The Sacramento River is the principal river of Northern California in the United States, and is the largest river in California. Rising in the Klamath Mountains, the river flows south for 400 miles before reaching the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, the Sacramento and its wide natural floodplain were once abundant in fish and other aquatic creatures, notably one of the southernmost large runs of chinook salmon in North America. For about 12,000 years, humans have depended on the vast natural resources of the watershed, the river has provided a route for trade and travel since ancient times. Hundreds of tribes sharing regional customs and traditions inhabited the Sacramento Valley, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga named the river Rio de los Sacramentos in 1808, shortened and anglicized into Sacramento. In the 19th century gold was discovered on a tributary of the Sacramento River, starting the California Gold Rush, overland trails such as the California Trail and Siskiyou Trail guided hundreds of thousands of people to the gold fields.
By the late part of the mining had ceased to be a major part of the economy. Many populous communities were established along the Sacramento River, including the capital of Sacramento. Intensive agriculture and mining contributed to pollution in the Sacramento River, since the 1950s the watershed has been intensely developed for water supply and the generation of hydroelectric power. Today, large dams impound the river and almost all of its major tributaries, the Sacramento is used heavily for irrigation and serves much of Central and Southern California through the canals of giant state and federal water projects. The Sacramento River originates in the mountains and plateaus of far northern California as three major waterways that flow into Shasta Lake, the Upper Sacramento River, McCloud River and Pit River. The Upper Sacramento begins near Mount Shasta, at the confluence of North, Middle and it flows east into a small reservoir, Lake Siskiyou, before turning south. The river flows through a canyon for about 60 miles, past Dunsmuir and Castella, the Pit River, by far the largest of the three, begins in Modoc County in the northeastern corner of California.
Draining a vast and remote volcanic highlands area, it flows southwest for nearly 300 miles before emptying into Shasta Lake near Montgomery Creek, Goose Lake, straddling the Oregon–California border, occasionally overflows into the Pit River during wet years, although this has not happened since 1881. The Goose Lake watershed is the part of the Sacramento River basin extending into another state. Unlike most California rivers, the Pit and the McCloud Rivers are predominantly spring-fed, ensuring a large, at the lower end of Shasta Lake is Shasta Dam, which impounds the Sacramento River for flood control and hydropower generation. Before the construction of Shasta Dam the McCloud River emptied into the Pit River, the Pit River Bridge, which carries Interstate 5 and the Union Pacific Railroad over the reservoir, is structurally the highest double-decked bridge in the United States. The Upper Sacramento River canyon provides the route for I-5, below Shasta Dam the Sacramento River enters the foothills region of the northern Sacramento Valley.
It flows through Keswick Dam, where it receives about 1,200,000 acre feet of water per year diverted from the Trinity River and it swings east through Redding, the largest city of the Shasta Cascade region, and turns southeast, entering Tehama County
Redwood Creek (San Mateo County)
Redwood Creek is a 9. 5-mile-long perennial stream located in San Mateo County, United States which discharges into South San Francisco Bay. The Port of Redwood City, the largest deepwater port in South San Francisco Bay, is situated on the east bank of Redwood Creek near its mouth, where the creek becomes a natural deepwater channel. The creek and city name, the latter first known as Red Woods City, was named because of the nearby Coast Redwood forest, in 1851, a deep-water channel that ran inland to what is now Redwood City was discovered off of San Francisco Bay. Named Redwood Creek, this channel was used by the companies to ship wood. A shipbuilding industry emerged, the first schooner was built in 1851 by G. M. Burnham, wooden shipbuilding remained an active industry until the last wooden ship built in Redwood City, called the Perseverance, was launched in 1883. The shipbuilding industry experienced a revival in the 1918s with the building of the first concrete ship in America, Redwood Creek begins in the Woodside Glens neighborhood of Woodside, California just south of Interstate 280, below the terminus of Farm Hill Boulevard.
