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Yeonsangun of Joseon

Yeonsan-gun or Prince Yeonsan, born Yi Yung or Lee Yoong, was the 10th king of Korea's Joseon Dynasty. He was the eldest son of Seongjong by Lady Yoon, he is considered the worst tyrant of the Joseon Dynasty, all of Korean history, notorious for launching two bloody purges of the seonbi scholar elite. He seized a thousand women from the provinces to serve as palace entertainers, appropriated the Seonggyungwan study hall as a personal pleasure ground. Overthrown, Yeonsan-gun did not receive a temple name. Queen Yun known as the Deposed Queen Lady Yun, served Prince Yeonsan's father, Seongjong, as a concubine until the death of Queen Gonghye, Seongjong's first wife. With no royal heir, the King was urged by counselors to take a second wife to secure the royal succession. Lady Yun was chosen for her beauty, was formally married in 1476. Several months she gave birth to her first son, Yi Yung to become Prince Yeonsan; the new Queen proved to be temperamental and jealous of Seongjong's concubines living inside the palace poisoning one in 1477.

In 1479, she physically struck the King one night. Despite efforts to conceal the injury, Seongjong's mother, Grand Queen Insu, discovered the truth and ordered Lady Yoon into exile. After several popular attempts to restore the deposed Queen Yun to her position at court, government officials petitioned that she be executed, she was executed by poison. The Crown Prince grew up and succeeded Seongjong in 1494. During his early reign, he was a wise and able administrator who strengthened the national defense and aided the poor. However, he showed signs of a violent side when he killed Jo Sa-seo, one of his tutors, soon after becoming the king, he learned of what had happened to his biological mother and attempted to posthumously restore her titles and position. When government officials belonging to the Sarim political party opposed his efforts on account of serving Seongjong's will, he was displeased and looked for ways to eliminate them. In 1498 Kim Il Son, a disciple of Kim Jong-jik, included a paragraph in the royal record, critical of King Sejo's usurpation of throne in 1455.

Kim Il Son and other followers of Kim Jong-jik were accused of treason by a rival faction, giving Yeonsangun cause enough to order the execution of many Sarim officials and the mutilation of Kim Jong-jik's remains. This came to be known as the First Literati Purge. In 1504, Im Sa-hong revealed to Yeonsangun details of his mother's death and showed him a blood-stained piece of clothing, the blood vomited by her after taking poison. Soon afterward, on March 20, 1504, Yeonsangun beat to death two of his father's concubines, Gwiins Jeong and Eom, for their part in his mother's death, his grandmother, Grand Queen Insu, formally the Queen Sohye, died when she was pushed by Yeonsangun after an altercation. He executed many government officials who had supported the execution of his mother, now posthumously known as Queen Jeheon, ordered the grave of Han Myeong-hoi to be opened and the head cut off the corpse, he punished officials known to be present at the royal court at that time, for the crime of not preventing the actions of those who abused his mother.

Meanwhile, Im Sa-hong was promoted, he and his allies received many important offices and other awards. This came to be known as the Second Literati Purge. Yeonsangun closed Seonggyeongwan, the royal university, as well as the Wongak-sa Temple, converted them to be his personal pleasure grounds, for which young girls and horses were gathered from the whole of the Korean Peninsula, he intended to open personal brothels in their place. He demolished a large residential area in the capital and evicted 20,000 residents to build hunting grounds, he forced people into involuntary labor to work on these projects. Many commoners mocked and insulted the king with posters written in hangul; this provoked the anger of Yeonsangun, he banned the use of hangul and hanja. When ministers protested against his actions, he abolished the Office of Hongmoongwan, he ordered his ministers to wear a sign. A body will be in peace as long as its mouth is closed and its tongue is deep within.".) When the chief eunuch Kim Cheo-sun, who had served three kings, entreated Yeonsangun to change his ways, Yeonsangun killed him by shooting arrows and cutting off his limbs, in addition Yeonsangun punished his relatives down to the 7th degree.

