Ennerdale Water is the most westerly lake in the Lake District National Park in Cumbria, England. It is a glacial lake, with a maximum depth of 150 feet, is ½ mile to a mile wide and 2½ miles long; the lake lies in the eponymous valley of Ennerdale, surrounded by some of the highest and best-known fells in Cumbria including: Great Gable, Green Gable, High Crag and Pillar. To the west of the lake lies the hamlet of Ennerdale Bridge, consisting of two pubs and a few houses, it is close to the port of Whitehaven. "'Anund's valley'. The name Ennerdale seems to have derived from'Anundar', genitive sing. of the ON personal name'Anundr'/'Qnundr', ON'dalr"valley', but there has been cross-influence between this p.n. and'Ehen', the name of the river which flows through the valley." The lake has been referred to in guidebooks and maps variously as "Brodewater", "Brodwater", "Broad Water", "Ennerdale Water" and "Ennerdale Lake" in Otley's Guide. It is now the Ordnance Survey convention to name it "Ennerdale Water".
Ennerdale Water is fed by the River Liza and other streams, in turn feeds the River Ehen, which runs to the Irish Sea. Although the lake is natural, in 1902 a shallow weir was added to what is a glacial moraine to maintain the level; the lake is owned by United Utilities, which abstracts water to serve customers in the Whitehaven area. United Utilities plans to stop using Ennerdale as a source of water by 2025, as the Environment Agency has confirmed that it will withdraw the abstraction licence to protect the environment of Ennerdale, its water and the River Ehen. Ennerdale has been designated a biological Site of Special Scientific Interest. Species of interest include the Arctic char; the site contains a variety of habitats apart from the open water of the lake itself. Despite being sited on Wainwright's coast-to-coast walk, the valley is not much visited by tourists. Due to the remote location, the lack of a public road up the valley, its management by the Forestry Commission, the National Trust and United Utilities, Ennerdale Water has not been as spoiled as other lakes in the National Park by construction, activity on the lake or the effects of tourism.
Though the Lake District is a popular UK location for film shoots, Ennerdale has been left in the shadow, with only a few brief exceptions. The closing sequences of the film 28 Days Later, directed by Danny Boyle, were filmed around the Ennerdale area, include a sweeping, panoramic view of the lake. In 1810 a large carnivore killed hundreds of sheep in and around Ennerdale before it was hunted down and killed; the locals dubbed it the Girt Dog of Ennerdale, though it was said to have had the traits of both a dog and a large cat. Once a year, during the last week in August, the Ennerdale Show brings local people together with agricultural displays, competitions and crafts. Former US President Bill Clinton first proposed to his wife Hillary on the banks of Ennerdale Water in 1973. Wild Ennerdale website
Great Gable is a mountain in the Lake District, United Kingdom. It is named for its appearance as a pyramid from Wasdale, though it is dome-shaped from most other directions, it is one of the most popular of the Lakeland fells, there are many different routes to the summit. Great Gable is linked by the high pass of Windy Gap to its smaller sister hill, Green Gable, by the lower pass of Beck Head to its western neighbour, Kirk Fell; the Western Fells occupy a triangular sector of the Lake District, bordered by the River Cocker to the north east and Wasdale to the south east. Westwards, the hills diminish toward the coastal plain of Cumbria. At the central hub of the high country are Great Gable and its satellites, while two principal ridges fan out on either flank of Ennerdale, the western fells forming a horseshoe around this valley. Great Gable and its lesser companion Green Gable stand at the head of Ennerdale, with the walkers' pass of Sty Head to their backs; this connects Borrowdale to Wasdale.
