 as the South Arabian Dinar, replacing the East African shilling at a rate of 1 dinar = 20 shillings, thus setting the dinar equal to the British pound. It was renamed the South Yemeni dinar after the Aden Protectorate became independent in 1967 as the South Yemen; the South Yemeni dinar was replaced by the rial following unification with North Yemen. The exchange rate was 1 dinar = 26 rial. Dinar banknotes remained legal tender until 1996. For a wider history surrounding currency in the region, see The History of British Currency in the Middle East. In 1965, coins were introduced for South Arabia in denominations of 5, 25 and 50 fils; the 1 fils was struck in aluminium, the 5 fils in bronze and the higher two denominations in cupro-nickel.
In 1971, coins were issued in the name of "Democratic Yemen", changing to the "People's democratic Republic of Yemen" in 1973. That year, aluminium 2½ fils were introduced, followed by aluminium 10 fils and cupro-nickel 100 and 250 fils in 1981; the 10 fils was scalloped shaped. On 1 April 1965, the South Arabian Currency Authority introduced notes in denominations of 250 and 500 fils, as well as 1 and 5 dinars. A 10-dinar note was issued on 1 July 1967. In 1984, the Bank of Yemen introduced 500 fils as well as 1, 5 and 10 dinar notes that are like the preceding issues of South Arabia, except the English text and printer’s imprint have been removed from the front, the name of the issuer has changed and now appears on the back, along with the name of the capital
Dragon's blood is a bright red resin, obtained from different species of a number of distinct plant genera: Croton, Daemonorops, Calamus rotang and Pterocarpus. The red resin has been in continuous use since ancient times as varnish, medicine and dye. A great degree of confusion existed for the ancients in regard to the source and identity of dragon's blood; some medieval encyclopedias claimed its source as the literal blood of elephants and dragons who had perished in mortal combat. The resin of Dracaena species, "true" dragon's blood, the poisonous mineral cinnabar were confused by the ancient Romans. In ancient China, little or no distinction was made among the types of dragon's blood from the different species. Both Dracaena and Daemonorops resins are still marketed today as dragon's blood, with little or no distinction being made between the plant sources. Voyagers to the Canary Islands in the 15th century obtained dragon's blood as dried garnet-red drops from Dracaena draco, a tree native to the Canary Islands and Morocco.
The resin is exuded from branches. Dragon's blood is obtained by the same method from Dracaena cinnabari, endemic to the island of Socotra; this resin was traded to ancient Europe via the Incense Road. Dragon's blood resin is produced from the rattan palms of the genus Daemonorops of the Indonesian islands and known there as jerang or djerang, it is gathered by breaking off the layer of red resin encasing the unripe fruit of the rattan. The collected resin is rolled into solid balls before being sold; the red latex of the Sangre de Drago, aka Sangre de Grado, has purported wound-healing and antioxidant properties, has been used for centuries by native people. The dragon's blood known to the ancient Romans was collected from D. cinnabari, is mentioned in the 1st century Periplus as one of the products of Socotra. Socotra had been an important trading centre since at least the time of the Ptolemies. Dragon's blood was used as a dye, painting pigment, medicine in the Mediterranean basin, was held by early Greeks and Arabs to have medicinal properties.
Dioscorides and other early Greek writers described its medicinal uses. Locals of Moomy city on Socotra island use the Dracaena resin as a sort of cure-all, using it for such things as general wound healing, a coagulant, curing diarrhea, lowering fevers, dysentery diseases, taken internally for ulcers in the mouth, throat and stomach, as well as an antiviral for respiratory viruses, stomach viruses and for skin disorders such as eczema, it was used in medieval ritual magic and alchemy. Dragon's blood of both Dracaena draco and Dracaena cinnabari were used as a source of varnish for 18th century Italian violinmakers. There was an 18th-century recipe for toothpaste that contained dragon's blood. In modern times it is still used as a varnish for violins, in photoengraving, as an incense resin, as a body oil. Dragon's blood from both Daemonorops were used for ceremonies in India. Sometimes Dracaena resin, but more Daemonorops resin, was used in China as red varnish for wooden furniture, it was used to colour the surface of writing paper for banners and posters, used for weddings and for Chinese New Year.
