Camp Barneo is a private Russian temporary ice base, established annually since 2002 on an ice floe close to the North Pole, used for tourist excursion purposes. The first Ice Camp Barneo near North Pole was established in 2002. Since that time, the camp has been rebuilt from scratch every year because of the drifting Arctic ice. For example, in 2007 Ice Camp Barneo was located at about 89°31.5′N 30°27′W. However, northerly winds caused the Ice Camp to drift towards the southeast at a speed of 0.8 kilometres per hour. The ice camp works under the patronage of the Russian Geographical Society and lasts for the month of April. Ice Camp Barneo should not be confused with the sequential Soviet/Russian "North Pole" drifting ice stations established by the Russian Academy of Sciences Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. From 2002 to 2017, the starting and final point of all expeditions to Barneo has been Longyearbyen, the capital of the Svalbard archipelago of Norway; the town has necessary facilities including an airport, hotels of different levels, restaurants, a post office, a bank, a supermarket.
In 2016, following military exercises by Chechen paratroopers on Barneo, Norway enacted a flight embargo, which it lifted. As a result, the 2017 event was expected to take place with a base in Russia. However, in March 2017 an expedition tour operator was taking bookings for 2017 and 2018 with flights operating out of Longyearbyen. Albert II, Prince of Monaco Miki Ando, figure skater Eric Philips, polar explorer Northernmost settlements Barneo Base News from Barneo Apr 18, 2007 Vicaar International Projects and Expeditions site News from Barneo 2012 Russian Geographic Society
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Artur Nikolayevich Chilingarov is an Armenian-Russian polar explorer. He is a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, he was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union in 1986 and the title of Hero of the Russian Federation in 2008, he is the president of State Polar Academy. Chilingarov is a member of the United Russia party, he was born in Leningrad to Armenian father. His father was moved to Vladikavkaz at a young age. In 1963, he graduated from the Arctic faculty of the S. O. Makarov Leningrad Maritime Institute; as an engineer-oceanographer, he was directed to the Tiksi observatory of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. In 1965, he was elected first secretary of the Bulun Komsomol district committee. In 1969, he was appointed head of the drift ice station “North Pole-19” and, in 1971, Chilingarov headed the Bellingshausen Station of the 17th Soviet Antarctic Expedition. Between 1974 and 1979, he worked in the Western sector of the Arctic as head of the Amderma Administration of hydrometeorology and environmental control.
Under his direction, new forms of Arctic operative navigation support were implemented. Chilingarov summarized his experience in navigation support on the Northern Sea Route in his dissertation for the scientific degree of a kandidat of geographical sciences. In 1985, he headed the special expedition on the research vessel Mikhail Somov, ice-blocked in the Southern Ocean. For successful performance of the rescue operations in extreme conditions and for displayed organizational abilities and courage, Chilingarov was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union on February 14, 1986. In January 2002, he led an expedition to the South Pole along with 14 other tourists on an Antonov An-3 biplane; when a mechanical problem grounded the aircraft at the South Pole and other VIPs were flown by American Hercules LC130 aircraft to McMurdo and onward to Christchurch. The rest of the group arranged a pick-up from Adventure Network International, who operate tourist flights to the South Pole. In January 2007, he led a helicopter expedition to Antarctica, he was joined by FSB chief Nikolay Patrushev and visited the South Pole and Amundsen-Scott station.
During the 2007 Russian North Pole expedition, accompanied by five other explorers from different countries, descended on 2 Mir submersibles to the seabed 13,980 feet below the North Pole in order to plant the Russian flag there and gather specimens of the seabed. In regard to the territorial claims in the Arctic, Chilingarov was quoted as saying, "The Arctic is Russian. We must prove the North Pole is an extension of the Russian landmass". In July 2008, Russia announced it was sending Mir submersibles to descend one mile to the bottom of Lake Baikal to conduct geological and biological tests on its unique ecosystem. Chilingarov is scheduled to join in 60 dives in total. On July 29, 2008, Chilingarov took part in a dive to a depth of 1,580 meters in Lake Baikal, just short of the record 1,637 meters. On January 10, 2008, Chilingarov was awarded the title of Hero of the Russian Federation for "courage and heroism displayed in extreme conditions and for the successful completion of the High-Latitude Arctic Deep-Water Expedition."In August 2009, he revealed a planned Arctic expedition for April 2010.
