SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Yin and yang

In Ancient Chinese philosophy and yang is a concept of dualism, describing how opposite or contrary forces may be complementary and interdependent in the natural world, how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another. In Chinese cosmology, the universe creates itself out of a primary chaos of material energy, organized into the cycles of Yin and Yang and formed into objects and lives. Yin is the receptive and Yang the active principle, seen in all forms of change and difference such as the annual cycle, the landscape, sexual coupling, the formation of both women and men as characters and sociopolitical history. There are various dynamics in Chinese cosmology. In the cosmology pertaining to Yin and Yang, the material energy, which this universe has created itself out of, is referred to as qi, it is believed that the organization of qi in this cosmology of Yang has formed many things. Included among these forms are humans. Many natural dualities are thought of as physical manifestations of the duality symbolized by yin and yang.

This duality lies at the origins of many branches of classical Chinese science and philosophy, as well as being a primary guideline of traditional Chinese medicine, a central principle of different forms of Chinese martial arts and exercise, such as baguazhang and qigong, as well as appearing in the pages of the I Ching. The notion of a duality can be found in many areas, such as Communities of Practice; the term "dualistic-monism" or dialectical monism has been coined in an attempt to express this fruitful paradox of simultaneous unity and duality. Yin and yang can be thought of as complementary forces that interact to form a dynamic system in which the whole is greater than the assembled parts. According to this philosophy, everything has yang aspects. Either of the two major aspects may manifest more in a particular object, depending on the criterion of the observation; the yin yang shows a balance between two opposites with a portion of the opposite element in each section. In Taoist metaphysics, distinctions between good and bad, along with other dichotomous moral judgments, are perceptual, not real.

In the ethics of Confucianism on the other hand, most notably in the philosophy of Dong Zhongshu, a moral dimension is attached to the idea of yin and yang. These Chinese terms yin 陰 or 阴 "shady side" and yang 陽 or 阳 "sunny side" are linguistically analyzable in terms of Chinese characters and etymology, meanings and loanwords; the Traditional Chinese characters 陰 and 陽 for the words yīn and yáng are both classified as radical-phonetic characters, combining the semantically significant "mound. The first phonetic yīn 侌 "cloudy" ideographically combines jīn 今 "now; the second phonetic yáng 昜 "bright" pictured 日 the "sun" with 勿 "rays coming down". This phonetic is expanded with the "sun" radical into yáng 暘 "rising sun; the "mound. The Simplified Chinese characters 阴 and 阳 for yīn and yáng combine the same "hill" radical 阝 with the non-phonetic yuè 月 "moon" and rì 日 "sun", graphically denoting "shady side of a hill" and "sunny side of a hill". Compare the Classical Chinese names for these two heavenly bodies: Tàiyīn 太陰 "moon" and Tàiyáng 太陽 "sun".

The Modern Standard Chinese pronunciation of 陰 or 阴 is level first tone yīn "shady. Sinologists and historical linguists have reconstructed Middle Chinese pronunciations from data in the Qieyun rhyme dictionary and rhyme tables, subsequently used to reconstruct Old Chinese phonology from rhymes in the Shijing and phonological components of Chinese characters. Reconstructions of Old Chinese have illuminated the etymology of modern Chinese words. Compare these Middle Chinese and Old Chinese reconstructions of yīn 陰 and yáng 陽: ˑiəm < *ˑiəm and iang < *diang *ʔjəm and *raŋ ʔjum and *ljang ʔjəm < *ʔəm and jiaŋ < *laŋ'im < *qrum and yang < *laŋ Schuessler gives probable Sino-Tibetan etymologies for both Chinese words. Yin < *ʔəm compares with Burmese ʔumC "overcast. Yang < *laŋ compares with Lepcha a-lóŋ "reflecting light", Burmese laŋB "be bright" and ə-laŋB "light". To this word-family, Unger includes 炳 bǐng < *plaŋʔ "bright".

Molecular phenotyping

Molecular phenotyping describes the technique of quantifying pathway reporter genes, i.e. pre-selected genes that are modulated by metabolic and signaling pathways, in order to infer activity of these pathways. In most cases, molecular phenotyping quantifies changes of pathway reporter gene expression to characterize modulation of pathway activities induced by perturbations such as therapeutic agents or stress in a cellular system in vitro. In such contexts, measurements at early time points are more informative than observations because they capture the primary response to the perturbation by the cellular system. Integrated with quantified changes of phenotype induced by the perturbation, molecular phenotyping can identify pathways that contribute to the phenotypic changes. Molecular phenotyping uses RNA sequencing and mRNA expression to infer pathway activities. Other technologies and readouts such as mass spectrometry and protein abundance or phosphorylation levels can be used as well. Current data suggest that by quantifying pathway reporter gene expression, molecular phenotyping is able to cluster compounds based on pathway profiles and dissect associations between pathway activities and disease phenotypes simultaneously.

