Val-de-Marne is a French department, named after the Marne River, located in the Île-de-France region. The department is situated to the southeast of the city of Paris. Val-de-Marne is, together with Seine-Saint-Denis and Hauts-de-Seine, one of three small departments in Île-de-France that form a ring around Paris, known as the Petite Couronne. Since January 1, 2016 Val de Marne is included in Métropole du Grand Paris Val-de-Marne is made up of 3 departmental arrondissements and 47 communes: Val-de-Marne was created in January 1968, through the implementation of a law passed in July 1964. Positioned to the south-east of the Paris ring road, it was formed from the southern-eastern part of the Seine department, together with a small portion taken from the broken-up department of Seine-et-Oise. Communes of the Val-de-Marne department Prefecture General Council Citizen Blog
In many countries, Kilometre Zero or similar terms in other languages is a particular location from which distances are traditionally measured. They were markers where drivers could set their odometers to follow the directions in early guide books. One such marker is the Milliarium Aureum of the Roman Empire, believed to be the literal origin for the maxim that "all roads lead to Rome". Argentina marks Kilometre Zero with a monolith in Plaza Congreso in Buenos Aires; the work of the brothers Máximo and José Fioravanti, the structure was placed on the north side of Plaza Lorea on October 2, 1935. An image of Our Lady of Luján appears on the monolith's north face, a relief map of Argentina is on the south face, plaques in honor of José de San Martín are west, on its eastern side, the date of the decree and the name of the relevant authorities. Highways in Australia are built and maintained by the states and territories. In the state of New South Wales, highway distances were traditionally measured from a sandstone obelisk in Macquarie Place in Sydney, designed by Francis Greenway in 1818.
The obelisk lists the distances to various locations in New South Wales at the time. For the railway, it is located at platform 1 of Sydney Central Station; the General Post Office building in Melbourne traditionally serves this purpose in Victoria. In Western Australia, road distances are measured from Point Zero, by the old Treasury Building on the corner of Cathedral Avenue and St George's Terrace in Perth; the Byzantine Empire had an arched building, the Milion of Constantinople, as the starting-place for the measurement of distances for all the roads leading to the other cities. In the 1960s, some fragments were discovered and erected in its original location, now in the district of Eminönü, Turkey; the kilometre zero marker of the eastern origin of the Trans-Canada Highway is located in St. John's, Newfoundland. Coordinates: 47°33′39.78″N 52°42′44.33″W Altitude: 14.02 m The western origin of the Trans-Canada Highway in Victoria, British Columbia, is located on the southern end of Vancouver Island.
Mile zero of the Trans Canada Trail is located adjacent to the Railway Coastal Museum in St. John's, Newfoundland. Coordinates: 47°33′14.0″N 52°42′50.5″W Altitude: 4.5 m Mile zero for the Alaska Highway is located in Dawson Creek, British Columbia. All national distances from Santiago originate at the Km. 0 plaque, located at the Plaza de Armas main square in downtown Santiago. Chile's Autopista Central – Eje Norte-Sur has its Kilometre Zero at the intersection with the Alameda del Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins, the capital's main avenue. China Railway's 0 km is located at the entrance to the Fengtai Yard on the Jingguang Line just outside Beijing; this point was the start of the line. There is no ceremonial plaque; the kilometre zero point for highways is located at Tiananmen Square, just outside the Zhengyangmen Gate. It is marked with a plaque in the ground, with the four cardinal points, four animals, "Zero Point of Highways, China" in English and Chinese. Cuba's Kilometre Zero is located in its capital Havana in El Capitolio.
Embedded in the floor in the centre of the main hall is a replica 25 carat diamond, which marks Kilometre Zero for Cuba. The original diamond, said to have belonged to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and have been sold to the Cuban state by a Turkish merchant, was stolen on 25 March 1946 and mysteriously returned to the President, Ramón Grau San Martín, on 2 June 1946, it was replaced in El Capitolio by a replica in 1973. Copenhagen Town hall square is the zero point. DR-1, DR-2, DR-3 all depart from Kilometre Zero from Santo Domingo's Parque de Independencia. Kilometre Zero in Egypt is located at the Attaba Square Post Office in 1st of Abdel Khaliq Sarwat Pasha Street, Cairo. Kilometre Zero in Ethiopia is in Addis Ababa, in front of St. George's Cathedral; the point was designated by Emperor Haile Selassie in 1930. Kilometre Zero of Finland is located at the Erottaja square in central Helsinki. Kilometre Zero of French national highways located in Paris on the square facing the main entrance of Notre-Dame is considered the official centre of Paris.
