The term district, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. In the modern context, district or sub-city, formally city-governed district, city-controlled district, the rank of a district derives from the rank of its city. Districts of a municipality are prefecture-level, districts of a city are sub-prefecture-level. It was used to refer the obsolete County-controlled districts. However, if the district is encountered in the context of ancient Chinese history, it is a translation for xian. As a result, districts were mostly urban or suburban in nature, after the 1980s, prefectures began to be replaced with prefecture-level cities. From on, cities in mainland China became just like any other division, containing urban areas, villages. These cities are subdivided into districts, autonomous counties, at the same time and county-level cities began to be replaced with districts, especially after 1990. From onwards, districts were no longer strictly an urban entities — some districts today are just like counties, with a large towns, a regular district under a municipality or prefecture-level city. A type of city districts that are created for ethnic minorities.
Currently there are 4 such ethnic districts, three in Henan and one in Heilongjiang, chanhe Hui District Guancheng Hui District Shunhe Hui District Meilisi Daur District Huimin District A special county-level division located in Guizhou. Liuzhi Special District, Liupanshui A special Sub-prefectural-level forestry district located in Hubei, shennongjia A county-controlled district sometimes translated as county-governed district, county district or sub-county, is a sub-county in the Peoples Republic of China. A branch of a county government, a public office is the administrative office in a district. A county-controlled district was once an important subdivision of a county all over China from 1950s to 1990s and it was common for there to be about 5 to 10 districts in a county, about 3 to 5 towns and townships in a district. After the 1990s, county-controlled districts began to be phased out, if the word district is encountered in the context of ancient Chinese history, the word is a translation for xian, another type of administrative division in China.
Xian has been translated using several English terms, in the context of ancient history and prefecture are commonly used, while county is used for more contemporary contexts. See Counties of the Peoples Republic of China for more information on the xian of China, list of districts in China District
Provinces of China
Provinces, formally provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisions, classified as 23 provinces, four municipalities, five autonomous regions, the Peoples Republic of China claims sovereignty over the territory administered by the Republic of China, claiming most of it as its Taiwan Province. The ROC administers some offshore islands which form Fujian Province and these were part of an originally unified Fujian province, which since the stalemate of the Chinese Civil War in 1949 has been divided between the PRC and ROC. Note that every province has a Communist Party of China provincial committee, the committee secretary is in effective charge of the province, rather than the nominal governor of the provincial government. The government of each province is nominally led by a provincial committee. The committee secretary is first-in-charge of the province, second-in-command is the governor of the provincial government, the Peoples Republic of China claims the island of Taiwan and its surrounding islets, including Penghu, as Taiwan Province.
The territory is controlled by the Republic of China, a municipality or direct-controlled municipality is a higher level of city which is directly under the Chinese government, with status equal to that of the provinces. In practice, their status is higher than that of common provinces. The governor of each region is usually appointed from the respective minority ethnic group. A special administrative region is an autonomous and self-governing subnational subject of the Peoples Republic of China that is directly under the Central Peoples Government. Each SAR has an executive as head of the region. The regions government is not fully independent, as policy and military defence are the responsibility of the central government. Notes,1, as of 20102, per km23, km24, Abbreviation in the parentheses is informal 5, Since founding in 1949, the PRC has never controlled Taiwan. Taiwan currently administers Taiwan, Penghu and Matsu, the subject of whether or not Taiwan is part of China is often debated, with no clear conclusion.