It descends below Interstate 280 on the west side of Woodside Road, at Alameda de las Pulgas it becomes an engineered concrete channel to El Camino Real, where it is briefly daylighted before entering underground culverts in downtown Redwood City. The primary tributary to Redwood Creek is a stream named Arroyo Ojo de Agua which meets it underground at approximately Broadway Street in Redwood City, as it crosses below US Highway 101 it becomes a tidal channel. Extensive mudflats and marsh areas are found along Redwood Creek near its mouth, several side channel sloughs connect to Redwood Creek, the largest of which is Westpoint Slough. Redwood Creek and Arroyo Ojo de Agua were fish sampled for Steelhead trout in 1981, the historical status of trout in the creek is unknown. At Stulsaft Park on the Arroyo de Ojo Agua tributary, a population of endangered Fountain Thistle was discovered in 2007, in Stulsaft Park it is found in an opening in a coffeeberry/bay laurel woodland. The plants may grow 6 feet tall and it is found in a handful of locations in San Mateo County.
List of watercourses in the San Francisco Bay Area Dredging Seaport Centre Wetland Redwood Creek Watershed Map, Guide to San Francisco Bay Area Creeks, Oakland Museum
Suisun Bay is a shallow tidal estuary in northern California. It lies at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, forming the entrance to the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, Suisun Marsh, the tidal marsh land to the north, is the largest marsh in California. Grizzly Bay forms an extension of Suisun Bay. The bay is directly north of Contra Costa County, the bay was named in 1811, after the Suisunes, a Native American tribe of the area. The word originates with the Patwin, on the west, Suisun Bay is drained by the Carquinez Strait, which connects to San Pablo Bay, a northern extension of San Francisco Bay. In addition to the bridges at the Carquinez Strait, it is spanned in its center by the Benicia-Martinez Bridge. It is the anchorage of the Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, a collection of U. S. Navy and merchant reserve ships, the Glomar Explorer was anchored here after recovering a sunken Soviet submarine in the mid-1970s. Many ships were removed and sold for scrap in the 1990s, in 2010, plans were announced to remove the mothball fleet in stages, with final removal by 2017.
The Central Pacific Railroad built a ferry that operated between Benicia and Port Costa, California from 1879 to 1930. The ferry boats Solano and Contra Costa were removed from service when the nearby Martinez railroad bridge was completed in 1930, from 1913 until 1954 the Sacramento Northern Railway, an electrified interurban line, crossed Suisun Bay with the Ramon, a distillate-powered train ferry. Kinder Morgan pleaded guilty to operating a corroded pipeline and paid three dollars in penalties and restitution. Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet Kinder Morgan Information Regarding Pipeline Release Suisun Bays ghost fleet may finally R. I. P
Muni Metro is a light rail/streetcar hybrid system serving San Francisco, operated by the San Francisco Municipal Railway, a division of the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. With an average ridership of 128,500 passengers as of the fourth quarter of 2014. Muni Metro operates a fleet of 151 light rail vehicles made by Breda, Muni Metro is the modern incarnation of the traditional streetcar system that had served San Francisco since the late 19th century. Recently, the system has undergone expansion, most notably the Third Street Light Rail Project, completed in 2007, other projects, such as the Central Subway, are underway. Muni Metro descended from the traditional streetcar system started on December 28,1912. The first streetcar line, the A Geary, ran from Kearny and Market Streets in the Financial District to Fulton Street, the system slowly expanded, opening the Twin Peaks Tunnel in 1917, allowing streetcars to run to the southwestern quadrant of the city. By 1921, the city was operating 304 miles of trolley lines and 25 miles of cable car lines.
The last line to service before 2007 was the N Judah. However, five heavily used streetcar lines traveled for at least part of their routes through tunnels or otherwise reserved right-of-way, as a result, these lines, running PCC streetcars, continued in operation. The new tunnel would be connected to the existing Twin Peaks Tunnel, the new underground stations would feature high platforms, and the older stations would be retrofitted with the same, which meant that the PCCs could not be used in them. Hence, a fleet of new rail vehicles was ordered from Boeing-Vertol. The K and M lines were extended to Balboa Park during this time, on February 18,1980, the Muni Metro was officially inaugurated, with weekday N line service in the subway. The Metro service was implemented in phases, and the subway was served only on weekdays until 1982. The K Ingleside line began using the Metro subway on weekdays on June 11,1980, the L Taraval and M Ocean View lines on December 17,1980, and lastly the J Church line on June 17,1981.
