Haile Selassie I was an Ethiopian regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974. He is a defining figure in contemporary Ethiopian history, he was a member of the Solomonic Dynasty who traced his lineage to Emperor Menelik I via his Shewan royal ancestors as a great-grandson of king Sahle Selassie daughter of Sahle Selase was mother of Woldemikael. Haile Selassie's father was Makonnen Wolde-Mikael Guddisa and his mother was Yeshimebet Mikael His internationalist views led to Ethiopia becoming a charter member of the United Nations, his political thought and experience in promoting multilateralism and collective security have proved seminal and enduring. At the League of Nations in 1936, the emperor condemned the use of chemical weapons by Italy against his people during the Second Italo–Ethiopian War, his suppression of rebellions among the landed aristocracy, which opposed his reforms, as well as what some critics perceived to be Ethiopia's failure to modernize enough, earned him criticism among some contemporaries and historians.
During his rule the Harari people were persecuted and many left the Harari Region. His regime was criticized by human rights groups, such as Human Rights Watch, as autocratic and illiberal. Among the Rastafari movement, whose followers are estimated to number between 700,000 and one million, Haile Selassie is revered as the returned messiah of the Bible, God incarnate. Beginning in Jamaica in the 1930s, the Rastafari movement perceives Haile Selassie as a messianic figure who will lead a future golden age of eternal peace and prosperity. Haile Selassie was an Ethiopian Orthodox Christian throughout his life; the 1973 famine in Ethiopia led to Haile Selassie's eventual removal from the throne. He died on 27 August 1975 at the age following a coup d'état. Haile Selassie was known as a child as Lij Tafari Makonnen. Lij is translated as "child", serves to indicate that a youth is of noble blood, his given name, means "one, respected or feared". Like most Ethiopians, his personal name "Tafari" is followed by that of his father Makonnen and that of his grandfather Woldemikael.
His Ge'ez name Haile Selassie was given to him at his infant baptism and adopted again as part of his regnal name in 1930. As Governor of Harar, he became known. Ras is a rank of nobility equivalent to Duke. In 1916, Empress Zewditu I appointed him to the position of Balemulu Silt'an Enderase. In 1928, she granted him the throne of Shewa, elevating his title to Negus or "King". On 2 November 1930, after the death of Empress Zewditu, Tafari was crowned Negusa Nagast King of Kings, rendered in English as "Emperor". Upon his ascension, he took as his regnal name Haile Selassie I. Haile means in Ge'ez "Power of" and Selassie means trinity—therefore Haile Selassie translates to "Power of the Trinity". Haile Selassie's full title in office was "By the Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I, King of Kings of Ethiopia, Elect of God"; this title reflects Ethiopian dynastic traditions, which hold that all monarchs must trace their lineage to Menelik I, the offspring of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.
To Ethiopians, Haile Selassie has been known by many names, including Janhoy, Talaqu Meri, Abba Tekel. The Rastafari movement employs many of these appellations referring to him as Jah, Jah Jah, Jah Rastafari. Haile Selassie's royal line descended from Sahle Selassie, He was born on 23 July 1892, in the village of Ejersa Goro, in the Harar province of Ethiopia, his mother was Woizero Yeshimebet Ali Abba Jifar, daughter of the renowned Oromo ruler of Wollo province Dejazmach Ali Abba Jifar. His maternal grandmother was of Gurage heritage. Tafari's father was the governor of Harar. Ras Makonnen served as a general in the First Italo–Ethiopian War, playing a key role at the Battle of Adwa. Haile Selassie was thus able to ascend to the imperial throne through his paternal grandmother, Woizero Tenagnework Sahle Selassie, an aunt of Emperor Menelik II and daughter of Negus Sahle Selassie of Shewa; as such, Haile Selassie claimed direct descent from Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, King Solomon of ancient Israel.
