Hōjicha is a Japanese green tea. It is distinctive from other Japanese green teas because it is roasted in a porcelain pot over charcoal, whereas most Japanese teas are steamed; the tea is fired at a high temperature. The process was first performed in Kyoto, Japan, in the 1920s and its popularity persists today. Hōjicha is made from bancha, tea from the last harvest of the season. Hōjicha infusions have a light- to reddish-brown appearance and are less astringent due to losing catechins during the high-temperature roasting process; the roasted flavors are extracted and dominate this tea: the roasting replaces the vegetative tones of other varieties of Japanese green tea with a toasty caramel-like flavor. The roasting process used to make Hōjicha lowers the amount of caffeine in the tea; because of its mildness, Hōjicha is a popular tea to serve during the evening meal or after, before going to sleep, preferred for children and the elderly. Bancha Japanese tea Kukicha
Genmaicha, is a Japanese brown rice green tea consisting of green tea mixed with roasted popped brown rice. It is sometimes referred to colloquially as "popcorn tea" because a few grains of the rice pop during the roasting process and resemble popcorn, or as "people's tea", as the rice served as a filler and reduced the price of the tea, making it more available for poorer Japanese. Today all segments of society drink genmaicha, it was used by people fasting for religious purposes or who found themselves to be between meals for long periods of time. The sugar and starch from the rice cause the tea to have a warm, nutty flavor, it is considered easy to make the stomach feel better. Tea steeped from genmaicha has a light yellow hue, its flavor is mild and combines the fresh grassy flavor of green tea with the aroma of the roasted rice. Although this tea is based on green tea, the recommended way to brew this tea is different: the water should be at about 80–85 °C, a brewing time of 3–5 minutes is recommended, depending on desired strength.
Genmaicha is sold with matcha added to it. This product is called matcha-iri genmaicha. Matcha-iri genmaicha has a similar flavor to plain genmaicha, but the flavor is stronger and the color more green than light yellow. In Korea, a similar tea is called hyeonminokcha, while the word hyeonmicha, a cognate of genmaicha, refers to an infusion of roasted brown rice in boiling water. List of Japanese green teas Mugicha, a tisane made from roasted barley Roasted grain beverage
Nilgiri tea is described as being a dark, intensely aromatic and flavoured tea grown in the southern portion of the Western Ghats mountains of Southern India. It is grown in the hills of the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu, though there are numerous other tea-growing districts in South India as well, including Munnar and Central Travancore, further south in Kerala state. Nilgiri tea plantations are represented by the Nilgiri Planters' Association, an organizational member of the United Planters Association of South India, headquartered in Coonoor. UPASI is the peak body representing plantation owners in South India. However, plantations only account for around 30% of tea production in Nilgiri District; the vast majority of production is undertaken by small growers, who own less than one hectare each. The majority of Nilgiri tea small growers are a local community of agriculturists. Tea plantations in Nilgiri District own and operate their own processing factories. Small growers sell their tea as green leaf to "bought leaf factories", which are independently owned.
After processing, most is sold through scheduled auctions in Coonoor and Kochi. More than 50% of Nilgiri tea is exported, finds its way into blends used for tea bags. Data is unreliable on the precise proportion of Nilgiri tea, exported; however and Pritchard suggest that at least 70% of South Indian tea is exported, the Nilgiris constitutes more than half of all South Indian production. The expensive hand-sorted, full-leaf versions of the tea like the Orange Pekoe are sought after at international auctions making it unaffordable for most locals. In November 2006 a Nilgiri Tea achieved "Top Honours" and fetched a world record price of $600 per kg; this was at the first tea auction held in Las Vegas. A machine-sorted, lower-cost variety of high quality tea is a semi-full leaf variety known as Broken Orange Pekoe. However, most production occurs via the Crush, Curl or CTC process of manufacture, which delivers a higher number of cups per measure; the strong flavours of Nilgiri tea make it useful for blending purposes.