When Yeonsangun asked the royal secretaries whether such punishment was appropriate, they did not dare to say otherwise. He exiled a minister of rites for spilling a drink that he had poured. In stark contrast to the liberal era of his father, many people became afraid of his despotic rule and their voices were silenced. In 1506, the 12th year of King Yeonsan, a group of officials – notably Park Won-jong, Seong Hui-ahn, Yoo Soon-jeong and Hong Gyeong-ju plotted against the despotic ruler, they launched their coup on 2 September 1506, deposing the king and replacing him with his half-brother, Grand Prince Jinseong. The king was demoted to prince, sent into exile on Ganghwado, where he died the same year after only a few weeks. Consort Jang Nok-su, regarded as a'femme fatale' who had encouraged Yeonsangun's misrule, was beheaded, Yeonsangun's young sons were killed. Father: King Seongjong of Joseon Grandfathe

Culbertson 4-5 notrump

The Culbertson 4-5 notrump is a slam seeking convention in the game of contract bridge. It was devised in the early 1930s by Ely Culbertson. Most four-notrump conventions demand that bidder's partner define their hand using agreed codified responses. In contrast, the Culbertson 4-5 describes the bidder's hand, invites partner to use their judgement in the light of that information. A bid of four notrump shows either: Any three aces, or Two aces, the king of any suit bid by either partner. In response: A bid of five notrump shows either: Any two aces, or One ace, the kings of all suits bid by either partner. A bid of a new suit is not compulsory with such a holding. Six of a previously-bid suit shows a desire to play there. Five of the lowest-ranking suit bid by either partner is a conventional sign-off, denying the values to make any of the stronger bids. If the four notrump bidder next bids five notrump, that shows all four aces. A bid of five notrump not preceded by four notrump shows the king of a bid suit.

In subsequent bidding, common-sense rules apply. Culbertson's proposal of this convention threatened to disrupt the publication of the 1935 version of the Laws of Contract Bridge; the Portland Club, guardian of the laws in England, considered it equivalent to playing with exposed cards. Noel Mobbs persuaded the Club. In his 1949 book Design for Bidding, "Skid" Simon called the Culbertson 4-5 "an adult weapon" and Blackwood "merely a nice toy"; the Culbertson 4-5 has been superseded by Blackwood and other conventions, but was reported in 1967 to still be popular among some leading British players

Brian Gilbert (director)

Brian Gilbert is a film director. Born in England, he spent much of his childhood in Australia, where he was a child actor of film and radio. Returning to England at the age of fourteen, he attended the Harrow County Grammar School for Boys and completed his education at Oxford University, he continued working as a professional actor until 1979, when he joined the National Film and Television School as a directing student. So well-received was his graduation film, The Devotee that producer David Puttnam commissioned him to write and direct a feature-length film for the Channel Four First Love series in the 1980s. From there, he went on to direct a French-English co-production. Subsequently, he has worked in both Hollywood and the UK, directing Vice Versa in 1988, in 1991 - Not Without My Daughter, the adaptation of the controversial best-seller of the same name, which starred Sally Field as Betty Mahmoody. Four years came Tom & Viv starring Willem Dafoe and Miranda Richardson, the story of poet T. S. Eliot's first marriage, nominated for two Academy Awards.

This was followed by the 1997 production Wilde, starring Jude Law and Stephen Fry, based on the Richard Ellmann biography of Oscar Wilde. In 2003, he directed The Gathering, he wrote and directed the documentary Lord Haw-Haw: Portrait of a Fanatic for UK and Irish television, in 2006, directed the stage version of Mary Kenny's play Allegiance, starring Mel Smith, produced by Daniel Jewel, at the Edinburgh Festival. He is a regular guest tutor at the National Film and Television School. Lord Haw-Haw: Portrait of a Fanatic - 2005 The Gathering - 2003 Wilde - 1997 Tom & Viv - 1994 Not Without My Daughter - 1991 Vice Versa - 1988 French Lesson - 1985 Sharma and Beyond - 1984 Voyage of the Damned - 1976 Brian Gilbert on IMDb