Ras Makonnen arranged for Tafari as well as his first cousin, Imru Haile Selassie, to receive instruction in Harar from Abba Samuel Wolde Kahin, an Ethiopian capuchin monk, from Dr. Vitalien, a surgeon from Guadeloupe. Tafari was named Dejazmach at the age of 13, on 1 November 1905. Shortly thereafter, his father Ras Makonnen died at Kulibi, in 1906. Tafari assumed the titular governorship of Selale in 1906, a realm of marginal importance, but one that enabled him to continue his studies. In 1907, he was appointed governor over part of the province of Sidamo, it is alleged that during his late teens, Haile Selassie was married to Woizero Altayech, that from this union, his daughter Princess Romanework was born. Following the death of his brother Yelma in 1907, the governorate of Harar was left vacant, its administration was left to Menelik's loyal general, Dejazmach Balcha Safo. Balcha Safo's administration of Harar was ineffective, so during the last illne
The Oromo people are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia. They represent 34.5 % of Ethiopia's population. Oromos speak the Oromo language as a mother tongue, part of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family; the word Oromo appeared in European literature for the first time in 1893 and became common in the second half of the 20th century. The Oromo people used the gadaa system of governance. A leader elected by the gadaa system remains in power only for 8 years, with an election taking place at the end of those 8 years. From the 18th century to the 19th century, Oromos were the dominant influence in northern Ethiopia during the Zemene Mesafint period, they have been one of the parties to historic migrations, wars with northern Christians and with southern and eastern Muslims, in the Horn of Africa. The origins and prehistory of the Oromo people is unclear, in part because the Oromo people did not have a written history and instead passed on stories orally prior to the 16th century.
Older and subsequent colonial era documents mention the Oromo people as Galla, but these documents were written by members of ethnic groups who were hostile towards them. Anthropologists and historians such as Herbert S. Lewis consider these sources to be fraught with biases and misunderstandings. Historical linguistics and comparative ethnology studies suggest that the Oromo people originated around the lakes Shamo and Stephanie, they are a Cushitic people who have inhabited the East and Northeast Africa since at least the early 1st millennium. The aftermath of the sixteenth century Abyssinian–Adal war led to Oromos being able to occupy lands of the Ethiopian Empire and Adal Sultanate; the Harla were assimilated by the Oromo in Ethiopia. The first verifiable record mentioning the Oromo people by a European cartographer is in the map made by the Italian Fra Mauro in 1460, which uses the term "Galla"; the map was drawn after consultations with Tigriyan monks who visited Italy in 1441. Galla was a term for a river and a forest, as well as for the pastoral people established in the highlands of southern Ethiopia.
This historical information, according to Mohammed Hassen, is consistent with the written and oral traditions of the Somalis. The historical evidence therefore suggests that the Oromo people were established in the southern highlands in or before the 15th century, that at least some Oromo people were interacting with other Ethiopian ethnic groups. After Fra Mauro's mention, there is a profusion of literature about the peoples of this region including the Oromo mentioning their wars and resistance to religious conversion by European sea explorers, Christian missionaries as well as regional writers. Fra Mauro's term Galla is the most used term, until the early 20th century; the earliest primary account of Oromo ethnography is the 16th-century "History of Galla" by Christian monk Bahrey who comes from the Sidama country of Gammo, written in the Ge'ez language. He begins his treatise on the Oromo by introducing them in racist terms. According to an 1861 book by D'Abbadie, a French explorer who traveled up to Kaffa in 1843, he was told that the word Galla was derived from a "war cry" and used by the Gallas themselves.
A journal published by International African Institute suggests it is an Oromo word for there is a word galla "wandering" in their language. The first known use of the word Oromo to refer to this ethnic group is traceable to 1893; the historic term for them has been Galla. This term, stated Juxon Barton in 1924, was in use for these people by Arabs; the word Galla has been variously interpreted, such as it means "to go home", or it refers to a river named Galla in early Abyssinian tradition. Scholarship that followed Barton, states that the label Galla for them, in historic documents, is a stereotype and has been translated by other ethnic groups as "pagan, inferior, enemy", "heathen, non-Muslim". In Afar language, states Morin, Galli means "crowd", "foreigners" and carries derogatory connotation "ordinary, commoner" as opposed to moddai or "high descent". Other societies such as the Anuak people refer to all the migrant highlanders consisting of Amharas as Galla people while the Tigreans, in the past, refer to Amharas as "half Galla".