48.8534°N 2.3488°E / 48.8534. 52.510788°N 13.398964°E / 52.510788. Distances from London to most parts of the country are measured in miles from the original site of Charing Cross, on the southern side of Trafalgar Square. In Scotland, distances from Edinburgh are measured from the GPO building in Princes Street. See also: London Stone, Hicks Hall, St Mary-le-Bow, a church from which the distance of the original London to Lewes road is measured. In ancient Greece, distances were measured from the altar of twelve gods, located in the ancient agora of Athens. So, that altar can be considered the first kilometre zero in human history. Nowadays, the kilometre zero for Greek high
Saint-Denis is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.4 km from the centre of Paris. Saint-Denis is a subprefecture of the department of Seine-Saint-Denis, being the seat of the arrondissement of Saint-Denis. Saint-Denis is home to the royal necropolis of the Basilica of Saint-Denis and was the location of the associated abbey, it is home to France's national football and rugby stadium, the Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Saint-Denis is a industrial suburb changing its economic base. Inhabitants of Saint-Denis are called Dionysiens; until the 3rd century, Saint-Denis was a small settlement called Catolacus or Catulliacum meaning "estate of Catullius", a Gallo-Roman landowner. About 250 AD, the first bishop of Paris, Saint Denis, was martyred on Montmartre hill and buried in Catolacus. Shortly after 250 his grave became a shrine and a pilgrimage centre, with the building of the Abbey of Saint Denis, the settlement was renamed Saint-Denis. In 1793, during the French Revolution, Saint-Denis was renamed Franciade in a gesture of rejection of religion.
In 1803, under the Consulate of Napoléon Bonaparte, the city reverted to its former name of Saint-Denis. During its history, Saint-Denis has been associated with the French royal house. Starting from Dagobert I every French king was buried in the Basilica. However, Saint-Denis is older than that. In the 2nd century, there was a Gallo-Roman village named Catolacus on the location that Saint-Denis occupies today. Saint Denis, the first bishop of Paris and patron saint of France, was martyred in about 250 and buried in the cemetery of Catolacus. Denis' tomb became a place of worship. Around 475, Sainte Geneviève had a small chapel erected on Denis' tomb, which by had become a popular destination for pilgrims, it was this chapel that Dagobert I had turned into a royal monastery. Dagobert granted many privileges to the monastery: independence from the bishop of Paris, the right to hold a market, most he was buried in Saint-Denis. During the Middle Ages, because of the privileges granted by Dagobert, Saint-Denis grew to become important.
Merchants from all over Europe came to visit its market. In 1140, Abbot Suger, counselor to the King, granted further privileges to the citizens of Saint-Denis, he started the work of enlarging the Basilica of Saint Denis that still exists today cited as the first example of high early Gothic Architecture. The new church was consecrated in 1144. Saint-Denis suffered in the Hundred Years' War. During the French Wars of Religion, the Battle of Saint-Denis was fought between Catholics and Protestants on 10 November 1567; the Protestants were defeated. In 1590, the city surrendered to Henry IV, who converted to Catholicism in 1593 in the abbey of Saint-Denis. King Louis XIV started several industries in Saint-Denis: weaving and spinning mills and dyehouses, his successor, Louis XV, whose daughter was a nun in the Carmelite convent, took a lively interest in the city: he added a chapel to the convent and renovated the buildings of the royal abbey. During the French Revolution, not only was the city renamed "Franciade" from 1793 to 1803, but the royal necropolis was looted and destroyed.
The remains were thrown together. The last king to be interred in Saint-Denis was Louis XVIII. After France became a republic and an empire, Saint-Denis lost its association with royalty. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, the commune of La Chapelle-Saint-Denis was disbanded and divided between the city of Paris, Saint-Denis, Saint-Ouen, Aubervilliers. Saint-Denis received the north-western part of La Chapelle-Saint-Denis. During the 19th century, Saint-Denis became industrialised. Transport was much improved: in 1824 the Canal Saint-Denis was constructed, linking the Canal de l'Ourcq in the northeast of Paris to the River Seine at the level of L'Île-Saint-Denis, in 1843 the first railway reached Saint-Denis. By the end of the century, there were 80 factories in Saint-Denis; the presence of so many industries gave rise to an important socialist movement. In 1892, Saint-Denis elected its first socialist administration, by the 1920s, the city had acquired the nickname of la ville rouge, the red city.