The Ming Dynasty kept the system set up by the Yuan Dynasty, however. By the time of the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644 there were 18 provinces, in addition, there was a zongdu, a general military inspector or governor general, for every two to three provinces. Outer regions of China were not divided into provinces, military leaders or generals oversaw Manchuria and Mongolia, while vice-dutong and civilian leaders headed the leagues, a subdivision of Mongolia. The ambans supervised the administration of Tibet, in 1884 Xinjiang became a province, in 1907 Fengtian and Heilongjiang were made provinces as well
Hubei is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the Central China region. The name of the province north of the lake, referring to its position north of Dongting Lake. The provincial capital is Wuhan, a major thoroughfare and the political, cultural. It borders Henan to the north, Anhui to the east, Jiangxi to the southeast, Hunan to the south, Chongqing to the west, the high-profile Three Gorges Dam is located at Yichang, in the west of the province. The Hubei region was home to sophisticated Neolithic cultures, by the Spring and Autumn period, the territory of todays Hubei was part of the powerful State of Chu. During the Warring States period Chu became the major adversary of the upstart State of Qin to the northwest, which began to assert itself by outward expansionism. As wars between Qin and Chu ensued, Chu lost more and more land, first its dominance over the Sichuan Basin, its heartland, which correspond to modern Hubei. In 223 BC Qin chased down the remnants of the Chu regime, Qin founded the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, the first unified state in the region.
Qin was succeeded by the Han dynasty in 206 BC, which established the province of Jingzhou in what is now Hubei, the Qin and Han played an active role in the agricultural colonization of Hubei, maintaining a system of river dikes to protect farmland from summer floods. Towards the end of the Han Dynasty in the beginning of the 3rd century, the incursion of northern nomadic peoples into the region at the beginning of the 4th century began nearly three centuries of division into a nomad-ruled north and a Han Chinese-ruled south. Hubei, to the South, remained under southern rule for this entire period, until the unification of China by the Sui dynasty in 589. After the Tang dynasty disintegrated in the 10th century, Hubei came under the control of several regional regimes, Jingnan in the center, Wu to the east, and the Five Dynasties to the north. The Song dynasty reunified the region in 982 and placed most of Hubei into Jinghubei Circuit, Mongols conquered the region in 1279, and under their rule the province of Huguang was established, covering Hubei and parts of Guangdong and Guangxi.
The Ming dynasty drove out the Mongols in 1368 and their version of Huguang province was smaller, and corresponded almost entirely to the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan combined. While Hubei was geographically removed from the centers of the Ming power, during the last years of the Ming, todays Hubei was ravaged several times by the rebel armies of Zhang Xianzhong and Li Zicheng. The Manchu Qing dynasty which had much of the region in 1644, soon split Huguang into the provinces of Hubei. The Huangshi/Daye area, south-east of Wuhan, became an important center of mining, in 1911 the Wuchang Uprising took place in modern-day Wuhan, overthrowing the Qing dynasty and establishing the Republic of China. In 1927 Wuhan became the seat of a government established by left-wing elements of the Kuomintang, led by Wang Jingwei, during World War II the eastern parts of Hubei were conquered and occupied by Japan while the western parts remained under Chinese control
Yichang is a prefecture-level city located in western Hubei province, China. It is the second largest city in the province after the capital, the Three Gorges Dam is located within its administrative area, in Yiling District. In ancient times Yichang was known as Yiling, There are historical records telling that in the year 278 BC during the Warring States period, the Qin general Bai Qi set fire to Yiling. In 222 AD Yichang was the site of the Battle of Yiling during the Three Kingdoms Period, the imperial government set up a navigation company there and built wharfs less than 0.5 kilometres in length. Since 1949, more than 50 wharves have been constructed at the port so that its area is now over 15 kilometres long. In 1940, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Battle of Zaoyang-Yichang took place in the area, administratively, it is a prefecture-level city, its municipal government has jurisdiction over five counties, five urban districts, and three satellite county-level cities. It covers 21,084 square kilometres in Western Hubei Province, the Xiling Gorge, the easternmost of the Three Gorges on the Yangtze, is located within the prefecture-level city.
Within the prefecture-level city of Yichang, the Yangtze is joined by a number of tributaries, including the Qing River, Xiang Xi, the central urban area of Yichang is split between several districts. On the right bank of the Yangtze are located Xiling District, Yiling District, the city area on the opposite bank of the river is included into Dianjun District. All these districts, with the exception of the central Xiling, Yichang has a four-season, monsoon-influenced, humid subtropical climate, with cool and generally overcast winters, and hot, humid summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 4.9 °C in January to 27.7 °C in July, close to 70% of the annual precipitation of 1,140 mm occurs from May to September. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 24% in January to 49% in August, the city receives 1,568 hours of sunshine annually. Yichang Sanxia Airport is located in the Xiaoting District of Yichang City,26 km away from the city center and 55 km from the Three Gorges Dam site.