Chilingarov plans to fly on dirigible AU-30, manufactured by the Aeronautic Centre Avgur. In December 2012, Artur Chilingarov supported Anti-Magnitsky bill to ban U. S. adoptions of Russian orphans, although he said earlier that there was no need to rush the legislation: "It concerns children, you have to be accurate with it” Hero of the Russian Federation - for courage and heroism displayed in extreme conditions, the success of high-latitude Arctic expedition Hero of the Soviet Union - for exemplary performance targets for the release of the research vessel Mikhail Somov from the ice of Antarctica, leadership in rescue operations during the period of drift and displaying courage and heroism Order of Merit for the Fatherland, 3rd class - for active participation in legislative activities and the success of high-latitude air expedition to South Pole Order of Naval Merit - for outstanding contribution to research and use of the oceans Order of Lenin Order of the Red Banner of Labour Order of the Badge of Honour Honoured meteorologist of the Russian Federation USSR State Prize - for the development of methods of cargo handling on fast ice in Yamal Order of Polar Star Order of St. Mashtots - in connection with the 17th anniversary of the independence of the Republic of Armenia Commander of the Order of Bernardo O'Higgins Order of Friendship, - for his great contribution to strengthening friendship and cooperation between peoples promote the development of democracy and parliamentarianism in the Republic of South Ossetia and to provide practical assistance to its citizens in the implementation of voting rights Chevalier Legion of Honour Medal of Anania Shirakatsi - for his contribution to the strengthening and development of Armenian-Russian friendship Order of St.
Prince Daniil Moskovsky, 2nd class - in consideration of the works, for their active participation in the development of church life and in connection with th
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Hero of the Soviet Union
The title Hero of the Soviet Union was the highest distinction in the Soviet Union, awarded or collectively for heroic feats in service to the Soviet state and society. The award was established on April 1934, by the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union; the first recipients of the title received only the Order of Lenin, the highest Soviet award, along with a certificate describing the heroic deed from the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Because the Order of Lenin could be awarded for deeds not qualifying for the title of hero, to distinguish heroes from other Order of Lenin holders, the Gold Star medal was introduced on August 1, 1939. Earlier heroes were retroactively eligible for these items. A hero could be awarded the title again for a subsequent heroic feat with an additional Gold Star medal and certificate. An additional Order of Lenin was not given until 1973; the practice of awarding the title multiple times was abolished by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1988 during perestroika.
Forty-four foreign citizens were awarded the title. The title was given posthumously, though without the actual Gold Star medal given; the title could be revoked only by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. As the Highest Honor of the Soviet Union. Individuals who received the award were entitled to special privileges; these include: A pension with survivor benefits in the event of the death of the title holder. First priority on the housing list with 50% rent reduction, tax exempt and an additional 45 square metres in living space. Annual round-trip first class airline ticket Free bus transportation Free annual visit to sanitarium or rest home Medical benefits Entertainment benefits In total, during the existence of the USSR, the title of Hero of the Soviet Union was awarded to 12,777 people, including twice – 154, three times – 3 and four – 2. Ninety-five women were awarded the title. Among the Heroes of the Soviet Union, 44 people are citizens of foreign states; the great majority of them received it during World War II.
Eighty-five people were awarded the title for actions related to the Soviet-Afghan War, which lasted from 1979 until 1989. The first recipients of the award were the pilots Anatoly Liapidevsky, Sigizmund Levanevsky, Vasily Molokov, Mavriky Slepnyov, Nikolai Kamanin, Ivan Doronin, Mikhail Vodopianov, who participated in the successful aerial search and rescue of the crew of the steamship Cheliuskin, which sank in Arctic waters, crushed by ice fields, on February 13, 1934. Valentina Grizodubova, a female pilot, was the first woman to become a Hero of the Soviet Union for her international women's record for a straight-line distance flight. Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, a Soviet partisan, was the first woman to become a Hero of the Soviet Union during World War II, posthumously. In addition, 101 people received the award twice. A second Hero title, either Hero of the Soviet Union or Hero of Socialist Labour entitled the recipient to have a bronze bust of his or her likeness with a commemorative inscription erected in his or her hometown.