Until Jacques Doriot in 1934, all mayors of Saint-Denis were members of the Communist Party. During the Second World War, after the defeat of France, Saint-Denis was occupied by the Germans on 13 June 1940. There were several acts of sabotage and strikes, most notably on 14 April 1942 at the Hotchkiss factory. After an insurgency which started on 18 August 1944, Saint-Denis was liberated by General Leclerc on 27 August 1944. After the war, the economic crisis of the 1970s and 1980s hit the city, dependent on its heavy industry. During the 1990s, the city started to grow again; the 1998 FIFA World Cup provided an enormous impulse. The stadium is used by rugby teams for friendly matches; the Coupe de France, Coupe de la Ligue and Top 14 final match
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Créteil is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 11.5 km from the centre of Paris. Créteil is the préfecture of the Val-de-Marne department as well as the seat of the Arrondissement of Créteil; the city is, the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese and of one of France's 30 nationwide académies of the Ministry of National Education. The name Créteil was recorded for the first time as Cristoilum in the martyrology written by a monk named Usuard in 865; the name Cristoilum is made of the Celtic word ialo suffixed to a pre-Latin radical crist- whose meaning is still unclear. Some believe crist is a Celtic word meaning "ridge", a cognate of Latin crista and modern French crête, in which case the meaning of Cristoilum would be "clearing on the ridge" or "place on the ridge." A more traditional etymology was that crist referred to Jesus Christ, due to the ancient presence of Christianity in Créteil and the veneration of Saint Agoard and Saint Aglibert, martyred in Créteil around AD 400.
Créteil is a city in the south-eastern suburbs of Paris. It is watered by the Marne river which carries out its last loop before the junction with the Seine at the Charenton-le-Pont; the area is an alluvial plain eroded by the action of the Seine. Bordering communes include Maisons-Alfort, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, Bonneuil-sur-Marne, Limeil-Brévannes, Choisy-le-Roi and Alfortville; the climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Créteil has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps; some rare flints from the Palaeolithic age are still being found in modern times in the area. It is, however, a two-ton, Neolithic-era polishing machine, the prehistoric pride of Créteil; the first documents referring to Créteil are from the Merovingian era, when it was known as Vicus Cristoilum' The name comes from the prefix crist and oilum. These two terms are thought to be Gallic: "clearing" for oilum and "ridge" for crist.
The "clearing" of the "ridge" of the Mont-Mesly is on the road connecting Paris and Sens. In 1406, the place name "Créteil" makes its appearance after successive deformations from Cristoill, Cresteul Creteuil. During the French Wars of Religion, the Huguenots plundered the church and burned the local charters. New disorders in 1648 forced the evacuation of the inhabitants of Créteil; the end of Louis XIV's reign was marked by a great food shortage throughout the whole of France after a terrible winter in 1709 that resulted in 69 recorded deaths in Créteil. Registers of grievances from the French Revolution in 1789 mention Créteil 15 times. At the beginning of the 18th century, construction of the first middle-class "Parisian" houses began. In 1814, the east of Créteil was taken by Russian troops; the bridge which spans the Marne between Creteil and Saint-Maur-des-Fossés was inaugurated on 9 April 1841, replacing an ancient ferry. The Franco-Prussian War of 1870 was cruel for Créteil; the borough was plundered and left in ruins by the Prussians, while the nearby battle of Mont-Mesly on 30 November 1870, left 179 dead.
Créteil gave up its pastoral character after World War II. The population subsequently rose from 13,800 in 1954 to 30,654 in 1962. In 1965, the city became a Préfecture of the new department of the Val-de-Marne. Créteil Lake began as a gravel quarry. Once the groundwater was reached, forming deep ponds, the quarry was abandoned and allowed to fill with water; the lake area is now a popular recreational site attracting fishermen, wind surfers, etc... As of 1 January 2006, 27 pharmacies, about 60 dentists, about 60 general practitioners, 10 pediatricians, a half-dozen ophthalmologists and dermatologists constitute the general medical staff of the city. Health facilities include: CHU Henri Mondor, a publicly owned hospital inaugurated on 2 December 1969. Conceived for 1,300 beds, its capacity today is 958 beds, it employs more than 3,000 people including more than 2,600 looking after patients. Its expenditure in 2004 was 241M€. Centre hospitalier intercommunal de Créteil, inaugurated on 3 November 1937.