The airport is located, which borders Yihuang Highway in the north, Long River Golden Waterway in the south. It connects the urban Xiling and Dianjun Districts, There are several ferry crossings as well. Yichang is an important river port on the Yangtze river, maoping Town, has an active passenger wharf as well. The Qing River in the part of the prefecture, with its cascade of dams, is an important waterway as well. Yichang is served by railway lines
Hanyang District forms part of the urban core of and is one of 13 districts of Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province, Peoples Republic of China. Currently, it is a district and stands between the Han River and the Yangtze River, where the former drains into the latter and it is connected by bridges with its former sister cities and Wuchang. The name Hanyang continues to be used for the part of urban Wuhan between the Han and the Yangtze. Administratively, the area forms Hanyang District of the City of Wuhan, with an area of 108 square kilometers and universities, Jianghan University Primary and secondary schools, Wuhan French International School Official website of Hanyang District Government
Sandouping is a town in Yiling District of Yichang prefecture-level city in the Chinese province of Hubei. It is located on the bank of the Yangtze River. Sandouping is best known as the location of the Three Gorges Dam, the Town of Sandouping occupies 178 km2 on the right bank of the Yangtze River, opposite the town of Letianxi, to which it is connected by Xiling Bridge. Sandouping is the town in Yiling District that is located south of the river. Sandoupings western neighbor is the town of Maoping, the county seat of the nearby Zigui County, although it is only a kilometer or two west of the dam, it is actually several kilometers drive on Hubei Provincial Route 134, because of the terrain. Administratively, the Town of Sandouping is divided into 19 villages and 1 neighborhood committee, Sandoupings central urban area, where the town government and most services are located, is technically known as Yuanyi Village. It is situated some 5 km east of the end of the Three Gorges Dam. The neighborhood just to the east, known as Huanglingmiao Village, is named after Huangling Temple located there near the Yangtze River waterfront and it is being developed as a tourism area, centered around the riverboat dock. A secondary center of activity in the town is located in its western part.
The predecessor of todays Sandouping, the village of Huangniupu was established during the reign of the Hongzhi Emperor in 1496, Sandouping District was created in 1949 and transformed into Sandouping Town in 1984. Sandouping used to be a fishing village until it was selected to be the site of the Three Gorges Dam. In 1999, at the peak of the construction, over 40,000 workers lived in Sandouping, at the time, special permits were required to enter the town. Six out of nineteen Sandoupings villages are populated by families that have been resettled from the areas flooded by the waters of the Three Gorges Reservoir, or, the towns economy is closely connected to the Yangtze River. Besides the Three Gorges Dam, major enterprises include Hailun Shipyard. The three main products of Sandouping are citrus fruits and tea. The towns authorities are working on expanding tourism in the area
Huangshi is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Hubei province, Peoples Republic of China. Its population was 2,429,318 inhabitants at the 2010 census,1,601,687 of whom lived in the area made up of 4 urban districts plus the city of Daye. Huangshi is located in southeastern Hubei province, along the bank of one of the major bends in the Yangtze River. It is located 100 kilometres south-east of Wuhan, and borders Jiangxi province to the south and its area was reported by the local government as 4,583 square kilometres, the number of 4,630 square kilometres was given. The terrain is mostly small mountains and hills, the tallest mountain is 7 Summit Mountain with an elevation of 860 metres above sea level. Huangshi is located in a lake district between Hunans Dongting Lake and Jiangxis Poyang lake and has dozens of large lakes. Average annual temperature is 17 °C and precipitation is 1,400 mm, there are 264 frost free days. It snows between December and February, Huangshi has 4 districts,1 county, and 1 county-level city.