Two famous Soviet fighter pilots, Aleksandr Pokryshkin and Ivan Kozhedub were three times Heroes of the Soviet Union. A third award entitled the recipient to have his/her bronze bust erected on a columnar pedestal in Moscow, near the Palace of the Soviets, but the Palace was never built. After his release from serving a 20-year sentence in a Mexican prison for the assassination of Leon Trotsky, Ramon Mercader moved to the Soviet Union in 1961 and was awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union medal from KGB head Alexander Shelepin; the only individuals to receive the title four times were Leonid Brezhnev. The original statute of the Hero of the Soviet Union, did not provide for a fourth title. Both Zhukov and Brezhnev received their fourth titles under controversial circumstances contrary to the statute, which remained unchanged until the award was abolished in 1991. Zhukov was awarded a fourth time "for his large accomplishments" on the occasion of his 60th birthday on December 1, 1956. There is some speculation that Zhukov's fourth Hero medal was for his participation in the arrest of Beria in 1953, but this was not entered in the records.
Brezhnev's four awards further eroded the prestige of the award because they were all birthday gifts, on the occasions of his 60th, 70th, 72nd and 75th birthdays. Such practices halted in 1988 due to a decision of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, which formally ended it. By the 1970s, the award had been somewhat devalued. Important political and military persons had been awarded it on the occasions of their anniversaries rather than for any immediate heroic activity. All Soviet cosmonauts, starting from Yuri Gagarin, as well as foreign citizens who participated in the Soviet space program as cosmonauts, received Hero award for each flight. Apart from individuals, the title was awarded to twelve cities as well as the fortress of Brest for collective heroism during the War; the last recipient of the title "Hero of the Soviet Union" was a Soviet diver, Captain of the 3rd rank Leonid Mikhailovich Solodkov on December 24, 1991 for his leadership and participation in a series of unprecedented extreme depth diving experiments.
Following the collapse of the
Yermak (1898 icebreaker)
Yermak was a Russian and Soviet icebreaker. It was the first polar icebreaker in the world, having a strengthened hull shaped to ride over and crush pack ice. Yermak was built for the Imperial Russian Navy under the supervision of vice-admiral S. O. Makarov by the members of his commission, which included D. I. Mendeleev, engineers N. I. Yankovsky and R. I. Runeberg, admiral F. F. Wrangel, among others, it was built in Newcastle upon Tyne at its Low Walker yard and launched in 1898. She was named after the famous Russian explorer of Don Cossack ataman Yermak Timofeyevich, she was commissioned on 17 October 1898. She arrived in Kronstadt on 4 March 1899 after breaking through ice and a formal reception was held to mark her arrival. In 1899 she reached 81°21'N north of Spitsbergen, she had been constructed to break through heavy ice. Yermak had been used in the winter of 1899–1900 to set up the first radio communication link in Russia between Kotka and Gogland island. In 1900 she came to the aid of the cruiser Gromoboi.
Between 1899–1911 Yermak sailed in heavy ice conditions for more than 1000 days. During World War I she assisted the Baltic Fleet during the Ice cruise when the fleet was evacuated from Helsinki to Kronstadt in February 1918. During World War II the Yermak was mobilised again and took part in the evacuation of Hanko naval base, she was armed with two 76 mm, four 45 mm and four machine guns. Yermak served with different branches of the Russian and Soviet Navy and Merchant Marine up until 1964, becoming one of the longest-serving icebreakers in the world. An island in the Nordenskiöld Archipelago was named after her. A monument to the icebreaker Yermak was unveiled in Murmansk In November 1965 – this included mosaic panels and the original anchor on the pedestal. Another icebreaker with the name Yermak was built for the Soviet Union at the Wärtsilä Helsinki shipyard, Finland in 1974. Russia employs an icebreaker named Yermak in the Baltic Sea as late as 2010. Ice Cruise of the Baltic Fleet Alexander Stepanovich Popov History of icebreakers, by the US Coast Guard
Alexey Fyodorovich Tryoshnikov was a Soviet polar explorer and leader of the 2nd Soviet Antarctic Expedition and the 13th Soviet Antarctic Expedition. He was involved in defending the Northern Sea Route during World War II and participated in the 1948 Soviet expedition to the North Pole. Between 1954 and 1955, he was the leader of the North Pole-3 ice station in the Arctic Ocean, he was the president of the Geographical Society of the USSR since 1977 and the director of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of the Soviet Union from 1960 to 1981. In 1982 he was elected Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. A minor planet 3339 Treshnikov discovered by Czech astronomer Antonín Mrkos in 1978 is named after him. Hero of Socialist Labor four Orders of Lenin Order of the Red Banner of Labour Order of the Badge of Honor Order of the October Revolution Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" Medal "For the Defence of the Soviet Transarctic" Jubilee Medal "Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945" Akademik Tryoshnikov research vessel Academician Treshnikov