The Borrowdale connection is quite tenuous, but Great Gable is prominent in any view up the lake. The upper section of Great Gable has a square plan, about half a mile on each side, with the faces running in line with the four points of the compass; the fells connecting and subsidiary ridges occupy the corners of the square. The northern face is formed by Gable Crag, prominent in views from Haystacks and the surrounding fells; this is the longest continuous wall of crag on the fell and reaches up to the summit. Scree slopes fall away below to the headwaters of the River Liza. There are few crags on the eastern slopes, although these fall steeply to Styhead Tarn, a feeder of the Borrowdale system. About 30 feet deep, this tarn occupies a scooped hollow, dammed by boulders fallen from the slopes above, it is a popular location for wild camping. The southern flank of Great Gable falls 2,300 feet direct to Lingmell Beck, one of the main feeders of Wastwater. Right below the summit are the Westmorland Crags, a second tier breaks out lower down.
These are Kern Knotts, Raven Crag and Great Napes, all footed by great tongues of scree. On the west rough slopes fall below the rocks of White Napes to the narrow valley of Gable Beck, a tributary of Lingmell Beck. From the north-western corner of the pyramid the connecting ridge to Kirk Fell runs out across the col of Beck Head. There is a small tarn in the depression, sometimes a second after heavy rain. Both are blind, having no apparent outflow. Gable Beck runs south from Beck Head; the main spine of the Western Fells continues along the north east ridge to Green Gable, dropping to Windy Gap as it rounds the end of Gable Crag. This ridge is rocky, further worn by the boots of countless walkers. Stone Cove lies on the Ennerdale side while the rough gully of Aaron Slack runs down toward Styhead Tarn; the south-eastern ridge provides the connection to the Southern Fells, across the pass of Sty Head. This is a major crossroads for the summit being at around 1,560 feet. On the opposite slope is Great End in the Scafells.
Kern Knotts lies on this south-east ridge. The south-western ridge gives to high level connection, dropping down Gavel Neese in the angle between Lingmell Beck and Gable Beck. Lying on the edge of the Scafell Syncline, the various strata dip to the east; the summit area is formed from a dacite lava flow, directly underlain by the Lingmell Formation. This tuff, lapilli tuff and breccia outcrops a little to the west of the summit. Around Beck Head is evidence of the Crinkle Member, welded rhyolitic tuff and lapilli-tuff with some breccia. A dyke of andesite and hybridised andesite porphyry is responsible for Kern Knotts; the summit of Great Gable is strewn with boulders and the highest point marked by a rock outcrop set with a cairn. There is a plaque set on the summit rock commemorating those members of the Fell & Rock Climbing Club who died in World War I; the club bought 3,000 acres of land including Great Gable and donated it to the National Trust in memory of these members, the plaque was dedicated on Whit Sunday 1924 by Geoffrey Winthrop Young in front of 500 people.
The bronze memorial, weighing 70 kg, was removed on 10 July 2013 by 13 soldiers and carried down the hill via a stretcher. A replacement, with spelling errors corrected, was installed by Royal Engineers in October 2013. Due to its central position within the Lake District and great prominence the summit offers panoramic views. All of the main fell groups are laid out, though Wast Water and Windermere are the only lakes visible. A hundred yards to the south west of the summit, overlooking the Napes, is the Westmorland Cairn; this cairn was erected in 1876 by two brothers named Westmorland to mark what they considered to be the finest view in the Lake District. From here ground falls away into the upper Wasdale valley. Further cairns mark the top of Gable Crag; the summit has become a popular site for the scattering of ashes following cremation. Routes to climb to the summit start from all of the main dales that radiate out from central Lakeland. A popular route is to climb Sour Milk Gill from Seathwaite in Borrowdale, first ascending Green Gable before traversing Windy Gap.
Alfred Wainwright described the'Gable Girdle', a circuit around the fell at mid height. This links a number of existing paths, namely the north and south traverses, Styhead Pass, Aaron Slack and Moses Trod; the south traverse climbs westward from Sty Head and provides access to t
For the extinct cephalopod genus, see Andesites. Andesite is an extrusive igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. In a general sense, it is the intermediate type between basalt and rhyolite, ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide as illustrated in TAS diagrams; the mineral assemblage is dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene or hornblende. Magnetite, apatite, ilmenite and garnet are common accessory minerals. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts; the quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams. Classification of andesites may be refined according to the most abundant phenocryst. Example: hornblende-phyric andesite, if hornblende is the principal accessory mineral. Andesite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent of plutonic diorite. Characteristic of subduction zones, andesite represents the dominant rock type in island arcs; the average composition of the continental crust is andesitic.