Luca Napolitano

Luca Napolitano is an Italian singer-songwriter. In 2008, he joined to the eighth edition of the Italian talent show Amici di Maria De Filippi, after four years of trying, he reached the final stage and he finished in third place. He signed a contract with Warner Music and he released in 2009 his first EP Vai; the EP was certified gold and it reached the #5 in the Italian singles chart. He released from the album three singles with a great success: Vai, Forse forse and Da quando ti conosco. In October, he released his first studio album L'infinito; the album was certified gold. In May 2010, he was awarded to the "Wind Music Awards" for the sales of his first record Vai. In the summer he was busy with L'infinito Tour for promoting the album. In October, he released a new single A Sud Di NY; the song has anticipated the release of the EP Di Me. A Sud di New York

David B. Harmony

David Butts Harmony was a rear admiral of the United States Navy, who served during the American Civil War. Harmony was born in Easton and entered the navy as a midshipman on April 7, 1847, was promoted to passed midshipman on June 10, 1852, became lieutenant in 1855, lieutenant commander in 1862. During the Civil War he drove on the sloop-of-war Iroquois on the passage on Fort Jackson on Fort St. Philip in April 1862, on the capture on New Orleans, took part on engagements on the batteries on Vicksburg on Grand Gulf, he was executive officer of the ironclad monitor Nahant in the first attack on Fort Sumter on April 7, 1863, in the engagement with the Confederate ram Atlanta on June 17, in the attacks on defenses at Charleston, from July 4 till September 7. He took part with the West Gulf Blockading Squadron in the actions at the Battle of Mobile Bay in August 1864 and commanded the double-ender side-wheel gunboat Sebago in late 1864 and into 1865. Promoted to commander in 1866, Harmony served at the New York Navy Yard, in 1867-69 commanded the Frolic in the European Squadron, one of the vessels of Admiral Farragut's squadron.

Harmony returned to the New York Navy Yard in 1869-72, was promoted to captain in 1875, commanded the sloops Portsmouth and Plymouth, the frigates Powhatan and Colorado, between 1878 and 1883. Harmony was a member of Navy Department's Examining and Retiring Boards 1883-84, was promoted to commodore in 1885, served as Chief of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, 1885–89, was Chairman of the Lighthouse Board, 1889-91, he retired on June 26, 1893. Harmony was buried in Section 2 of Arlington National Cemetery; some of his letters from the 1870s, written while on active duty, are archived at the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, D. C. A selection of David Harmony's official papers, from the estate of Isabel Mixsell-Mathews, can be viewed here: David B. Harmony Papers 1847-1869 David B. Harmony Papers 1870-1877 Inventory of the Naval Records Collection of the Office of Naval Records and Library, in Record Group 45. Appendix N. List of Personal Letter books of U. S. Naval Officers.

June 21, 2005. Naval Historical Center. Viewed April 8, 2006

Bear Creek (Lincoln County, Oregon)

Bear Creek is a tributary of the Salmon River in the Central Oregon Coast Range in the United States. It begins in the Siuslaw National Forest and flows northwest through Lincoln County to meet the river between Rose Lodge and Otis. Named tributaries from source to mouth are McMullen, Tarry and Morton creeks. A covered bridge over Bear Creek is made from timbers salvaged from the former Drift Creek Bridge in Lincoln County. In 1988, county officials closed the old bridge after insect damage made it unsafe, they had the bridge dismantled 1997 and gave the timbers to Laura and Kerry Sweitz, who owned land along Bear Creek 8 miles north of the Drift Creek site. In 2000, the Sweitz family granted a permanent public easement for its use; the bridge carries North Rogers Lane, off Bear Creek Road, over the creek. List of rivers of Oregon