Queensland is the second-largest and third-most-populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west, to the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. Queensland has a population of 4,750,500, concentrated along the coast, the state is the worlds sixth largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 km2. The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane, Australias third largest city, often referred to as the Sunshine State, Queensland is home to 10 of Australias 30 largest cities and is the nations third largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled largely by its tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, the first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa.
In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain. The colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney, New South Wales at that time included all of what is now Queensland, Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842, the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. The 6th of June is now celebrated statewide as Queensland Day. Queensland achieved statehood with the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901, the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement. The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770, the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party.
June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a colony from New South Wales. The Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC, likely via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, during the last ice age Queenslands landscape became more arid and largely desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the worlds first seed-grinding technology, warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the states tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa and this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, and it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland, the Aboriginal population declined significantly after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century
Dreamtime is a term devised by early anthropologists to refer to a religio-cultural worldview attributed to Australian Aboriginal beliefs. It was originally used by Francis Gillen, quickly adopted by his colleague Baldwin Spencer and thereafter popularised by A. P. Elkin and they were often distinct from gods as they did not control the material world and were not worshipped, but only revered. The term is based on a rendition of the indigenous word alcheringa, used by the Aranda people of Central Australia, william Stanner remarked, why the blackfellow thinks of dreaming as the nearest equivalent in English is a puzzle. It has been argued that the meaning is closer to eternal. By the 1980s, Dreamtime and the Dreaming had acquired their own currency in popular culture, the station-master and amateur ethnographer Francis Gillen first used the terms in an ethnographical report in 1896. With Baldwin Spencer Gillen, he published in 1899 a major work, in that work, they spoke of the Alcheringa as the name applied to the far distant past with which the earliest traditions of the tribe deal.
In the Arrernte tongue, the verb for to dream was altjirerama. The noun is the rare word altjirrinja, of which Spencer and Gillen gave a corrupted transcription. The native, they concluded, knows nothing of dreamtime as a designation of a period of their history. Related entities are known as Mura-mura by the Dieri and as Tjukurpa in Pitjantjatjara and this is because in Dreamtime an individuals entire ancestry exists as one, culminating in the idea that all worldly knowledge is accumulated through ones ancestors. Many Indigenous Australians refer to the Creation time as The Dreaming, the Dreamtime laid down the patterns of life for the Aboriginal people. Creation is believed to be the work of culture heroes who traveled across a land, creating sacred sites. In this way, songlines were established, some of which could travel right across Australia, the dreaming and travelling trails of the Spirit Beings are the songlines. The signs of the Spirit Beings may be of spiritual essence, physical remains such as petrosomatoglyphs of body impressions or footprints, Dreaming existed before the life of the individual begins, and continues to exist when the life of the individual ends.
Both before and after life, it is believed that this exists in the Dreaming and is only initiated into life by being born through a mother. The spirit of the child is culturally understood to enter the fetus during the fifth month of pregnancy. When the mother felt the move in the womb for the first time. Upon birth, the child is considered to be a special custodian of that part of their country and is taught the stories and songlines of that place, as Wolf states, A black fella may regard his totem or the place from which his spirit came as his Dreaming
Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist. The family returned to Perth, and in 1917 moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a cadet at the Adelaide Public Library. Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in a gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologists Assistant to Arthur Mills Lea and he had already published thirty-one papers on entomological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various groupings of Indigenous Australians. This interest began with a trip to Groote Eylandt where an Anindilyakwa man gave Tindale very detailed descriptions of which land was his. This led Tindale to question the orthodoxy of the time which was that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region.
While Tindales methodology and his notion of the tribe have been superseded. Quite a number of now-important record films were made by Tindale, in 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and was assigned the rank of Wing Commander. He had previously tried to enlist in the Australian army at the outbreak of WWII but was rejected due to his damaged eyesight, in 1967, at the age of sixty-six, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Colorado. He was eventually honoured with a doctorate by the Australian National University in 1980, during 1993 Tindale received unofficial confirmation of his appointment as an Officer of the Order of Australia, this was presented posthumously, to his widow Muriel. Also in 1993, the South Australian Museum Boards named a public gallery in his honour, Tindale published extensively, both as sole author and collaborator. Note that the archives contain 2,804 items related to Dr Tindale
Macmillan Publishers Ltd is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. It has offices in 41 countries worldwide and operates in more than thirty others, Macmillan was founded in 1843 by Daniel and Alexander Macmillan, two brothers from the Isle of Arran, Scotland. Alfred Tennyson joined the list in 1884, Thomas Hardy in 1886, other major writers published by Macmillan included W. B. Chaudhuri, Seán OCasey, John Maynard Keynes, Charles Morgan, Hugh Walpole, Margaret Mitchell, C. P. Snow, Rumer Godden and Ram Sharan Sharma. Beyond literature, the company created such enduring titles as Nature, Macmillan established an office in New York City. It sold its American division in 1896, which published as the Macmillan Company, Macmillan Publishers re-entered the American market in 1954 under the name St. Martins Press. After retiring from politics in 1964, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Harold Macmillan became chairman of the company and he had been with the family firm as a junior partner from 1920 to 1940, and from 1945 to 1951 while he was in the opposition in Parliament.