Along with basalts they are a major component of the Martian crust. The name andesite is derived from the Andes mountain range. Magmatism in island arc regions comes from the interplay of the subducting plate and the mantle wedge, the wedge-shaped region between the subducting and overriding plates. During subduction, the subducted oceanic crust is submitted to increasing pressure and temperature, leading to metamorphism. Hydrous minerals such as amphibole, chlorite etc. dehydrate as they change to more stable, anhydrous forms, releasing water and soluble elements into the overlying wedge of mantle. Fluxing water into the wedge lowers the solidus of the mantle material and causes partial melting. Due to the lower density of the molten material, it rises through the wedge until it reaches the lower boundary of the overriding plate. Melts generated in the mantle wedge are of basaltic composition, but they have a distinctive enrichment of soluble elements which are contributed from sediment that lies at the top of the subducting plate.
Although there is evidence to suggest that the subducting oceanic crust may melt during this process, the relative contribution of the three components to the generated basalts is still a matter of debate. Basalt thus formed can contribute to the formation of andesite through fractional crystallization, partial melting of crust, or magma mixing, all of which are discussed next. Andesite is formed at convergent plate margins but may occur in other tectonic settings. Intermediate volcanic rocks are created via several processes: Fractional crystallization of a mafic parent magma. Partial melting of crustal material. Magma mixing between felsic rhyolitic and mafic basaltic magmas in a magma reservoir To achieve andesitic composition via fractional crystallization, a basaltic magma must crystallize specific minerals that are removed from the melt; this removal can take place in a variety of ways, but most this occurs by crystal settling. The first minerals to crystallize and be removed from a basaltic parent are amphiboles.
These mafic minerals settle out of the magma. There is geophysical evidence from several arcs that large layers of mafic cumulates lie at the base of the crust. Once these mafic minerals have been removed, the melt no longer has a basaltic composition; the silica content of the residual melt is enriched relative to the starting composition. The iron and magnesium contents are depleted; as this process continues, the melt becomes more and more evolved becoming andesitic. Without continued addition of mafic material, the melt will reach a rhyolitic composition. Molten basalt in the mantle wedge moves upwards until it reaches the base of the overriding crust. Once there, the basaltic melt can either underplate the crust, creating a layer of molten material at its base, or it can move into the overriding plate in the form of dykes. If it underplates the crust, the basalt can cause partial melting of the lower crust due to the transfer of heat and volatiles. Models of heat transfer, show that arc basalts emplaced at temperatures 1100–1240 °C cannot provide enough heat to melt lower crustal amphibolite.
Basalt can, melt pelitic upper crustal material. Andesitic magmas generated in island arcs, are the result of partial melting of the crust. In continental arcs, such as the Andes, magma pools in the shallow crust creating magma chambers. Magmas in these reservoirs become evolved in composition through both the process of fractional crystallization and partial melting of the surrounding country rock. Over time as crystallization continues and the system loses heat, these reservoirs cool. In order to remain active, magma chambers must have continued recharge of hot basaltic melt into the system; when this basaltic material mixes with the evolved rhyolitic magma, the composition is returned to andesite, its intermediate phase. In 2009, researchers revealed that andesite was found in two meteorites that were discovered in the Graves Nunataks icefield during the US Antarctic Search for Meteorites 2006/2007 field season; this points to a new mechanism to generate andesite crust. Andesite line Basaltic andesite Continental crust – Layer of rock that forms the continents and continental shelves Fractional crystallization – One of the main processes of magmatic differentiation List of rock types – A list of rock types recognized by geologists Metamorphism – The change of minerals in pre-existing rocks w
A fell is a high and barren landscape feature, such as a mountain range or moor-covered hills. The term is most employed in Fennoscandia, the Isle of Man, parts of Northern England, Scotland. Bekkr -'stream' » beck dalr -'valley' » dale fors -'waterfall' » force/foss fjallr -'mountain' » fell gil -'ravine' » gill/ghyll haugr -'hill' » howe pic -'peak' » pike sætr -'shieling' » side/seat tjorn -'small lake' » tarn þveit -'clearing' » thwaite The English word fell comes from Old Norse fell and fjall, it is cognate with Danish fjeld, Faroese fjall and fjøll, Icelandic fjall and fell, Norwegian fjell with dialects fjøll, fjødd, fjedl, fjill and fel, Swedish fjäll, all referring to mountains rising above the alpine tree line. In Northern England in the Lake District and in the Pennine Dales, the word "fell" referred to an area of uncultivated high ground used as common grazing on common land and above the timberline. Today "fell" refers to the mountains and hills of the Lake District and the Pennine Dales.