More than 99% of the population belong to the Han ethnic group, according to Google Map there are 686.894 people in Huangshi, this refers, presumably, to Huangshis urban core, and excludes the far-flung Yangxin County and Tieshan. Huangshis GDP for 2003 was 27.5 billion CNY and its proximity to Wuhan and location along major rail lines and the Yangtze River make Huangshi an important logistics and transportation hub. Mineral resources are plentiful in Huangshi giving it the nickname The Southern Cornucopia, metals include iron, gold, tungsten, zinc, cobalt, silver and thallium. Other mineral resources include germanium, selenium, sulfur, limestone, plaster, agriculture is a major part of Huangshis economy. There are more than 3000 species of plants in Huangshi, many of them used for food, other industries include metallurgy, construction materials, light manufacturing, pharmaceuticals and food processing. The prefecture-level city is served by G45 Daqing–Guangzhou Expressway, G50 Shanghai–Chongqing Expressway, National Highways 106 and 316, the city has two Yangtze River crossings, the Huangshi Yangtze River Bridge and the Edong Yangtze River Bridge.
Many of the trains traveling on the Wuhan–Jiujiang Railway between Wuhan and the points southeast make stops at the Huangshi and Yangxin stations. The Huangshi Station is located within the borders of Daye County-level city. The Yangxin Station is near Yangxin Countys county seat, Xingguo Town, although Huangshis main urban area is some distance away from the Wuhan–Jiujiang Railway mainline, it is connected to it by a dead-end branch, of considerable importance for the local industries. It runs all the way to Huangshis river port on the Yangtze, there was even a downtown passenger station on this branch, but, as of 2012, it was served by very few trains, and by 2015, was not in operation anymore
Taipingxi Town is a town in Yiling District of Yichang Prefecture-level city of Chinas Hubei Province. It is located on the side of the Yangtze River. As an administrative unit, Taipingxi occupies 152 square km, and has the population of 27,000 people, Taipingxi town center is situated on the Three Gorges Reservoir, less than a kilometer north-west of the Three Gorges Dams ship locks. An important river port, Taipingxi Harbor is adjacent to the town center and this is the easternmost port facility on the Three Gorges Reservoir, the one closest to the dam. The towns of Maoping and Sandouping are located on the side of the river, Letianxi, on the same side. The Xiling Bridge crosses the river downstream of the dam, connecting Taipingxi with Sandouping, like many other towns in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Taipingxi houses many residents resettled from villages flooded by the reservoir. Besides the economic activities connected to the Three Gorges Dam and the Yangtze River shipping, Taipingxi has mining and tea plantations
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies in the eastern Jianghan Plain at the intersection of the reaches of the Yangtze. Because of its key role in transportation, Wuhan was sometimes referred to as the Chicago of China by foreign sources. Holding sub-provincial status, Wuhan is recognized as the political, financial, educational, the city of Wuhan, first termed as such in 1927, has a population of 10,607,700 people as of 2015. In the 1920s, Wuhan was the capital of a leftist Kuomintang government led by Wang Jingwei in opposition to Chiang Kai-shek. At the 2010 census, its built-up area made of 8 out of 10 urban districts was home to 8,821,658 inhabitants, with a 3, 500-year-long history, Wuhan is one of the most ancient and civilized metropolitan cities in China. During the Han dynasty, Hanyang became a busy port. Around that time, walls were built to protect Hanyang and Wuchang, the latter event marks the foundation of Wuhan. In AD223, the Yellow Crane Tower was constructed on the Wuchang side of the Yangtze River, cui Hao, a celebrated poet of the Tang dynasty, visited the building in the early 8th century, his poem made it the most celebrated building in southern China.