The term Galla was used by Europeans before the 1974 revolution without any derogatory connotations. The Oromo never called themselves Galla, resist its use, they traditionally identified themselves by one of their clans, in contemporary times have used the common umbrella term of Oromo which connotes "free born people". While Oromo people have lived in this region for a long time, the ethnic mixture of peoples who have lived here is unclear. According to Alessandro Triulzi, the interactions and encounters between Oromo people and Nilo-Saharan groups began early. Different groups have attempted to reconstruct a speculative origin theories, wherein either Oromo are presumed "heathen and expansionists who displaced another ethnic group", or the Oromo are presumed to be original people who were "displaced by others". However, persuasive evidence to support various speculations has been missing; the original Oromos increased their numbers through Oromization of conquered people from other ethnic groups, in turn others conquered people from them and converted them to their side.
The native ancient names of the territories were replaced by the name of th
The Solomonic dynasty known as the House of Solomon, is the former ruling Imperial House of the Ethiopian Empire. The dynasty's members claim the Queen of Sheba. Tradition asserts that the Queen gave birth to Menelik I after her biblically described visit to Solomon in Jerusalem. In 1270, the Zagwe dynasty of Ethiopia was overthrown by Yekuno Amlak, who claimed descent from Solomon and reinitiated the Solomonic era of Ethiopia; the dynasty would last until 1974, ended by a coup d'état and deposition of the emperor Haile Selassie. The Solomonic dynasty was a bastion of Judaism and of Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, it is claimed that this dynasty ruled Ethiopia as early as the 10th century BC, although there is no historical evidence to support this claim. Records of the dynasty's history were maintained by the Ethiopian Orthodox monasteries to near antiquity. Yekuno Amlak, an Amhara prince from the old province Bet Amhara, re-established the dynasty, tracing his ancestry to the last Solomonic King of Axum, Dil Na'od.
The Dynasty re-established itself on 10 Nehasé 1262 EC when Yekuno Amlak overthrew the last ruler of the Zagwe dynasty. Yekuno Amlak claimed direct male line descent from the old Axumite royal house that the Zagwes had replaced on the throne. Menelik II, his daughter Zewditu I, would be the last Ethiopian monarchs who could claim uninterrupted direct male descent from Solomon of Israel and the Queen of Sheba; the male line, through the descendants of Menelik's cousin Dejazmatch Taye Gulilat, still existed, but had been pushed aside because of Menelik's personal distaste for this branch of his family. The Solomonic Dynasty continued to rule Ethiopia with few interruptions until 1974, when the last emperor, Haile Selassie I, was deposed; the royal family is non-regnant. Members of the family in Ethiopia at the time of the 1974 revolution were imprisoned. In 1976, ten great grandchildren of Haile Selassie I were extracted from Ethiopia in an undertaking detailed in a book by Jodie Collins titled Code Word: Catherine.
The women of the dynasty were released by the regime from prison in 1989, the men were released in 1990. Several members were allowed to leave the country in mid 1990, the rest left in 1991 upon the fall of the Communist Regime. Many members of the Imperial family have since returned to live in Ethiopia. During much of the dynasty's existence, its effective realm was the northwestern quadrant of present-day Ethiopia, the Ethiopian Highlands; the Empire expanded and contracted over the centuries, sometimes incorporating parts of modern-day Sudan and South Sudan, coastal areas of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Southern and eastern regions were permanently incorporated during the last two centuries, some by Shewan kings and some by Emperors Menelek II and Haile Selassie I. In the modern era, the Imperial dynasty has several cadet branches; the elder Gondarine Amhara line, starting with Susenyos in 1606 ended its rule with the fall of the powerless Yohannes III in 1855 and the coming to power of Tewodros II, whose claims of Solomonic descent were never accepted.
Following Tewodros, Wagshum Gobeze claimed the throne linking himself to the last independent Gondare emperors through his mother, Aychesh Tedla, a descendant of Iyasu I, reigned as emperor of Ethiopia with the title Tekle Giorgis II for some years investing in the renovation of churches and monuments in Gondar. Being an heir to the Zagwe throne, his reign was meant to be a unification of both dynasties in the enthronement of a king bearing both lineages. Tekle Giorgis II fought a battle with the Tigrean Claimant Kassai Mercha, the latter, who had retrieved superior weaponry and armament from the British in return for his assistance in the defeat of Tewodros II, would be able to defeat Tekle Giorgis II's army and killing him; the Tigrean line came to power with the enthronement of Yohannes IV in 1872, although this line did not persist on the Imperial throne after the Emperor was killed in battle with the Mahdists in 1889, the heirs of this cadet branch ruled Tigre until the revolution of 1974 toppled the Ethiopian monarchy.