Names that referred to grazing areas have been applied to these hilltops. This is the case with Seathwaite Fell, for example, which would be the common grazing land used by the farmers of Seathwaite; the fellgate marks the road from a settlement onto the fell, as is the case with the Seathwaite Fell. In other cases the reverse is true; the word "fell" is used in the names of various breeds of livestock, bred for life on the uplands, such as Rough Fell sheep, Fell Terriers and Fell ponies. It is found in many place names across the North of England attached to the name of a community. In northern England, there is a Lord of the Fells – this ancient aristocratic title being associated with the Lords of Bowland. Groups of cairns are a common feature on many fells marking the summit – there are fine examples on Wild Boar Fell in Mallerstang Dale, on Nine Standards Rigg just outside Kirkby Stephen, Cumbria; as the most mountainous region of England, the Lake District is the area most associated with the sport of fell running, which takes its name from the fells of the district.
"Fellwalking" is the term used locally for the activity known in the rest of Great Britain as hillwalking. The word "fell" enjoys limited use in Scotland, with for example the Campsie Fells in Central Scotland, to the North East of Glasgow. One of the most famous examples of the use of the word "fell" in Scotland is Goat Fell, the highest point on the Isle of Arran. Criffel and the nearby Long Fell in Galloway may be seen from the northern Lake District of England. Peel Fell in the Kielder Forest is situated on the border between the Scottish Borders to the North and the English county of Northumberland to the South. In Norway, fjell, in common usage, is interpreted as a summit of greater altitude than a hill, which leads to a great deal of local variation in what is defined as a'fjell'. Professor of geography at the University of Bergen, Anders Lundeberg, has summed up the problem by stating that "There is no fixed and unambiguous definition of'fjell'." Ivar Aasen defined fjell as a "tall berg" referring to a berg that reaches an altitude where trees don't grow, lower berg are referred to as "berg", "ås" or "hei".
The fixed expression til fjells refers to mountains as a collective rather than a specific location or specific summit. According to Ivar Aasen berg refers to cliffs and notable elevations of the surface underpinned by bedrock. For all practical purposes,'fjell' can be translated as'mountain' and the Norwegian language has no other used word for mountain. In Sweden, "fjäll" refers to any mountain or upland high enough that forest will not survive at the top, in effect a mountain tundra.'Fjäll' is used to describe mountains in the Nordic countries, but more to describe mountains shaped by massive ice sheets in Arctic and subarctic regions. In Finnish, the mountains characteristic of the region of Lapland are called tunturi. In Finnish, the geographical term vuori is used for mountains uplifted and with jagged terrain featuring permanent glaciers, while tunturi refers to the old eroded shaped terrain without glaciers, as found in Finland, they are round inselbergs rising from the otherwise flat surroundings.