The city has long been renowned as a center for the arts, under the Mongol rulers, Wuchang was promoted to the status of provincial capital, by the dawn of the 18th century, Hankou had become one of Chinas top four most important towns of trade. In the late 19th century, railroads were extended on an axis through the city. Also during this period foreign powers extracted mercantile concessions, with the riverfront of Hankou being divided up into foreign-controlled merchant districts and these districts contained trading firm offices and docking facilities. On October 10,1911, Sun Yat-sens followers launched the Wuchang Uprising, Wuhan was the capital of a leftist Kuomintang government led by Wang Jingwei, in opposition to Chiang Kai-shek during the 1920s. S. As the battle raged on through 1938, Wuhan and the region had become the site of the Battle of Wuhan. After being taken by the Japanese in late 1938, Wuhan became a major Japanese logistics center for operations in southern China, in December 1944, the city was largely destroyed by U. S.
firebombing raids conducted by the Fourteenth Air Force. In 1967, civil strife struck the city in the Wuhan Incident as a result of tensions arising out of the Cultural Revolution. The city has been subject to devastating floods, which are now supposed to be controlled by the ambitious Three Gorges Dam, a project which was completed in 2008. In December 1858, James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, High Commissioner to China, and in the spring of 1861, Counselor Harry Parkes and Admiral Herbert were sent to Wuhan to open a trading port
Time in China
The time in China follows a single standard time offset of UTC+08,00, despite China spanning five geographical time zones. The official national standard time is called Beijing Time domestically and China Standard Time internationally, daylight saving time has not been observed since 1991. The special administrative regions maintain their own authorities, with standards called Hong Kong Time. These have been equivalent to Beijing time since 1992, in addition, a second time standard is used in Xinjiang, two hours less than the Beijing Time, which is called Ürümqi Time or Xinjiang Time. In 1912, the Republic of China established five standard time zones, namely Kunlun, Sinkiang-Tibet, Kansu-Szechwan and Changpai. The unified time zone policy was adopted by the Communist Party of China or the Central People’s Government some time between 27 September 1949 and 6 October 1949, the date is unknown. However, recent research suggests that the policy was most likely adopted on 27 September 1949, daylight saving time was observed from 1986 to 1991.
In 1997 and 1999, Hong Kong and Macau were transferred to China from the United Kingdom and Portugal, although the sovereignty of the SARs belongs to China, they retain their own policies regarding time zones for historical reasons. Due to their locations, both are within the UTC+08,00 time zone, which is the same as the national standard — Beijing time. Xinjiang Time, known as Ürümqi Time, is set due to its location in the westernmost part of the country. The time offset is UTC+06,00, which is two hours behind Beijing, and is shared with neighbouring Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. Currently, timezone usage within Xinjiang is roughly split along the divide, with most ethnic Han following Beijing time. Some local authorities are now using both time standard side by side, the coexistence of two timezones within the same region causes some confusion among the local population, especially when inter-racial communication occur. Some ethnic Han in Xinjiang might not be aware of the existence of the UTC+6 Xinjiang Time because of language barrier, Beijing Time users in Xinjiang usually schedule their daily activities two hours than those who live in eastern China.
As such and offices in Xinjiang are commonly opening from 10am to 7pm Beijing Time and this is known as the work/rest time in Xinjiang. Hong Kong maintains its own time authority after transfer of sovereignty in 1997, the Hong Kong Time is UTC+08,00 all year round, and daylight saving time has not been used since 1979. Greenwich Mean Time was adopted as the basis in 1904, before that, local time was determined by astronomical observations at Hong Kong Observatory using a 6-inch Lee Equatorial and a 3-inch Transit Circle. Macau maintains its own time authority after transfer of sovereignty in 1999, the Macau Standard Time is the time in Macau
Yiling Yangtze River Bridge
The Yiling Yangtze River Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge over the Yangtze River in the city-center of Yichang, Hubei. It has 3 towers and two spans, with a total of 4 spans including the side spans. It is a bridge which carries four lanes of roadway and has a toll booth at one end. The bridge has a cable tension system, which carries the deck from the center. The Bridge crosses the Yangtze River, near Dagongqiao in Yichang, the The main spans are 346 meters each. At the end of the bridge, to the south there is a cloverleaf interchange after the toll booth which is, the bridge is 6.4 kilometers downriver from the Three Gorges Dam. Yangtze River bridges and tunnels Yiling Bridge at Structurae