The Tigrean Cadet branch traces its lineage to the main Solomonic line of Emperors through at least two female lines. The more recent link was through Woizero Aster Iyasu; the Shewan line was next on the Imperial throne with the coronation of Menelik II Menelik King of Shewa, in 1889. The Shewan Branch of the Imperial Solomonic dynasty, like the Gondarine line, could trace uninterrupted male line descent from King Yekonu Amlak, though Abeto Negassi Yisaq, the grandson of Dawit II by his youngest son Abeto Yaqob; the direct male line ended with Menelik II –, succeeded first by the son of his daughter Lij Iyasu from 1913 to 1916 by his daughter Zewditu until 1930, by the son of a first cousi
Makonnen Wolde Mikael
Ras Mäkonnen Wäldä-Mika'él Guddisa, or Ras Makonnen, a general and the governor of Harar province in Ethiopia, the father of Tafari Mäkonnen. His father was Fitawrari Woldemikael Guddessa of a noble family of Oromo origin Woldemikael Woldemelekot of Shewa. Makonnen was a grandson of Negus Sahle Selassie of Shewa through his mother, Leult Tenagnework Sahle Selassie; as such, he was a first cousin of the Ethiopian Emperor, Menelik II. Ras Mäkonnen was born at Derefo Maryam near Ankober, at the age of 14 his father took him to the court of Negus Menelik ruler of Shewa, where he became a special companion of Menelik. In 1887, Makonnen was given the governorship of Harar after it was incorporated into the Ethiopian Empire by his cousin, Emperor Menelik. Other posts Ras Makonnen served included temporary governor of Tigray after the removal of the rebellious Ras Mangasha Yohannes. In the 1880s, as Shum of Harar, Ras Mäkonnen became a close friend of the French poet, Arthur Rimbaud, living and doing business in that province.
In 1902, Ras Mäkonnen attended the coronation of King Edward VII in London. He arrived in June to the ceremony scheduled for 26 June, stayed in Europe while the King recovered from an operation, attending the rescheduled ceremony on 9 August. Between these dates, he paid visits to various parts of the United Kingdom, visited Italy, France and Germany, he received the following decorations: Knight Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George during an audience with King Edward VII on 8 August 1902, Star of the Russian Order of St. Anne, Star of the French Legion d'Honneur, Star of the Order of the Crown of Italy, Star of the Ottoman Order of Osmania. In 1906, Dejazmach Yilma Makonnen succeeded Makonnen as Shum of Harar. Yilma Makonnen was his son from before his marriage to Wayzero Yeshimabet Ali. In 1907, Yilma Makonnen was in turn succeeded as Shum by his younger half-brother, Tafari Makonnen, the future Emperor Haile Selassie. Around July 1873, Makonnen married Yeshimebet Ali, the daughter of Dejazmatch Ali Abba Jiffar, a Muslim chief of the Warra Illu clan of the Wollo Oromo tribe, Woizero Wolete Giyorgis, a Christian of Gurage background.