The mountains in Finnish Lapland reach heights of up to 400 and 800 metres, where the upper reaches are above the tree line. Those that do not reach the tree line, on the other hand, are referred to as vaara; the mountains in Finnish Lapland form vestiges of the Karelides mountains, formed two billion years ago. The term tunturi a word limited to Far-Northern dialects of Finnish and Karelian, is a loan from Sami, compare Proto-Sami *tuontër, South Sami doedtere, Northern Sami duottar, Inari Sami tuodâr "uplands, tundra", Kildin Sami tūndâr, which means "uplands, treeless mountain tract" and is cognate with Finnish tanner "hard ground". From this Sami word, the word tundra is borrowed, as well, through the Russian language; the term förfjäll is used in Sweden and Finland to denote moun
Wast Water or Wastwater is a lake located in Wasdale, a valley in the western part of the Lake District National Park, England. The lake is 3 miles long and more than one-third mile wide, it is a glacial lake, formed in a glacially'over-deepened' valley. It is the deepest lake in England at 258 feet; the surface of the lake is about 200 feet above sea level, while its bottom is over 50 feet below sea level. It is owned by the National Trust; the head of the Wasdale Valley is surrounded by some of the highest mountains in England, including Scafell Pike, Great Gable and Lingmell. The steep slopes on the southeastern side of the lake, leading up to the summits of Whin Rigg and Illgill Head, are known as the "Wastwater Screes" or on some maps as "The Screes"; these screes formed as a result of ice and weathering erosion on the rocks of the Borrowdale Volcanic Group, that form the fells to the east of the lake, towards Eskdale. They are 2,000 feet, from top to base, the base being about 200 feet below the surface of the lake.
A path runs the length of the lake, through the boulders and scree fall at the base of the craggy fell-side. On the northwestern side are the upturned-boat shape of Yewbarrow. Wast Water is the source of the River Irt. Both the lake and Wasdale Screes are protected as Sites of Special Scientific Interest and under European Union law as Special Areas of Conservation. "Wastwater" comes from "Wasdale" plus English "water". "'Wasdale lake' or'the lake of Vatnsá, lake river'. The present name rather curiously contains the reflexes of both Old Norse'vatn"water','lake', Old English'wæter"water', with the meaning'lake' influenced by the Old Norse'vatn'; the valley is pronounced as in was, not with a hard a: the name of the lake but with a soft "s" as in "thou wast". The lake is named "Wast Water" on Ordnance Survey maps but the spelling "Wastwater" is used with equal frequency, including by its owner, the National Trust, along with the Cumbria Tourist Board, the Lake District National Park Authority. In 1976, The Wasdale Lady in the Lake, Margaret Hogg, was murdered by her husband and her body was disposed of in the lake.
She was found after eight years, with her body preserved like wax due to the lack of oxygen in the water. In February 2005 it was reported that a "gnome garden" complete with picket fence had been placed in the lake as a point of interest for divers to explore, it was removed from the bottom of Wastwater after three divers died in the late 1990s. It is thought. Police divers report a rumour that the garden had been replaced at a depth beyond the lowest they were allowed to dive. PC Kenny McMahon, a member of the North West Police Underwater Search Unit, said "Wastwater is quite clear at the bottom, but there's nothing to see. At a depth of about 48 m, divers put a picket fence around them, but several years ago there were a number of fatalities and the Lake District National Park Authority asked us to get rid of them. We put them in bags and removed the lot, but now there's a rumour about a new garden beyond the 50 m depth limit. As police divers we can't dive any deeper so, if it exists, the new garden could have been purposefully put out of our reach."