Meanwhile, weekend service on all five lines continued to use PCC cars operating on the surface of Market Street through to the Transbay Terminal, finally, on November 20,1982, the Muni Metro subway began operating seven days a week. At the time, there were no plans to revive any service on the surface of Market Street or return PCCs to regular running. However, tracks were rehabilitated for the 1983 Historic Trolley Festival, Muni criticism had been something of a feature of life in San Francisco, and not without reason. The Boeing trains were sub-par and grew crowded quickly, Muni did take steps to address these problems
Ecology of the San Francisco Estuary
The San Francisco Estuary together with the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta represents a highly altered ecosystem. The region has been heavily re-engineered to accommodate the needs of water delivery, shipping and these needs have wrought direct changes in the movement of water and the nature of the landscape, and indirect changes from the introduction of non-native species. New species have altered the architecture of the web as surely as levees have altered the landscape of islands. This article deals particularly with the ecology of the low salinity zone of the estuary, reconstructing a historic food web for the LSZ is difficult for a number of reasons. First, there is no record of the species that historically have occupied the estuary. Climate change, hydrologic engineering, shifting water needs, and newly introduced species will continue to alter the food web configuration of the estuary. This model provides a snapshot of the current state, with notes about recent changes or species introductions that have altered the configuration of the food web.
Understanding the dynamics of the current food web may prove useful for restoration efforts to improve the functioning, the San Francisco Bay is both a bay and an estuary. The former term refers to any inlet or cove providing a refuge from the open ocean. An estuary is any physiographic feature where freshwater meets an ocean or sea, the northern portion of the bay is a brackish estuary, consisting of a number of physical embayments which are dominated by both marine and fresh water fluxes. Until the 20th century, the LSZ of the estuary was fringed by tule-dominated freshwater wetlands, between 80-95% of these historic wetlands have been filled to facilitate land use and development around the Bay Area. Habitat loss at the edges of the zone is thought to create a loss of native pelagic fish species. The intertidal and benthic estuary is dominated by mudflats that are largely the result of sedimentation derived from gold mining in the Sierra Nevada in the late 19th century. Thus the mudflats appear to be slowly receding, although turbidity remains extremely high, the high turbidity of the water is responsible for the unique condition that exists in the San Francisco Estuary wherein high nutrient availability does not lead to high phytoplankton production.
Instead, most algae photosynthetic organisms are light-limited, the Delta has likewise experienced heavy alteration. Beginning in the 19th century, naturally occurring levees were reinforced for permanency, many of these farms were established on peat islands occurring in the middle of the Delta waterways. Intensive farming oxidized the high content of the soil, causing considerable loss of soil mass. As a consequence, these islands have subsided, or sunk, the Delta today consists of highly riprapped waterways, punctuated by islands that appear like floating bowls with their basins far below the surface of the water
Alameda Creek, originally Arroyo de la Alameda, is a large perennial stream in the San Francisco Bay Area. The creek runs for 45 miles from a lake northeast of Packard Ridge to the shore of San Francisco Bay by way of Niles Canyon. Five Spanish expeditions led by de Portolà, Fages, de Anza, el Camino Viejo between Pleasanton and Mission Pass crossed it near Sunol. Mission San José, in Fremont, was dedicated in 1797, the Mission thrived for 49 years until the Mexican Governments Secularization Order liquidated mission lands in 1834. Alameda Creek was the boundary of the lands and the 17, 000-acre Rancho Arroyo de la Alameda granted to Jose de Jesus Vallejo. The mill and the importance of the canyon as a passage through the hills led to growth of Niles in the 1850s, a favorable climate, excellent soils, and a fast-growing population helped agriculture to boom. Early roads led to landings where small ships would load grain, completion of the Central Pacific Railroad through Niles Canyon in 1869 was essential to completion of First Transcontinental Railroad that terminated in Alameda, California that same year.