The company was one of the oldest independent publishing houses until 1995, Holtzbrinck purchased the remaining shares in 1999, ending the Macmillan familys ownership of the company. Even with the split of the American company from its parent company in England, George Brett, Jr. and he came to the United States with his family in the service of Macmillans of England and built up a business of approximately $50,000 before he died. By my father, who eventually incorporated The Macmillan Company of New York, I succeeded my father, and we currently doing a business of approximately $12,000,000. So then, the name of Brett and the name of Macmillan have been and are synonymous in the United States, pearson acquired the Macmillan name in America in 1998, following its purchase of the Simon & Schuster educational and professional group. Holtzbrinck purchased it from them in 2001, mcGraw-Hill continues to market its pre-kindergarten through elementary school titles under its Macmillan/McGraw-Hill brand.
The US operations of Georg von Holtzbrinck are now known as Macmillan, one of the leading companies is Macmillan, that started by selling British English dictionaries and textbooks that were adapted for Russian readers. Their site website provides Russian teachers and students with an access for tests, competitions and information on scheduled online seminars. By some estimates, as of 2009 e-books account for three to five per cent of total sales, and are the fastest growing segment of the market. Following the announcement of the Apple iPad on 27 January 2010—a product that comes with access to the iBookstore—Macmillan gave Amazon, in the latter case, Amazon. com would receive a 30 per cent commission. Amazon responded by pulling all Macmillan books, both electronic and physical, from their website, on 31 January 2010, Amazon chose the agency model preferred by Macmillan. In April 2012, the United States Department of Justice filed United States v. Apple Inc. naming Apple, the suit alleged that they conspired to fix prices for e-books, and weaken Amazon. coms position in the market, in violation of antitrust law
Alfred William Howitt
Alfred William Howitt was an Australian anthropologist and naturalist. Mount Howitt in Victoria, and Howitt Hall, one of Monash Universitys Halls of Residence are named after him, Howitt was born in Nottingham, the son of authors William Howitt and Mary Botham. He came to the Victorian gold fields in 1852 with his father and brother to visit his uncle, Howitt was a geologist in Victoria, later, he worked as a gold warden in North Gippsland. Howitt went on to be appointed Police magistrate & Warden Crown Lands Commissioner, still, in 1861, the Royal Society of Victoria appointed Howitt leader of the Victorian Relief Expedition, with the task of establishing the fate of the Burke and Wills expedition. Howitt was a bushman, he took only the necessary equipment. There, on 16 September he found sole survivor John King, Howitt buried Burke, on a follow-up expedition to Cooper Creek in 1862, Howitt recovered the bodies of Burke and Wills for burial at the Melbourne General Cemetery. Howitt researched the culture and society of Indigenous Australians, in particular kinship and marriage, he was influenced by the theories of evolution, in 1863 he married Maria Boothby, they had five children.
Maria was the daughter of Judge Benjamin Boothby, Chief Justice of the Colony of South Australia, Howitt was Secretary for Mines in Victoria. In 1903 Howitt was awarded the Clarke Medal by the Royal Society of New South Wales, Howitt died in 1908 in Bairnsdale, Victoria. The recreational park named in his honour is located adjacent to the Mitchell River Bridge on the side of Bairnsdale. Howitts scientific life shared a special irony with that of his longtime friend Lorimer Fison and they were both set in motion by Lewis Henry Morgan, Morgan pinned more hope on Fison than on Howitt. However, Fison gave up his scientific pursuit shortly after Morgans death, howitts magnum opus, The Native Tribes of South East Australia, remains one of the only contemporaneous scientific studies of the native institutions of Central Australian Aborigines. Come wind, come weather, a biography of Alfred Howitt, Alfred William,1870,15 March 1870. Notes on the Aborigines of Coopers Creek, note as to descent in the Dieri tribe.