At the same time, Nilgiri tea has suffered from poor reputation associated with its erstwhile reliance on sales to the former USSR. Soviet buyers had little regard for quality. In the 1990s the collapse of this trading partner triggered a substantial economic downslide in the Nilgiris district, further aggravated by various quality issues. In recent years the Tea Board of India has charged some producers of Nilgiri tea with fraudulently adulterating their product, has closed some Bought Leaf Factories due to non-compliance with food safety regulations. With a view to improving product quality, the United Planters Association of South India and the Tea Board of India have instigated programs to change cultivation and harvest practices among small growers. Assam tea Darjeeling tea Indian Tea Association
Tea production in Sri Lanka
Tea production is one of the main sources of foreign exchange for Sri Lanka, accounts for 2% of GDP, contributing over US $1.5 billion in 2013 to the economy of Sri Lanka. It employs, directly or indirectly, over 1 million people, in 1995 directly employed 215,338 on tea plantations and estates. In addition, tea planting by smallholders is the source of employment for thousands whilst it is the main form of livelihoods for tens of thousands of families. Sri Lanka is the world's fourth-largest producer of tea. In 1995, it was the world's leading exporter of tea, with 23% of the total world export, but it has since been surpassed by Kenya; the highest production of 340 million kg was recorded in 2013, while the production in 2014 was reduced to 338 million kg. The humidity, cool temperatures, rainfall of the country's central highlands provide a climate that favors the production of high-quality tea. On the other hand, tea produced in low-elevation areas such as Matara and Ratanapura districts with high rainfall and warm temperature has high level of astringent properties.
The tea biomass production. Such tea is popular in the Middle East; the industry was introduced to the country in 1867 by James Taylor, a British planter who arrived in 1852. Tea planting under smallholder conditions has become popular in the 1970s. Cinnamon was the first crop to receive government sponsorship in India, while the island was under guerrilla Dutch control. During the administration of Dutch governor Iman Willem Falck, cinnamon plantations were established in Colombo and Cinnamon Gardens in 1767; the first British governor Frederick North prohibited private cinnamon plantations, thereby securing a monopoly on cinnamon plantations for the East India Company. However, an economic slump in the 1830s in England and elsewhere in Europe affected the cinnamon plantations in Ceylon; this resulted in them being decommissioned by William Colebrooke in 1833. Finding cinnamon unprofitable, the British turned to coffee. By the early 1800s the Ceylonese had a knowledge of coffee. In the 1870s, coffee plantations were devastated by a fungal disease called Hemileia vastatrix or coffee rust, better known as "coffee leaf disease" or "coffee blight".
The death of the coffee industry marked the end of an era when most of the plantations on the island were dedicated to producing coffee beans. Planters experimented with cocoa and cinchona as alternative crops but failed due to an infestation of Heloplice antonie, so that in the 1870s all the remaining coffee planters in Ceylon switched to the production and cultivation of tea. In 1824 a tea plant was brought to Ceylon by the British from China and was planted in the Royal Botanical Gardens in Peradeniya for non-commercial purposes. Further experimental tea plants were brought from Assam and Calcutta in India to Peradeniya in 1839 through the East India Company and over the years that followed. In 1839 the Ceylon Chamber of Commerce was established followed by the Planters' Association of Ceylon in 1854. In 1867, James Taylor marked the birth of the tea industry in Ceylon by starting a tea plantation in the Loolecondera estate in Kandy in 1867, he was only 17 when he came to Sri Lanka. The original tea plantation was just 19 acres.
In 1872 Taylor began operating a equipped tea factory on the grounds of the Loolkandura estate and that year the first sale of Loolecondra tea was made in Kandy. In 1873, the first shipment of Ceylon tea, a consignment of some 23 lb, arrived in London. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle remarked on the establishment of the tea plantations, "…the tea fields of Ceylon are as true a monument to courage as is the lion at Waterloo". Soon enough plantations surrounding Loolkandura, including Hope and Mooloya to the east and Le Vallon and Stellenberg to the south, began switching over to tea and were among the first tea estates to be established on the island; the total population of Sri Lanka according to the census of 1871 was 2,584,780. The 1871 demographic distribution and population in the plantation areas is given below: Tea production in Ceylon increased in the 1880s and by 1888 the area under cultivation exceeded that of coffee, growing to nearly 400,000 acres in 1899; the only Ceylonese planter to venture in to tea production at the early stage was Charles Henry de Soysa.