In American Hoodoo, African-American folk magic, New Orleans voodoo, it is used in mojo hands for money-drawing or love-drawing, is used as incense to cleanse a space of negative entities or influences. It is added to red ink to make "Dragon's Blood Ink", used to inscribe magical seals and talismans. In folk medicine, dragon's blood is used externally as a wash to promote healing of wounds and to stop bleeding, it is used internally for chest pains, post-partum bleeding, internal traumas and menstrual irregularities. In neopagan Witchcraft, it is used to increase the potency of spells for protection, love and sexuality. In New Age shamanism it is used in ceremonies in a similar way. Dragon's blood incense is occasionally sold as "red rock opium" to unsuspecting would-be drug buyers, it contains no opiates, has only slight psychoactive effects, if any at all. Thaspine from the Dragon's Blood of the species Croton lechleri has possible use as a cancer drug. A study on oral toxicity of the DC resin methanol extract taken from the perennial tree Dracaena cinnabari was performed on female Sprague Dawley rats in February 2018.
Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests found that the extract could be tolerated up to 2,000 mg/kg body weight. Crofelemer, a modern drug made from the South American tree Sangre de drago, unrelated to Dracaena and rattan palm Calamus rotang L. Croton draconoides Müll. Arg. Croton draco Schltdl. & Cham. Croton lechleri Müll. Arg. Croton erythrochilus Müll. Arg. Croton palanostigma Klotzsch Croton perspeciosus Croizat Croton rimbachii Croizat Croton sampatik Müll. Arg. Croton urucurana Baill. Croton xalapensis Kunth Daemonorops draco Blume Daemonorops didymophylla Becc. Daemonorops micranthus Becc. Daemonorops motleyi Becc. Daemonorops rubra Mart. Daemonorops propinquus Becc. Dracaena cinnabari Balf.f. Dracaena cochinchinensis Hort. Ex Baker Dracaena draco L. Pterocarpus officinalis J
The dinar is the principal currency unit in several countries and was used in several more. The modern dinar's historical antecedents are the gold dinar, the main coin of the medieval Islamic empires, first issued in AH 77 by Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; the word is derived from the silver denarius coin of ancient Rome, first minted about 211 BC. The English word "dinar" is the transliteration of the Arabic دينار, borrowed via the Syriac dīnarā from the Greek δηνάριον, itself from the Latin dēnārius. A gold coin known as the dīnāra was introduced to India by the Kushan Empire in the 1st century AD, adopted by the Gupta Empire and its successors up to the 6th century; the modern gold dinar is a projected bullion gold coin, so far not issued as official currency by any state. The 8th century English king Offa of Mercia minted copies of Abbasid dinars struck in 774 by Caliph Al-Mansur with "Offa Rex" centered on the reverse; the moneyer visibly had no understanding of Arabic. Such coins may have been produced for trade with Islamic Spain.
Economy of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Kelantanese dinar List of circulating currencies Middle East economic integration
Maria Theresa thaler
The Maria Theresa thaler is a silver bullion coin, used in world trade continuously since it was first minted in 1741. It is named after Empress Maria Theresa, who ruled Austria and Bohemia from 1740 to 1780 and is depicted on the coin. In 1741 they used the Reichsthaler standard of 9 thalers to the Vienna mark. In 1750 the thaler was debased to 10 thalers to the Vienna mark; the following year the new standard was adopted across the German-speaking world when it was accepted formally in the Bavarian monetary convention. Because of the date of the Bavarian Monetary convention, many writers erroneously state that the Maria Theresa Thaler was first struck in 1751. Since the death of Maria Theresa in 1780, the coin has always been dated 1780. On 19 September 1857, Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria declared the Maria Theresa thaler to be an official trade coinage. A little over a year on 31 October 1858, it lost its status as currency in Austria; the MTT could be found throughout the Arab world in Saudi Arabia and Muscat and Oman, in Africa in Ethiopia, in India.
During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia in World War II, enough people preferred it to the money issued by the occupying forces that the American Office of Strategic Services created counterfeit MTTs for use by resistance forces. In German-speaking countries, following a spelling reform dated 1901 that took effect two years "Thaler" is written "Taler". Hence 20th-century references to this coin in German and Austrian sources are found under "Maria-Theresien-Taler"; the spelling in English-speaking countries was not affected. The MTT continues to be produced by the Austrian Mint, is available in both proof and uncirculated conditions; the thaler is 39.5–41 mm in diameter and 2.5 mm thick, weighs 28.0668 grams and contains 23.389 grams of fine silver. It has a copper content of.166 of its total millesimal fineness. Note: Rome mint struck MTTs are marginally lighter being produced in finer 835 standard instead of 833 standard silver; the inscription on the obverse of this coin is in Latin: "M. THERESIA D. G. R. IMP.