The Dieri and other kindred tribes of Central Australia, transactions of the Royal Society of Victoria. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009, Alfred William, The native tribes of south-east Australia, Macmillan, OL 24190592M Howitt, Alfred William,1907. Personal reminiscences of Central Australia and the Burke and Wills Expedition, journal of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. Howitt, Alfred William, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, legends of the Dieri and kindred tribes of Central Australia
Star lore or starlore is the creating and cherishing of mythical stories about the stars and star patterns, that is, folklore based upon the stars and star patterns. Using the stars to explain religious doctrines or actual events in history is defined as star lore. Star lore has a long history, it has been practiced by nearly every culture recorded in history. It was practiced by prehistoric cultures of the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods as well, one example of star lore is the inventing of the story of Orion the Hunter and the Scorpius the Scorpion by the ancient Greeks. This ancient culture saw a very startling pattern of stars in the winter sky that, from their point of view, resembled a mighty hunter. During the summer, they saw another startling pattern of stars that resembled a scorpion. They noticed that the constellations of Orion and the scorpion were positioned at opposite ends of the sky and were never seen in the sky simultaneously. As one constellation rose above the horizon, the other was setting below the western horizon, and when either one was high in the sky.
The ancient Greeks felt compelled to explain this phenomenon by composing a story or myth based on the two constellations, the story was that Orion was a mighty and proud hunter who was stung by a scorpion. Orion died of the sting and was placed among the stars by the gods. Although the scorpion was destroyed by the gods in vengeance for killing Orion, another example of star lore is the story behind the constellation Andromeda, known at the chained woman. Andromeda was the daughter of the king and queen of Ethiopia, King Cepheus, Cepheus consulted an oracle for assistance and learned that the only way to save his lands was to sacrifice his daughter to Poseidons monster. Andromeda was chained to a rock and left for the sea monster, the hero of the story who had just killed the Gorgon Medusa found Andromeda in her distress and immediately, the two fell in love. Perseus asked for her name and refused to leave until he knew it, Andromeda told him her name, her country, and the reason for her imprisonment on the rock.
He consulted with Cepheus and Cassiopeia, and they decided that if Perseus rescued Andromeda from the sea monster, the story of how he defeats the monster varies. Ovid describes his killing of the monster as a drawn out bloody battle, other sources say that Perseus killed the sea monster with the aid of Medusas head, turning the monster to stone. Andromeda and Perseus were married soon after, despite already being promise to her uncle, at the wedding and Perseus got into an altercation, and Perseus turned Phineus to stone using Medusas head. The constellation is said to have astrological influences as well and it is said that any man born at the same time Andromeda is said to rise from the sea will be one without mercy, he will be emotionally unmoved even in the presence of grieving parents
Killarney is a small town located 35 kilometres south-east of Warwick, on the Condamine River in Queensland, Australia. The town forms part of the Southern Downs local government area, Killarney is located about 8 kilometres from the Queensland/New South Wales border. It is close to Queen Mary Falls, in the Main Range National Park, at the 2011 census, Killarney had a population of 773. The name of the town is said to be a result of the strong visual resemblance to that of Killarney in County Kerry. Originally part of Canning Downs, established by the Leslie brothers in 1840, the South Killarney town site was first surveyed in 1878, but the town already boasted several shops and services by this time. Many early settlers to Queensland selected land in the Killarney area with the first of these arriving in 1863, during the 1880s Killarney was described as one of the most flourishing towns in Southern Queensland. A branch railway was built from Warwick in 1885, the first Killarney Post Office opened on 1 July 1877.
Killarney North Post Office opened on 26 June 1889 and was renamed North Killarney in 1897, in 1905 the Killarney office was renamed Killarney South, and the North Killarney office became the second Killarney office, due to the town having moved to near the railway station. The town was hit by a tornado on Saturday 23 November 1968. The former National bank building did survive the storm but was relocated to a suburb of Brisbane in 1977, the old Bank Vault foundation stones remain on the vacant block in the buildings original location adjacent to the St Vincent de Paul boutique. November 2008 marks the 40th anniversary of this storm, the Killarney Co-operative is Killarneys main street under one roof. Partially operating in the original Milwards General Store, originally established in 1913 as the Killarney Dairy Company, in 2008, the Co-op was a department store boasting in-store banking, shoes, hardware, agricultural supplies, supermarket and coffee shop. Several key buildings remain in Willow St, the Killarney Post Office was built in 1905.