Capacity of reception of 530 in-patients as against 264 in 1937. The construction of this establishment was decided in 1932 by grouping the communes of the Bonneuil-sur-Marne and Joinville-le-Pont within an inter-communal syndicate. Saint-Maur-des-Fossés joined this syndicate later. A number of the hospital personnel were religious sisters. In 2004, 38,037 hospitalizations were listed, with 2,551 childbirths and 12,838 surgical interventions. ] It employs 2,000 people with about 1,600 of them caring for patients in medical or other capacities. Centre de Transfusion sanguine; the Blood Transfusion Centre of Creteil is run by the inter-communal Hospital. This service treats from 600 to 1,000 requests per day. Albert Chenevier Hospital. A publicly owned hospital, with a 463-bed capacity. There are 118 beds in the psychiatric ward. Public schools: 24 preschools 24 elementary schools Eight junior high schools: Clément Guyard, Victor Hugo, Louis Issaurat, Amédée Laplace, Louis Pasteur, Albert Schweitzer, Simone-de-Beauvoir Four high schools: Lycée Léon Blum, Lycée Édouard Branly, Lycée Gutenberg, Lycée Antoine de Saint-ExuperyPrivate schools: Ozar Hatorah De Maillé Lycée général et technologique de l'ensemble Sainte-Marie Lycée d'enseignement supé
Colombes is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 10.6 km from the centre of Paris. In 2012, Colombes was the 53rd largest city in France; the name Colombes comes from Latin columna, meaning "column". This is interpreted as referring either to a megalithic column used in ancient times by a druidic cult which stood in Colombes until its destruction during the French Revolution, or to the columns of an atrium in a ruined Gallo-Roman villa that stood in Colombes. On 13 March 1896, 17% of the territory of Colombes was detached and became the commune of Bois-Colombes. On 2 May 1910, 19% of the territory of Colombes was detached and became the commune of La Garenne-Colombes. Thus, the commune of Colombes is now only two-thirds the size of its territory before 1896; the city is divided into two cantons: Colombes-1 Colombes-2 Colombes is served by four stations on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line at Colombes, Le Stade, La Garenne-Colombes and Gare Les Vallées.
The commune has 19 elementary schools. Secondary schools: Junior high schools: Robert Paparemborde, Marguerite Duras, Gay Lussac, Moulin Joly, Jean-Baptiste Clément, Lakanal Senior high schools: Lycée Guy de Maupassant, Lycee Polyvalent Claude Garamont, Lycee Polyvalent Anatole de France Quilapayún, Groupe de musique Chilien qui s'exila en 1973 à Colombes Jordan Aboudou, basketball player Lens Aboudou, basketball player Kelly Berville, footballer Zoumana Camara, footballer Pierre Clayette, artist Mathieu Cossou, karateka Simone Jorry, deaf/hoh rights activist Claude Mérelle, actress Eliaquim Mangala, footballer Samuel Nadeau, basketball player Alexandre Postel, writer Steven Nzonzi, footballer Kevin Thalien, basketball player Elodie Thomis, footballer Axel Tony, singer Jonathan Toto, footballer Eddy Viator, footballer Rama Yade, moved into a council flat in Colombes with her mother and three sisters at the age of fourteen. Pierpoljak, reggae singer The stadium was built in 1907. Named the Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir, the Olympic Stadium of Colombes was the site of the opening ceremony and several events of the 1924 Summer Olympics.
The arena's capacity was increased to 60,000 for the 1938 World Cup. The stadium lost its importance after the restoration in 1972 of Paris' 49,000-seat Parc des Princes. In the 1990s, three of the four grandstands were torn down due to decay and the stadium's capacity was down to 7,000. Through November 2017, it had been home to the Racing 92 rugby club playing in France's Top 14, but Racing has since moved to the new U Arena in Nanterre; the RCF Paris football club, which plays in the fourth division, remains at Yves-du-Manoir. The stadium will be the field hockey venue at the 2024 Summer Olympics. Frankenthal, Germany Legnano, Italy Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department INSEE permanent dead link] Official website Colombes in postal card History of the Olympic Stadium Article: Chariots of Fire stadium reprieved
Vincent of Saragossa
Saint Vincent of Saragossa, the Protomartyr of Spain, was a deacon of the Church of Saragossa. He is the patron saint of Valencia, his feast day is 22 January in the Roman Catholic Church and Anglican Communion and 11 November in the Eastern Orthodox Churches. He was born at Huesca and martyred under the Emperor Diocletian around the year 304; the earliest account of Vincent's martyrdom is in a carmen written by the poet Prudentius, who wrote a series of lyric poems, Peristephanon, on Hispanic and Roman martyrs. He was born at Huesca, near Saragossa, Spain sometime during the latter part of the 3rd century. Vincent spent most of his life in the city of Saragossa, where he was educated and ordained to the diaconate by Bishop Valerius of Saragossa, who commissioned Vincent to preach throughout the diocese; because Valerius suffered from a speech impediment, Vincent acted as his spokesman. When the Roman Emperor Diocletian began persecuting Christians in Spain, both were brought before the Roman governor, Dacian in Valencia.