Furthermore, molecular phenotyping can be applicable to compounds with a range of binding specificities and is able to triage false positives derived from high-content screening assays. Furthermore, molecular phenotyping allows integration of data derived from in vitro and in vivo models as well as patient data into the drug discovery process

Brothers & Sisters (2006 TV series)

Brothers & Sisters is an American television drama series that centers on the Walker family and their lives in Los Angeles and Pasadena, California. It aired for five seasons on ABC from September 24, 2006, to May 8, 2011, it aired, in a Sunday night timeslot after Desperate Housewives. Brothers & Sisters features an ensemble cast led by Sally Field as Nora Walker, with Rachel Griffiths as Sarah, Calista Flockhart as Kitty, Balthazar Getty as Tommy, Matthew Rhys as Kevin and Dave Annable as Justin Walker, her grown children. Patricia Wettig co-starred as Holly Harper, with Emily VanCamp joining the cast as Rebecca Harper, as well as Ron Rifkin as Saul Holden. Field won both a Primetime Emmy Award and a Screen Actors Guild Award for her performances throughout the series, as well as Griffiths receiving nominations for two Primetime Emmy Awards and two Golden Globe Awards for her portrayal; the series revolves around the lives and problems of the wealthy Walker family in the wake of the death of family patriarch William Walker, the founder of the family business Ojai Foods.

The family consists of wife and mother Nora Walker who must deal with revelations about her husband's infidelity, her children Sarah and Tommy, both married executives at Ojai Foods, Kitty, a conservative activist, Kevin, a gay lawyer, youngest sibling Justin, who has returned from the Afghan War with a substance abuse problem. They were joined by Holly Harper, William's mistress. Plotlines revolved around the romantic relationships of the family, their business fortunes with regard to the control of Ojai Foods, the relationship between the siblings. Most conflicts were resolved with a lot of wine; the show's narrative launched with the death of William Walker at Kitty's birthday party. His death causes a number of secrets from his life to be revealed—secrets that impact the remainder of his family and which include the introduction of William's mistress Holly Harper and her daughter Rebecca. Other main storylines throughout the series include the personal and professional lives of Nora and all the brothers and sisters.

After the family sells Ojai Foods and Saul open a restaurant and Nora begins working at a radio station which Sarah decides to buy. Justin Walker, son of Nora and William Walker. Nora Walker, widow of William Walker, mother of Sarah, Tommy and Justin. Kitty Walker, daughter of Nora and William Walker, one year younger than Sarah. Sarah Laurent, daughter of Nora Walker and Nick Brody. Tommy Walker, son of Nora and William Walker, two years younger than Kitty. Joe Whedon, ex-husband of Sarah Walker. Julia Walker, ex-wife of Tommy Walker. Kevin Walker, son of Nora and William Walker, one year younger than Tommy. Saul Holden, brother of Nora Walker. Holly Harper, ex-mistress of William Walker. Paige Whedon, daughter of Sarah Walker and Joe Whedon. Rebecca Harper, daughter of Holly Harper. Cooper Whedon, son of Sarah Walker and Joe Whedon. Robert McCallister, husband of Kitty Walker. Scotty Wandell, husband of Kevin Walker. Ryan Lafferty, son of William Walker and Connie Lafferty. Luc Laurent, husband of Sarah Walker.

Most of the season focuses on The Walkers dealing with the loss of William Walker and the secrets uncovered by his death, most notably the discovery of Holly Harper, a woman he had an affair with, her daughter Rebecca. The season introduces the audience to the lives of the Walker siblings who must deal with their jobs, turbulent love lives and each other; the second season focused on the romantic lives of the Walker siblings. As Kitty and Robert start planning their wedding, Kevin runs into Scotty and they become a couple. Sarah must now deal with her divorce and being a single parent while Tommy and Julia go through serious issues after struggling with the loss of one of their twins. Nora begins a new romance with one of Robert's staff and, along with Rebecca, tries