The CWA building, formerly the School of Arts, was built in 1888 on stilts over Gravel Creek and is testament to how crowded the main street had become at the towns height. The Killarney Hotel is located in Willow St and is the hotel to sit on this site. The Killarney Recreation Club has been a recent addition to the townscape on the side of town. Two sandstone horseheads at the entrance to the Polocrosse Fields and the God of Sport Statue in front of the Club were created by locally based sculptor Paul Stumkat, the local economy is underpinned by agriculture, abattoirs and more recently tourism. The annual agricultural show, various horse-related events and the annual Border Ranges Trail Ride are major events that attract substantial numbers of visitors to the town, Killarney has many active community and sporting groups including the Killarney Area Promotion Association and the Killarney Cutters RugbyLeague club
Fitzroy River (Queensland)
The Fitzroy River is a river located in Central Queensland, Australia. Its catchment covers an area of 142,665 square kilometres, the catchment stretches from the Carnarvon Range in the west to the rivermouth in Keppel Bay, near Rockhampton. It is bounded to the north by the Burdekin River catchment area, the river has a mean annual discharge of 5,900 gigalitres. There are a number important aquifers providing for groundwater extractions in the Fitzroy Basin, the Fitzroy River basin is one of a number that experienced extensive flooding during the 2010–2011 Queensland floods. In 2013, flash flooding in the Mount Morgan and Biloela regions brought major flooding to the lower Dawson River catchment, the Don River and the Dee River rose to new record heights. The Fitzroy River at Rockhampton rose above major flooding to 8.61 metres, the Fitzroy River catchment system has many weirs and dams, used for farming and domestic consumption. In the Dawson River sub-catchment, the reservoirs from source to mouth are the Glebe Weir, the Gyranda Weir, the Theodore Weir, the Moura Weir, the Callide Dam.
In the Mackenzie River sub-catchment, the reservoirs are the Comet Weir, the Fairbairn Dam, the Theresa Creek Dam, the Bedford Weir, the Bingegang Weir. The traditional owners of the area in the Fitzroy River catchment are the Darumbal people, notably the Baiali, the famous boatbuilder Colin Archer was the first to sail up the river, with his cutter Ellida. The city of Rockhampton is situated on the river, some 40 kilometres from the coast, during the 19th and early 20th centuries, the city was a major port, however rocky bars in the river prevented the Fitzroy from being used for navigation any further inland. As ships became larger, the lower reaches became less viable for commercial traffic, wharves which once lined the town reach at Rockhampton have now almost all disintegrated or been removed. Predominant industries in the catchment are coal mining and cotton, glenmore Homestead was built at a property on the northern bank of the river 7 kilometres northwest of Rockhampton. It was originally settled in 1858, is listed on the Queensland Heritage Register, the lower reaches of the river are home to salt water crocodiles.
In 2003 a crocodile measuring more than 4 metres long was captured, the most diverse range of freshwater fish in the country are found within the Fitzroy basin. The prized Australian fish, the barramundi, breeds in the river along with sooty grunter, some 987 square kilometres of the rivers floodplain and delta have been classified by BirdLife International as the Fitzroy Floodplain and Delta Important Bird Area. It regularly supports over 1% of the population of the sharp-tailed sandpiper as well as having a resident breeding population of the range-restricted mangrove honeyeater. At the mouth of the researchers have discovered a genetically distinct snubfin dolphins species with a population of just 70 animals. The World Wildlife Fund believes planned coal port on Balaclava Island by Xstrata could wipe out the local snubfin population, list of rivers of Queensland Map of the Fitzroy River catchment area, from Australias Bureau of Meteorology Fitzroy Basin water planning area
Djabugay belongs to the Yidinic branch of the Pama–Nyungan language family, and is closely related to Yidin. The last speaker with a knowledge of the language was Gilpin Banning. Their western boundary was defined by the margin of the rain forest from Tolga north to Mount Molloy. By 1952, the Djabugay claimed the strip between Cairns Inlet and Lamb Range, with one horde lived near Redlynch, Cairns. The somewhat ambiguous eurocentric concept of the Dreamtime devised to describe Aboriginal religion or the traditional worldview of the Djabugay and the Yidinji, was expressed in the word bulurru. It finally came to rest at Wangal Djungay In one account, he was killed by emu men at Din din, an incident which unleashed the powerful monsoonal rains on the region. There were 2 Bulurru dreamtime brothers and Guyala, who laid down the contours, created the plant foods, established the customary law, the contours of the Barron River and Redlynch Valley, for example, are thought of as representing the supine body of Damarri.