The Western Pacific was routed through Niles Canyon, connecting Sacramento and San Jose, the creek bed had once been used as a gravel quarry. After the pumping was declared to be an illegal waste the Alameda County Water District acquired the quarry in 1975, in May 2015, vandals damaged an inflatable dam across the creek in Fremont, releasing 50 million gallons of drinking water into San Francisco Bay. Alameda Creek is the largest watershed within the southern San Francisco Bay draining 700 square miles, two-thirds of the watershed is in Alameda County including the reach through the Sunol Valley, the rest is in Santa Clara County. The tributaries of Alameda creek include Arroyo de la Laguna, Arroyo Valle, San Antonio Creek and Calaveras Creek, the watershed includes three man-made reservoirs, Lake Del Valle, San Antonio Reservoir and Calaveras Reservoir. Alameda Creek now runs through the man-made Alameda Creek flood channel near the Bay, ward Creek is tributary to old Alameda Creek. Alameda Creek historically supported steelhead, coho salmon and chinook salmon, by the early 1970s the Army Corps of Engineers channeled and rip-rapped the lower 12 miles of the creek.
The last steelhead and coho salmon runs were seen in the creek in 1964. In 2009, the Alameda County Water District removed a rubber dam that blocked trout passage in the lower creek, at the same time, PG&E is working to modify a cement barrier farther upstream in Sunol to help steelhead swim farther into the watershed, water officials said. When those projects are completed, steelhead will be able to migrate upstream to spawning habitats in the Sunol Valley for the first time in a half-century, many of these fishes still occupy the creek, although the number of introduced exotic fishes continues to increase. Exotic fish species such as the largemouth and Smallmouth basses respectively, were introduced to Alameda Creek by Livingston Stone in 1874, there is historical evidence of beaver in the Alameda Creek watershed. In 1828 fur trapper Michel La Framboise travelled to the missions of San José, San Francisco Solano, La Framboise stated that the Bay of San Francisco abounds in beaver, and that he made his best hunt in the vicinity of the missions
The Golden Gate is a strait on the west coast of North America that connects San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Ocean. It is defined by the headlands of the San Francisco Peninsula and the Marin Peninsula, the strait is well known today for its depth and powerful tidal currents from the Pacific Ocean. Many small whirlpools and eddies can form in its waters, with its strong currents, rocky reefs and fog, the Golden Gate is the site of over 100 shipwrecks. The Golden Gate is often shrouded in fog, especially during the summer, heat generated in the California Central Valley causes air there to rise, creating a low pressure area that pulls in cool, moist air from over the Pacific Ocean. The Golden Gate forms the largest break in the hills of the California Coast Range, allowing a persistent, dense stream of fog to enter the bay there. Before the Europeans arrived in the 18th century, the area around the strait, descendants of both tribes remain in the area. The strait was surprisingly elusive for early European explorers, presumably due to this persistent summer fog.
The strait is not recorded in the voyages of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo nor Francis Drake, the strait is unrecorded in observations by Spanish galleons returning from the Philippines that laid up in nearby Drakes Bay to the north. These galleons rarely passed east of the Farallon Islands, fearing the possibility of rocks between the islands and the mainland, the first recorded observation of the strait occurred nearly two hundred years than the earliest European explorations of the coast. Until the 1840s, the strait was called the Boca del Puerto de San Francisco, on 1 July 1846, before the discovery of gold in California, the entrance acquired a new name. Frémont wrote, To this Gate I gave the name of Chrysopylae, or Golden Gate, for the reasons that the harbor of Byzantium was called Chrysoceras. In the 1920s, no bridge spanned the watery expanse between San Francisco and Marin in California—so when the U. S, post Office issued a postage stamp on 1 May 1923, celebrating The Golden Gate, the issue naturally portrayed the scene without a bridge.
The Golden Gate Bridge is a bridge spanning the Golden Gate. As part of both US Highway 101 and California Route 1, it connects the city of San Francisco on the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula to Marin County. The Golden Gate Bridge was the longest suspension span in the world when completed in 1937. Since its completion, the length has been surpassed by eight other bridges. It still has the second longest suspension bridge span in the United States. In 2007, it was ranked fifth on the List of Americas Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects, Golden Gate Park, located in San Francisco, California, is a large urban park consisting of 1,017 acres of public grounds
California Gold Rush
The California Gold Rush began on January 24,1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutters Mill in Coloma, California. The news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States, the Gold Rush initiated the California Genocide, with 100,000 Native Californians dying between 1848 and 1868. By the time it ended, California had gone from a thinly populated ex-Mexican territory to the state of the first nominee for the Republican Party. The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial, whole indigenous societies were attacked and pushed off their lands by the gold-seekers, called forty-niners. The first to hear confirmed information of the rush were the people in Oregon, the Sandwich Islands, and Latin America. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands from Latin America, Australia and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs of the settlers. San Francisco grew from a settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852.