HU. BO. REG." The Reverse reads "ARCHID. AVST. DUX BURG. CO. TYR. 1780 X". It is an abbreviation of "Maria Theresia, Dei Gratia Romanorum Imperatrix, Hungariae Bohemiaeque Regina, Archidux Austriae, Dux Burgundiae, Comes Tyrolis. 1780 X", which means, "Maria Theresa, by the grace of God, Empress of the Romans, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, Duchess of Burgundy, Countess of Tyrol. 1780". The "X" is a saltire or Burgundian cross, was added in 1750 indicating the new debased standard of the thaler. Around the rim of the coin is the motto of her reign: "Justitia et Clementia", meaning "Justice and Clemency"; the MTT became a standard trade coin and several nations began striking Maria Theresa thalers. The following mints have struck MTTs: Birmingham, Brussels, Paris and Utrecht, in addition to the Habsburg mints in Günzburg, Karlsburg, Milan and Vienna. Between 1751 and 2000, some 389 million were minted; these various mints distinguished their issues by slight differences in the design, with some of these evolving over time.
In 1935 Mussolini gained a 25-year concession over production of the MTT. The Italians blocked non-Italian banks and bullion traders from obtaining the coin and so France and the UK started producing the coin so as to support their economic interests in the Red Sea, Persian Gulf and East Coast of Africa. In 1961 the 25-year concession ended and Austria made diplomatic approaches to the relevant governments requesting they cease production of the coin; the UK was the last government to formally agree to the request in February 1962. The MTT came to be used as currency in large parts of Africa until after World War II, it was common from North Africa to Somalia, Ethiopia and down the coast of Tanzania to Mozambique. Its popularity in the Red Sea region was such that merchants would not accept any other type of currency; the Italian government produced a similar designed coin in the hope of replacing the Maria Theresa thaler, but it never gained acceptance. The Maria Theresa thaler was formerly the currency of the Hejaz, the Aden Protectorate as well as Muscat and Oman on the Arabia peninsula.
The coin remains popular in North Africa and the Middle East to this day in its original form: a silver coin with a portrait of the buxom empress on the front and the Habsburg Double Eagle on the back. The MTT is first recorded as circulating in Ethiopia from the reign of Emperor Iyasu II of Ethiopia. According to traveller James Bruce the coin, not debased as other currencies, dominated the areas he visited in 1768. Joseph Kalmer and Ludwig Hyun in the book Abessinien estimate that over 20% of 245 million coins minted until 1931 ended up in Ethiopia. In 1868, the British military expedition to Magdala, the capital of Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia, under Field Marshal Robert Napier, took MTTs with them to pay local expenses. In 1890 the Italians introduced the Tallero Eritreo, styled after the MTT, in their new colony Eritrea hoping to impose it on the commerce with Ethiopia, they remained, however unsuccessful. In the early 1900s Menelik II unsuccessfully attempted to mint Menilek thalers locally, with his effigy, but styled following the model of the MTT, force their use.
The newly established Bank of Abyssinia issued banknotes denominated in thalers. Starting in 1935 the Italians minted the MTT at the mint in Rome for use in their conquest of Ethiopia. Then
Hadramaut, Hadramout, Hadramawt or Ḥaḍramūt is a region on the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. The name is retained in the Hadhramaut Governorate of the Republic of Yemen; the people of Hadhramaut are called Hadhrami, speak Hadhrami Arabic. The origin of the name "Ḥaḍramawt" is not known, there are numerous competing hypotheses about its meaning; the most common folk etymology is that the region's name means "death has come," from Arabic: حَضَر, translit. Ḥaḍara, lit.'he came' and Arabic: مَوْت, translit. Mawt, lit.'death', though there are multiple explanations for how it came to be known as such. One explanation is that this is a nickname of'Amar ibn Qaḥṭān, a legendary invader of the region, whose battles always left many dead. Another theory is that after the destruction of Thamūd, the Islamic prophet Ṣāliḥ relocated himself and about 4,000 of his followers to the region and it was there that he died, thus lending the region its morbid name "death has come." A third related etymology posits that حضر refers to the inhabitants of the area and hints that the way of life of the ancient Hadhrami people was severe and ascetic in the eyes of the bordering kingdoms situated in today's North Yemen.Ḥaḍramawt is identified with Biblical Hazarmawet.