In 1875, Yilma Makonnen was born to Makonnen and a woman, not Yeshimebet Ali. In 1892, Tafari Makonnen, the son of Makonnen and Yeshimebet Ali, was born. In 1901, following the death of Yeshimebet Ali, Makonnen was married to a niece of Empress Taitu Betul, Woizero Mentewab Wale. Makonnen's marriage to Mentewab Wale was never consummated and, in 1902, it was annulled. While travelling from Harar to Addis Ababa, Ras Makonnen came down with typhus, his officers brought him to Kulubi, where he died as daylight broke after having given his son Tafari Makonnen a whispered benediction. Footnotes Citations Marcus, Harold G.. The Life and Times of Menelik II: Ethiopia 1844-1913. Lawrenceville: Red Sea. ISBN 1-56902-010-8. Media related to Ras Makonnen at Wikimedia Commons
Gondar or Gonder is a city and separate woreda in Ethiopia. Located in the Semien Gondar Zone of the Amhara Region, Gondar is north of Tana Lake on the Lesser Angereb River and southwest of the Simien Mountains, it has a longitude of 12 ° 36 ′ N 37 ° 28 ′ E with an elevation of 2133 meters above sea level. It is surrounded by the Gondar Zuria woreda. Gondar served as a strong Christian kingdom for many years. Gondar served as the capital of both the Ethiopian Empire and the subsequent Begemder Province; the city holds the remains of several royal castles, including those in Fasil Ghebbi, for which Gondar has been called the "Camelot of Africa". Until the 16th century, the Solomonic Emperors of Ethiopia had no fixed capital town, but instead lived in tents in temporary royal camps as they moved around their realms while their family and retinue devoured surplus crops and cut down nearby trees for firewood. One exception to this rule was Debre Berhan, founded by Zara Yaqob in 1456. Gondar was founded by Emperor Fasilides around the year 1635, grew as an agricultural and market town.
There was a superstition at the time that the capital's name should begin with the letter'Gʷa', which contributed to Gorgora's growth in the centuries after 1600. Tradition states that a buffalo led the Emperor Fasilides to a pool beside the Angereb, where an "old and venerable hermit" told the Emperor he would locate his capital there. Fasilides built his castle on that same site; the emperor built a total of seven churches. The five emperors who followed him built their palaces in the town. Beginning with Emperor Menas in 1559, the rulers of Ethiopia began spending the rainy season near Lake Tana returning to the same location each year; these encampments, which flourished as cities for a short time, include Emfraz, Ayba and Dankaz. In 1668, as a result of a church council, the Emperor Yohannes I ruled that the inhabitants of Gondar were to be segregated by religion; this caused the Muslims to move within two years. This quarter came to be known as Addis Alem. During the seventeenth century, the city's population is estimated to have exceeded 60,000.
Many of the buildings from this period survive, despite the turmoil of the eighteenth century. By the reign of Iyasu the Great, Gondar had acquired a sense of community identity. Although Gondar was by any definition a city, it was not a melting pot of diverse traditions, nor Ethiopia's window to the larger world, according to Donald Levine. "It served rather as an agent for the quickened development of the Amhara's own culture. And thus it became a focus of national pride... not as a hotbed of alien custom and immorality, as they regard Addis Ababa today, but as the most perfect embodiment of their traditional values." As Levine elaborates in a footnote, it was an orthogenetic pattern of development, as distinguished from an heterogenetic one. The town served as Ethiopia's capital until Tewodros II moved the Imperial capital to Magadala upon being crowned Emperor in 1855. Abdallahi ibn Muhammad sacked Gondar when he invaded Ethiopia June 1887. Gondar was ravaged again on 23 January in the next year, when Sudanese invaders set fire to every one of the city's churches.
After the military occupation of Ethiopia by the Kingdom of Italy in 1936, Gondar was further developed under Italian occupation, the Comboni missionaries established in 1937 the Latin Catholic Apostolic Prefecture of Gondar, which would be suppressed after its only prefect's death in 1951. During the Second World War, Mussolini's Italian forces made their last stand in Gondar in November 1941, after Addis Ababa fell to British forces six months before; the area of Gondar was one of the main centers of activity of Italian guerrilla against the British forces until summer 1943. During the Ethiopian Civil War, the forces of the Ethiopian Democratic Union gained control of large parts of Begemder, during parts of 1977 operated within a few kilometers of Gondar, appeared to be at the point of capturing the city; as part of Operation Tewodros near the end of the Civil War, Gondar was captured by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front in March 1991. Gondar traditionally was divided into several neighborhoods or quarters: Addis Alem, where the Muslim inhabitants dwelled.
Gondar is a noted center of ecclesiastical learning of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, known for having 44 churches – for many years more than any other settlement in Ethiopia. Gondar and its surrounding countryside constitute the homeland of most Ethiopian Jews; the modern city of Gondar is popular as a tourist destination for its many picturesque ruins in Fasil Ghebbi, from which the emperors once reigned. The most famous buildings in the city lie in the Royal Enclosure, which include Fasilide