Roads, churches and other towns were built throughout California, in 1849 a state constitution was written. The new constitution was adopted by vote, and the future states interim first governor. In September,1850, California became a state, at the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a system of staking claims was developed. Prospectors retrieved the gold from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, although the mining caused environmental harm, more sophisticated methods of gold recovery were developed and adopted around the world. New methods of transportation developed as steamships came into regular service, by 1869 railroads were built across the country from California to the eastern United States. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, Gold worth tens of billions of todays dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few. However, many returned home with more than they had started with.
The Mexican–American War ended on February 3,1848, although California was firmly in American hands before that, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided for, among other things, the formal transfer of Upper California to the United States. The California Gold Rush began at Sutters Mill, near Coloma, on January 24,1848, James W. Marshall, a foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John Sutter, found shiny metal in the tailrace of a lumber mill Marshall was building for Sutter on the American River. Marshall brought what he found to John Sutter, and the two tested the metal. However, rumors started to spread and were confirmed in March 1848 by San Francisco newspaper publisher
San Rafael Creek
San Rafael Creek is a watercourse in Marin County, United States that discharges to San Rafael Bay, a small embayment of the San Francisco Bay. The mouth of San Rafael Creek is an estuary through an industrial area. In September 2007, the organization Save The Bay designated San Rafael Creek as one of the top ten worst trash hot spot waterways flowing into the San Francisco Bay. The channel portion of San Rafael Creek below the Grand Street Bridge is dredged on a maintenance schedule to keep the shallow draft channel navigable. Dredge spoils are disposed of at a site near Alcatraz Island, most of the soils in the lower watershed are clays and bay mud, resulting in a low transmissivity of groundwater. Typical vertical soil profiles in the watershed are four to five feet of imported fill over 60 to 65 feet of bay mud set on a basement of Franciscan Sandstone bedrock. At the mouth of San Rafael Creek, situated on the bank, is Pickleweed Park. List of watercourses in the San Francisco Bay Area Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse
Temescal Creek (Northern California)
Temescal Creek is one of the principal watercourses in the city of Oakland, United States. The word temescal derives from the word temescalli, which means house in the Nahuatl language of the Mexica people of Mexico. The name was given to the creek when it became part of the Peraltas Rancho San Antonio. It is surmised that the Peraltas or perhaps one of their hands had seen local indigenous structures along the creek similar to those in other parts of New Spain which were called temescalli. The north fork of Temescal Creek was renamed Harwoods Creek in the 19th century after the owner of land in the stretches of the north fork. It was renamed yet again Claremont Creek in the early 20th century after a development in the same vicinity. It flows into Lake Temescal, a sag pond which was dammed in the 19th century to increase its capacity for use as a reservoir. Lake Temescal is now a public park, the creek continues out of Lake Temescal, curving westerly around the end of the shutter ridge in the Rockridge district of Oakland, flowing almost in a line toward the Bay.
Temescal Creek is a stream, and as such, was highly valued by early settlers. When the area was part of the Peraltas Rancho San Antonio and other livestock were slaughtered in this vicinity right up through the early 20th century for various meatpacking plants in an area which became known as Butchertown. It is believed that Temescal Creek once supported a population of trout, though urbanization. Archeological evidence indicates that coho salmon were found at one time in the creek. The Emeryville Shellmound is notable for its remains of beaver, the creek is mostly underground in culverts in the flatlands, but many stretches are open above Lake Temescal. Temescal Creek now flows in an open culvert through the 2002 Bay Street Mall development and this is just about the spot where the Emeryville Shellmound once stood. A small informational park commemorating the creek and the Ohlone presence at the site is situated here, at Shellmound Street, which runs approximately along the original Bay shoreline, the creek returns to a culvert which takes it to San Francisco Bay.