There, it is the name of a son of the ancestor of the South Arabian kingdoms. According to various Bible dictionaries, the name "Hazarmaveth" means "court of death," reflecting a meaning similar to the Arabic folk etymologies. Scholarly theories of the name's origin are somewhat more varied, but none have gained general acceptance. Juris Zarins, rediscoverer of the city claimed to be the ancient Incense Route trade capital Ubar in Oman, suggested that the name may come from the Greek word ὕδρευματα hydreumata, or enclosed watering stations at wadis. In a Nova interview, he described Ubar as a kind of fortress/administration center set up to protect the water supply from raiding Bedouin tribes. Surrounding the site, as far as six miles away, were smaller villages, which served as small-scale encampments for the caravans. An interesting parallel to this are the fortified water holes in the Eastern Desert of Egypt from Roman times. There, they were called hydreumata. Though it describes the configuration of settlements in the Pre-Islamic Wadi Ḥaḍramawt, this explanation for the name is anachronistic and has gained no wider scholarly acceptance.
In the Pre-Islamic period, variations of the name are attested as early as the middle of the First Millennium BC. The names ḥḍrmt and ḥḍrmwt are found in texts of the Old South Arabian languages, though the second form is not found in any known Ḥaḍramitic inscriptions. In either form, the word itself can be a toponym, a tribal name, or the name of the kingdom of Ḥaḍramawt. In the late Fourth or early Third Century BC, Theophrastus gives the name Άδρραμύτα, a direct transcription of the Semitic name into Greek; as Southern Arabia is the homeland of the South Semitic language subfamily, a Semitic origin for the name is likely. Kamal Salibi proposed an alternative etymology for the name which argues that the diphthong "aw" in the name is an incorrect vocalization, he notes that "-ūt" is a frequent ending for place names in the Ḥaḍramawt, given that "Ḥaḍramūt" is the colloquial pronunciation of the name, also its ancient pronunciation, the correct reading of the name should be "place of ḥḍrm." He proposes that the name means "the green place,", apt for its well-watered wadis whose lushness contrasts with the surrounding high desert plateau.
Narrowly, Hadhramaut refers to the historical Qu'aiti and Kathiri sultanates, which were in the Aden Protectorate overseen by the British Resident at Aden until their abolition upon the independence of South Yemen in 1967. The current governorate of Hadhramaut incorporates the former territory of the two sultanates It consists of a narrow, arid coastal plain bounded by the steep escarpment of a broad plateau, with a sparse network of sunk wadis; the undefined northern edge of Hadhramaut slopes down to the desert Empty Quarter. Where the Hadhramaut Plateau or Highlands meets the Gulf of Aden in the Arabian Sea, elevation abruptly decreases. In a wider sense, Hadhramaut includes the territory of Mahra to the east all the way to the contemporary border with Oman; this encompasses the current governorates of Hadramaut and Mahra in their entirety as well as parts of the Shabwah Governorate. The Hadhramis live in densely built towns centered on traditional watering stations along the wadis. Hadhramis harvest crops of wheat and millet, tend date palm and coconut groves, grow some coffee.
On the plateau, Bedouins tend sheep and goats. Society is still tribal, with the old Seyyid aristocracy, descended from the Islamic prophet, traditionally educated, strict in their Islamic observance, respected in religious and secular affairs. Since the early 19th century, large-scale Hadhramaut migration has established sizable Hadhrami minorities all around the Indian Ocean, in South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Africa including Hyderabad, Bhatkal, Malabar, Malay Archipelago, Sri Lanka, southern Philippines and Singapore. In Hyderabad and Aurangabad, the community is known as Chaush and resides in the neighborhood of Barkas. There are settlements of Hadhrami I
Mukalla is a seaport and the capital city of Yemen's largest governorate, Hadhramaut. The city is located in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula on the Gulf of Aden, on the shores of the Arabian Sea, about 480 kilometres east of Aden, it is the most important port in the Hadhramaut, the fifth-largest city in Yemen, with a population of 300,000. The city is served by the nearby Riyan Airport. Mukalla is situated not far from "Cane" or "Qana'", the ancient principal Hadrami trading post between India and Africa, with incense producing areas in its hinterland. Mukalla was founded in 1035 as a fishing settlement; this area was part of Oman until the middle of the 11th century, this area became part of Yemen. After witnessing a struggle for control by the Kathiri and Qu'aiti Sultanates in the 19th and 20th centuries, it became the capital of the Qu'aiti State of Hadhramaut, in 1967, it became a part of South Yemen; the Qu'aiti Sultanate was part of the Eastern Aden Protectorate until that merger, a British Resident Advisor was stationed at Mukalla.