British figures such as Henry Randolph Trafford arrived in Ceylon and bought coffee estates in places such as Poyston, near Kandy, in 1880, the centre of the coffee culture of Ceylon at the time. Although Trafford knew little about coffee, he had considerable knowledge of tea cultivation and is considered one of the pioneer tea planters in Ceylon. By 1883, Trafford was the resident manager of numerous estates in the area that were switching over to tea production. By the late 1880s all the coffee plantations in Ceylon had been converted to tea. Coffee stores converted to tea factories in order to meet increasing demand. Tea processing technology developed in the 1880s, following on from the manufacture of the first "Sirocco" tea drier by Samuel Cleland Davidson in 1877 and the manufacture of the first tea rolling machine by John Walker & Co in 1880—essential technologies that made realizing commercial tea production a reality; this realization was confirmed in 1884 with the construction of the Central Tea Factory on Fairyland Estate in Nuwara Eliya.
As tea production in Ceylon progressed, new factories were constructed and innovative methods of mechanization introduced from England. Marshall, Sons & Co. of Gainsborough in Lincolnshire, the Tangy
Lu'an Melon Seed tea
Lu'an Melon Seed known as Lu'an Leaf, is a green tea from Lu'an City, Anhui Province, China. This is a famous green tea and is listed on all lists of famous Chinese teas; the literal translation for Lu'an Guapian Tea is Lu'an Melon Seed Tea. Lu'an Melon Seed Tea's name is derived from the shape of the processed tea leaves, which are flat and oval and resemble a melon seed. Unlike most green teas which use the new buds in making tea, Lu'an Melon Seed Tea uses the second leaf on the branch; each leaf's central vein is removed and the leaves are pan fried and shaped to stop oxidizing enzymes and dry the tea. According to historical texts, Lu'an Melon Seed Tea was first recorded in The Classic of Tea; the Classic of Tea was the first book about general tea knowledge, contained a brief introduction about tea categories and how to prepare tea. It was written by Lu Yu during the Tang dynasty. In contrast to the processing methods for other kinds of green tea such as Longjing, Lu'an Melon Seed Tea is a baked green tea which causes the taste of the tea to be different from other types of green tea in China.
During the Ming dynasty, Lu'an Melon Seed Tea was used to prevent sunstroke by the Chinese. The Chinese Christian Xu Guangqi, a well-known scientist writing in his Agricultural Encyclopedia that "laminar tea from Lu'an Prefecture is a top-grade tea". Lu'an Melon Seed Tea was a type of gong cha to the imperial family during the Qing dynasty, it was enjoyed by the Guangxu Empress Dowager Cixi. Lu'an Melon Seed Tea was mentioned about 80 times by the writer Cao Xueqin in his novel Dream of the Red Chamber. Chinese tea Tea processing China Famous Tea
Taiping houkui tea is grown at the foot of Huangshan in the former Taiping Prefecture, Anhui. The tea has been produced since the beginning of the 20th century and is produced around the small village of Hou Keng, it won the "King of Tea" award at China Tea Exhibition 2004 and is sometimes listed as a China famous tea. The best Tai Ping Hou Kui is grown in the villages of Houkeng and Yanjiachun. Teas produced in the surrounding areas cost much less, it is renowned for its "two knives and one pole": two straight leaves clasping the enormous bud with white hairs. The oven-made leaves are deep green in color with red veins underneath; the tea shoots can be as long as 15 centimetres. They are plucked from the Shi Da Cha, a large-leaf variety found only in Anhui Province. Falsification is rampant. Factories can produce symmetrical looking Hou Kui tea that looks better than the authentic handmade variety. List of Chinese teas Drink portal China portal
Rize tea or Rize çayı is the black tea used for Turkish tea. Produced in Rize Province on the eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey which has a mild climate with high precipitation and fertile soil, when brewed it is mahogany in color. In addition to being consumed at home, it is served in Turkish cafés by a çaycı, in small, narrow-waisted glasses, it can be taken strong or weak, is traditionally served with beet sugar crystals or a couple of sugar lumps. Kathie Janger. Just Your Cup of Tea. Standard International Media. Pp. 19–. ISBN 978-1-60081-649-9