This straight course, however, is a imposition - the original course of the creek bent south, Temescal Creek near the mouth area is channelized with concrete linings. The mouth of Temescal Creek at the discharge to San Francisco Bay is fully tidal and consists of mudflats, historically both banks of Temescal Creek in the lower area of Emeryville were part of the San Francisco Bay tidal floodplain and were extensively filled from about 1900 through the 1970s. Fill included slag and other inert materials originating from the Judson Steel plant, the Judson plant occupied much of the lower reach banks in Emeryville, Judson used this reach for metal recycling/recovery
Sonoma Creek is a 33. 4-mile-long stream in northern California. The watershed drained by Sonoma Creek is roughly equivalent to the region of Sonoma Valley. The State of California has designated the Sonoma Creek watershed as a “Critical Coastal Water Resource”, to the east of this generally rectangular watershed is the Napa River watershed, and to the west are the Petaluma River and Tolay Creek watersheds. As the tributaries and headwaters reach the floor, a perennial stream cuts through scenic. In the city of Sonoma it is a creek which emerges into agricultural areas to the south. Finally, Sonoma Creek discharges to the vast Napa-Sonoma Marsh at the tip of San Pablo Bay. Principal tributaries to the creek include Yulupa Creek, Graham Creek, Calabazas Creek, Bear Creek, Schell Creek, the headwaters cut through gorge and meadow of Sugarloaf Ridge State Park, which boasts 25 miles of self-guided trails and the Robert Ferguson Observatory. There is a 25 foot high waterfall, present only when fed by the winter rains, the understory features abundant ferns and boulder laden mosses.
A prominent landform in this upper reach created by Sonoma Creek is Adobe Canyon, locally part of this upper reach flow is sometimes called Adobe Creek. Tributaries near the headwaters include Mount Hood Creek and Graywood Creek, a diversity of aquatic and terrestrial organisms populate Sonoma Creek and its riparian zone. Winter-run Chinook salmon, Delta smelt and steelhead are the most prominent fishes, anadromous fish movements in Sonoma Creek have been studied extensively not only in the mainstem Sonoma Creek, but in some of the tributaries. A variety of salamanders and frogs are present, the federally listed as threatened California red-legged frog is present in the northern reach draining the south slopes of Annadel State Park. The above are endangered species with the exception of the splittail and black rail, California golden beaver were historically abundant along Sonoma Creek but were trapped out in the California Fur Rush of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In 1828 fur trapper Michel La Framboise travelled from the Bonaventura River to San Francisco and the missions of San José, San Francisco Solano and San Rafael Arcángel.
La Framboise stated that the Bay of San Francisco abounds in beaver, the beaver were likely wiped out by the mid-nineteenth century but returned to Sonoma Creek, likely from the Delta, in the 1990s. In 1996 a beaver family developed a taste for merlot grapevine bark in a vineyard beside the creek and were exterminated, leading to civic uproar, new beavers have recolonized Sonoma Creek and are currently located in both Sonoma and Glen Ellen. Prominent higher elevation trees include, coast live oak, Garry oak, Pacific madrone, California buckeye, Douglas fir, up until about 1850 Sonoma Creek was unchanged from its natural state. Adverse erosion and bank cutting were at sustainable levels and did not add enough turbidity to the system to discourage aquatic species
A cove is a small type of bay or coastal inlet. Coves usually have narrow, restricted entrances, are circular or oval. Small, sheltered bays, creeks, or recesses in a coast are often considered coves, the term can be used to describe a sheltered bay. Geomorphology describes coves as precipitously-walled and rounded cirque-like openings as in a valley extending into or down a mountainside, coves are formed by differential erosion, which occurs when softer rocks are worn away faster than the harder rocks surrounding them. These rocks further erode to form a bay with a narrow entrance. A notable example is Lulworth Cove on the Jurassic Coast in Dorset, to its west, a second cove, Stair Hole, is forming. Clark, John O. E. Stiegler, the Facts on File, Dictionary of Earth Science. New York, Market House Books Ltd