Water was first pumped from the lake during World War II to supply the Royal Ordnance Factory at Drigg. It is pumped to the nearby Sellafield nuclear facility as an industrial water supply; the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority is allowed to extract from the lake a maximum of 18,184.4 m3 a day, or 6,637,306 m3 a year, to use on that site. On 9 September 2007, Wast Water was announced as the winner of a vote to determine "Britain's Favourite View" by viewers of ITV. Clockwise from River Irt Countess Beck Smithy Beck Goat Gill Nether Beck Over Beck Mosedale Beck Lingmell Beck Hollow Gill Straighthead Gill In the book Goodbye, Mr. Chips, Mr Chipping meets his wife at Wasdale Head; the Wasdale Lady in the Lake The Cumbria Directory - Wast Water
A cairn is a human-made pile of stones. The word cairn comes from the Scottish Gaelic: càrn. Cairns have been and are used for a broad variety of purposes, from prehistoric times to the present. In modern times, cairns are erected as landmarks, a use they have had since ancient times. However, since prehistory, they have been built and used as burial monuments. Cairns are used as trail markers in many parts of the world, in uplands, on moorland, on mountaintops, near waterways and on sea cliffs, as well as in barren deserts and tundra, they vary in size from small stone markers to entire artificial hills, in complexity from loose conical rock piles to delicately balanced sculptures and elaborate feats of megalithic engineering. Cairns may be painted or otherwise decorated, whether for increased visibility or for religious reasons. An ancient example is the inuksuk, used by the Inuit, Kalaallit and other peoples of the Arctic region of North America. Inuksuit are found from Alaska to Greenland; this region, above the Arctic Circle, is dominated by the tundra biome and has areas with few natural landmarks.
Different types of cairns exist from rough piles of stones to interlocking dry stone round cylinders. The most important cairns used around the world are interlocking stone survey cairns constructed around a central survey mark about every 30 km on the tallest peaks across a nation; these physical survey mark cairn systems are the basis for national survey grids to interconnect individual land survey measurements for entire nations. On occasion these permanent interlocking stone cairns are taken down reconstructed to re-mark measurements to increase the accuracy of the national survey grid, they can be used in unpopulated countries as emergency location points. In North America and Northern Europe any type of cairn can be used to mark mountain bike and hiking trail]]s and other cross-country trail blazing in mountain regions at or above the tree line. For example, the extensive trail network maintained by the DNT, the Norwegian Trekking Association, extensively uses cairns in conjunction with T-painted rock faces to mark trails.
Other examples of these can be seen in the lava fields of Volcanoes National Park to mark several hikes. Placed at regular intervals, a series of cairns can be used to indicate a path across stony or barren terrain across glaciers; such cairns are placed at junctions or in places where the trail direction is not obvious. They may be used to indicate an obscured danger such as a sudden drop, or a noteworthy point such as the summit of a mountain. Most trail cairns are small being a foot or less in height. However, they may be built taller so as to protrude through a layer of snow. Hikers passing by add a stone, as a small bit of maintenance to counteract the erosive effects of severe weather. North American trail marks are sometimes called "ducks" or "duckies", because they sometimes have a "beak" pointing in the direction of the route; the expression "two rocks do not make a duck" reminds hikers that just one rock resting upon another could be the result of accident or nature rather than intentional trail marking.
The building of cairns for recreational purposes along trails, to mark one's personal passage through the area, can result in an overabundance of rock piles. This distracts from cairns used as genuine navigational guides, conflicts with the Leave No Trace ethic; this ethic of outdoor practice advocates for leaving the outdoors undisturbed and in its natural condition. Coastal cairns, or "sea marks", are common in the northern latitudes in the island-strewn waters of Scandinavia and eastern Canada. Indicated on navigation charts, they may be painted white or lit as beacons for greater visibility offshore. Modern cairns may be erected for historical or memorial commemoration or for decorative or artistic reasons. One example is a series of many cairns marking British soldiers' mass graves at the site of the Battle of Isandlwana, South Africa. Another is the Matthew Flinders Cairn on the side of Arthur's Seat, a small mountain on the shores of Port Phillip Bay, Australia. A large cairn referred to as "the igloo" by the locals, was built atop a hill next to the I-476 highway in Radnor, Pennsylvania and is a part of a series of large rock sculptures initiated in 1988 to symbolize the township's Welsh heritage and to beautify the visual imagery along the highway.
Some are places where farmers have collected stones removed from a field. These can be seen in the Catskill Mountains, North America where there is a strong Scottish heritage, may represent places where livestock were lost. In locales exhibiting fantastic rock formations, such as the Grand Canyon, tourists construct simple cairns in reverence of the larger counterparts. By contrast, cairns may have a strong aesthetic purpose, for example in the art of Andy Goldsworthy. Norwegian authorities said in 2015 that illegal cairns are being built each year, to a large degree by tourists to Norway; the building of cairns for various purposes goes back into prehistory in Eurasia, ranging in size from small rock sculptures to substantial man-made hills of stone. The latter are relatively massive Bronze Age or earlier structures which, like kistvaens and dolmens contain burials.
Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic rock, of felsic composition. It may have any texture from glassy to aphanitic to porphyritic; the mineral assemblage is quartz and plagioclase. Biotite and hornblende are common accessory minerals, it is the extrusive equivalent to granite. Rhyolite can be considered as the extrusive equivalent to the plutonic granite rock, outcrops of rhyolite may bear a resemblance to granite. Due to their high content of silica and low iron and magnesium contents, rhyolitic magmas form viscous lavas, they occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes. Rhyolites that cool too to grow crystals form a natural glass or vitrophyre called obsidian. Slower cooling forms microscopic crystals in the lava and results in textures such as flow foliations, spherulitic and lithophysal structures; some rhyolite is vesicular pumice. Many eruptions of rhyolite are explosive and the deposits may consist of fallout tephra/tuff or of ignimbrites. Eruptions of rhyolite are rare compared to eruptions of less felsic lavas.
Only three eruptions of rhyolite have been recorded since the start of the 20th century: at the St. Andrew Strait volcano in Papua New Guinea, Novarupta volcano in Alaska, Chaiten in southern Chile. Rhyolite has been found on islands far from land. Etsch Valley Vulcanite Group near Bolzano and the surrounding area Gréixer rhyolitic complex at Moixeró range Vosges Iceland: all active and extinct central volcanoes, e.g. Torfajökull, Leirhnjúkur / Krafla, Breiddalur central volcano Papa Stour in Shetland Copper Coast Geopark in southeast Ireland various locations around Snowdonia, Wales Massif de l'Esterel, France the Thuringian Forest consists of rhyolites and pyroclastic rocks of the Rotliegendes Saxony the north west Saxony-Anhalt north of Halle Saar-Nahe Basin e.g. the Königstuhl on the Donnersberg mountain Black Forest e.g. on the Karlsruher Grat Odenwald Andes Cascade Range Cobalt, Ontario Sheep Creek, Idaho Rocky Mountains Jemez Mountains Rhyolite, Nevada was named after a rhyolite deposit that characterised the area.
Wichita Mountains within the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen St. Francois Mountains Mount Jasper, New Hampshire Yellowstone Crater Lake, Oregon Palisade Head, a formation found at Tettegouche State Park, Minnesota; the Taupo Volcanic Zone in New Zealand has a large concentration of young rhyolite volcanoes Glass House Mountains National Park, Australia the Gondwana Rainforests of Australia World Heritage Area contains rhyolite-restricted flora along the Great Dividing Range the Flinders Peak Group in the Teviot Range in the Fassifern Valley is a rhyolite of varying colours. The Malani Igneous Suite, India; the Yandang Shan mountain chain, near the town of Wenzhou, Zhejiang province, China Tambora, Indonesia Mount Kilimanjaro, Kenya/Tanzania The name rhyolite was introduced into geology in 1860 by the German traveler and geologist Ferdinand von Richthofen from the Greek word rhýax and the rock name suffix "-lite". In North American pre-historic times, rhyolite was quarried extensively in eastern Pennsylvania in the United States.
Among the leading quarries was the Carbaugh Run Rhyolite Quarry Site in Adams County. Rhyolite was mined there starting 11,500 years ago. Tons of rhyolite were traded across the Delmarva Peninsula, because the rhyolite kept a sharp point when knapped and was used to make spear points and arrowheads. Comendite – A hard, peralkaline igneous rock, a type of light blue grey rhyolite List of rock types – A list of rock types recognized by geologists Pantellerite – A peralkaline rhyolite type of volcanic rock Thunderegg – A nodule-like rock, formed within rhyolitic volcanic ash layers University of North Dakota description of rhyolite Information from rocks-rock.com