The other major cities of the Sultanate were Shibam. Captain Haines, a British officer who surveyed Yemen in the 1830s, described Mukalla as a town of 4500 inhabitants with a significant trade in slaves. In 1934, British traveler and explorer Freya Stark began her journey into the hinterland of the Hadhramaut from Mukalla, her stay in that city is recorded in her book, The Southern Gates of Arabia. During the Yemeni Civil War, on April 2, 2015, Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula stormed the central prison, freeing hundreds of prisoners including two senior AQAP commanders, they attacked the central bank and seized 17 billion Yemeni riyals and 1 million U. S. dollars before taking control of the presidential palace in the city. It was reported the entire city was under their control and they plan to establish an Islamic emirate in the wider Hadramaut region. Mukalla became AQAP's headquarters, the capital of their Emirate in Yemen after their takeover. In April 2015 Nasser bin Ali al-Ansi was killed in a US drone strike in the city, the SITE Intelligence Group said, citing media reports.
On 3 November 2015, Cyclone Chapala destroyed the city's waterfront. In 23 of March, a US airstrike hit an AQAP training camp; some days AQAP held a major rally in the city, against the US and their airstrikes. In April 2016, is reported that AQAP bounds at last 1,000 of its fighters inside the Mukalla only, with their taxes profit in the city to be from 2, to higher than 5 millions of American dollars per day. In the middle of April 2016, Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula was consolidating its control in Mukalla and took over control of Mukalla’s airport from forces affiliated with the pro-Ansar al Sharia Hadhrami Domestic Council, while evacuating and planting explosives around nearby al Dhaba oil port. AQAP arrested seven Yemeni fighters from a camp north of Mukalla in Wadi Hadramawt, where the UAE is training forces for operations against AQAP. AQAP is redistributing property from northern landowners to local tribal leaders in an effort to shore up support, according to reports; the UAE, a core member of the Saudi-led coalition led an operation to recapture AQAP-held al Hawta in Lahij governorate, amid reports the country is seeking U.
S. assistance for an expanded counter-terrorism campaign in Yemen. Mukalla was recaptured from Al Qaeda on 25 of April, 2016 after United Arab Emirates Armed Forces led an assault with the support of Southern Transitional Council forces and expelled them from the city; the UAE has established a primary base of operations against AQAP in the liberated city. The special operations base has enabled the CIA and the Joint Special Operations Command to target AQAP’s strongest cells in Yemen and allowed for an enhanced UAE-US cooperation against AQAP. On 15 May 2016, a suicide attack was carried out in the city by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; the attack targeted a police base, killing at least 25 police recruits and wounding at least 54 others. The main market souq is one of the main commercial hubs of the city. Mukalla port is located to the east of the town; the port is available for vessels with length not more than 150 metres, as per Pilot Book Pilot Directions. At the same time two vessels with the length 150 metres each and about 20 small fishing vessels can stay alongside in Mukalla port.
The port is fitted with oil pipe line for tankers. Oil tanks located close to the port. A cement factory of the "RAYSUT" Omeni-Yemeni company located in the port and is able to receive cement in bulk from cement carriers; the old town is open for tourists. Sights include the royal palace of the sultan. Guard towers that were outposts surmount the vicinity of the old town. Nearby are Hadhramaut Mountains, such as that of Husn Ghuraf; the HUCOM of the Hadhramout University is located in Mukalla. Media related to Mukalla at Wikimedia Commons Official Website of the Al-Quaiti Royal Family of Hadhramaut Facebook Page of Mukalla City