Vincent and his bishop Valerius were confined to the prison of Valencia. Though he was offered release if he would consign Scripture to the fire, Vincent refused. Speaking on behalf of his bishop, he informed the judge that they were ready to suffer everything for their faith, that they could pay no heed either to threats or promises, his outspoken manner so angered the governor that Vincent was inflicted every sort of torture on him. He was stretched on his flesh torn with iron hooks, his wounds were rubbed with salt and he was burned alive upon a red-hot gridiron. He was cast into prison and laid on a floor scattered with broken pottery, where he died. During his martyrdom he preserved such peace and tranquillity that it astonished his jailer, who repented from his sins and was converted. Vincent's dead body was thrown into the sea in a sack, but was recovered by the Christians and his veneration spread throughout the Church; the aged bishop Valerius was exiled. The story that Vincent was tortured on a gridiron is adapted from the martyrdom of another son of Huesca, Saint Lawrence— Vincent, like many early martyrs in the early hagiographic literature, succeeded in converting his jailer.
According to legend, after being martyred, ravens protected St. Vincent's body from being devoured by vultures, until his followers could recover the body, his body was taken to. In the time of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula, the Arab geographer Al-Idrisi noted this constant guard by ravens, for which the place was named by him كنيسة الغراب "Kanīsah al-Ghurāb". King Afonso I of Portugal had the body of the saint exhumed in 1173 and brought it by ship to the Lisbon Cathedral; this transfer of the relics is depicted on the coat of arms of Lisbon. Three elaborated hagiographies, all based on a lost 5th-century Passion, circulated in the Middle Ages, his "Acts" have been "rather colored by the imagination of their compiler". Though Vincent's tomb in Valencia became the earliest center of his cult, he was honoured at his birthplace and his reputation spread from Saragossa; the city of Oviedo in Asturias grew about the church dedicated to Vincent. Beyond the Pyrenees, he was venerated first in the vicinity of Béziers, at Narbonne.
Castres became an important stop on the international pilgrimage routes to Santiago de Compostela when the relics of Vincent were transferred to its new abbey-church dedicated to Saint Benedict from Saragossa in 863, under the patronage of Salomon, count of Cerdanya. A church was built in honour of Vincent, by the Catholic bishops of Visigothic Iberia, when they succeeded in converting King Reccared and his nobles to Trinitarian Christianity; when the Moors came in 711, the church was razed, its materials incorporated in the Mezquita, the "Great Mosque" of Cordova. The Cape Verde island of São Vicente, a former Portuguese colony, was named in his honour because it was discovered on 22 January, St. Vincent's feast day, in 1462; the island of St. Vincent in the Caribbean, now a part of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, was named by Christopher Columbus after Vincent of Saragossa, as the island was discovered by Europeans on 22 January, St. Vincent's feast day; the 15th century Portuguese artist Nuno Gonçalves depicted him in his Saint Vincent Panels.
A small fresco cycle of stories of St. Vincent is in the apse of the Basilica di San Vincenzo near Cantù, in northern Italy. Saint Vincent's left arm is on display as a relic in Valencia Cathedral, located near the extensive Carrer de Sant Vicent Mártir. There is the small town of São Vicente on the Portuguese island of Madeira, the city of São Vicente, São Paulo in Brazil named after this saint. Saint Vincent is the patron of the Order of the Deacons of the Catholic Diocese of Bergamo, he is honoured as patron in Valencia, Portugal, etc. and is invoked by vintners, vinegar-makers and sailors. Vincent of Saragossa is represented wearing the dalmatic of a deacon. Aliette, Genviève, Vincent D'Agen et saint Vincent de Saragosse: Etude de la "Passio S. Vincentii Martyris". Melun: Libraire D'Argences. Saxer, Victor. Saint Vincent diacre et martyr: culte et légendes avant l'An Mil. Bruxelles: Société des Bollandistes. ISBN 978-2-87365-011-7. Colonnade Statue in St Peter's Square Butler, Alban. “Saint Vincent, Martyr”.
Lives of t