The tale of Budadjis travels along the Barron Gorge is included in the web guide of Queensland Rail to the journey from Cairns to Kuranda. European settlers explored and cleared the land for gold and tin, the euphemism for shooting groups of blacks, were undertaken at Smithfield, Bibhoora at Clohesy River close to Kuranda in the early 1880s, and near Mareeba in 1881. In May 1886, a railway was constructed from Cairns to Herberton with part of the going on top of a walking track. The Djabugay were unhappy about this development and withstood the settlement by spearing bullocks, as the settlers entered, traditional hunting and gathering grounds were taken over. This led to the notorious Speewah massacre in 1890 where John Atherton took revenge on the Djubagay by sending in native troopers to avenge the killing of a bullock. The Djubagay were segregated from them and forced to live at the Mona-Mona Mission and were unable to hunt and their numbers fell dramatically at the turn of the century. By 1896, the region supported coffee plantations and the Djabugay were used as labour on farms, many now own their own land, some other settlements and farms in the area.
On 17 December 2004, it was recognised that native title existed in the Barron Gorge National Park for the Djabugay and it followed that the physical landscape, its storyplaces and storywaters in bulurru tradition underline the inalienable connection between the native claimants, their ancestral beings and the land. In land title claims, there was a running dispute between the Djabugay and the Yirrganydji the latter claiming native title to the area from Cairns to Port Douglas. The clash arose out of the siting of the Tjapukai Cultural Theme Park, though some Djabuguy wished their claim to be included under the general claim, regarding them as part of the Dajabugay people, the Yirrganydji insisted on maintaining their separate identity. Eventually the two representing the groups thrashed out a compromise agreement
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members of the Aboriginal race of Australia. Until the 1980s, the legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to human rights depended upon your race. If you were a full blooded Aboriginal native, the Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament power to legislate with respect to the people of any throughout the Commonwealth. The purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, the only other reference, Section 127, provided simply that aboriginal natives shall not be counted in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it. The purpose of section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories, after both of these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals.
Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to specifically mention Indigenous Australians, the change to Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament the power to make laws specifically with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a race. The case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians and it was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, and any part of either, could be regarded as a race for this purpose. As to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a race, Deane said, It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase people of any race in s.51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning, the phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in regard, is removed by reference to the wording of par.
The phrase is apposite to refer to any identifiable racial sub-group among Australian Aboriginals, while Deanes three-part definition reaches beyond the biological criterion to individuals self-identification, it has been criticised as continuing to accept the biological criterion as primary. It has been difficult to apply, both in each of its parts and as to the relations among the parts, biological descent has been a fall-back criterion. If it is to be used to refer to us as a group of people. This has just really crept up on us and we are very happy with our involvement with indigenous people around the world, on the international forum because theyre our brothers and sisters. But we do object to it being used here in Australia and her lecture offered a new perspective on the terms urban, traditional and of Indigenous descent as used to define and categorise Aboriginal Australians. She said, Not only are these categories inappropriate, they serve to divide us, governments insistence on categorising us with modern words like urban, traditional and of Aboriginal descent are really only replacing old terms half-caste and full-blood – based on our colouring
Gubbi Gubbi people
The Gubbi Gubbi, written Kabi Kabi, people are an Indigenous Australian people native to southeastern Queensland. They are now classified as one of several Murri language groups in Queensland, norman Tindale situated the Gubbi Gubbi as an inland tribe of the Wide Bay–Burnett area, whose lands extended over 3,700 sq. miles and lay west of Maryborough. The northern borders ran as far as Childers and Hervey Bay, on the south, they approached the headwaters of the Mary River and Cooroy. Westwards, they reached as far as the Coast Ranges and Kilkivan, Gubbi Gubbi country is currently located between Pumicestone Road, near Caboolture in the south, through to Childers in the north. Some Gubbi Gubbi died in the poisoning of upwards of 60 Aborigines on the Kilcoy run in 1842. A further 50-60 are said to have killed by food laced with arsenic at Whiteside Station in April 1847. In June 1849 two youths, the Pegg brothers, were speared on the property while herding sheep and they had feasted on stolen sheep.
Marksmen picked off many, even those fleeing by diving into the Burnett River, the slaughter was extensive, and the bones of many of the dead were uncovered on the site many decades later. Blaxland was in turn killed in a payback action sometime in July–August 1850 and his death was revenged in a further large-scaled massacre of tribes in the area. The escaped convict James Davis lived among other tribes, the Gubbi Gubbi John Mathew and he described their society in a 1910 monograph, Two Representative Tribes of Queensland. The Queensland lungfish was native to Gubbi Gubbi waters and the species fell under a taboo among them and it was known in their language as dala