Sir William Connolly, is a Scottish stand-up comedian, presenter and artist. He is sometimes known in his homeland, by the Scots nickname "The Big Yin". Connolly's first trade, in the early 1960s, was as a welder in the Glasgow shipyards, but he gave it up towards the end of the decade to pursue a career as a folk singer, he first sang in folk rock band The Humblebums alongside friend Gerry Rafferty and Tam Harvey, with whom he stayed until 1974, before beginning singing as a solo artist. In the early 1970s, Connolly made the transition from folk singer with a comedic persona to fledged comedian, for which he is now best known. In 1972, he made his theatrical debut, at the Cottage Theatre in Cumbernauld, with a revue called Connolly's Glasgow Flourish, he played the Edinburgh Festival Fringe. In 1972, Connolly's first solo album was produced, Billy Connolly Live!, a mixture of comedic songs and short monologues. As an actor, Connolly has appeared in such films as Indecent Proposal, Muppet Treasure Island, The Boondock Saints, The Last Samurai, Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events, The X-Files: I Want to Believe and The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies.
On his 75th birthday in 2017, three portraits of Connolly were made by leading artists Jack Vettriano, John Byrne and Rachel Maclean. These were turned into part of Glasgow's official mural trail. In October the same year, he was knighted in Buckingham Palace by Prince William for services to entertainment and charity. Connolly was born at 69 Dover Street, "on the linoleum, three floors up" "at six o'clock in the evening", in Anderston, Glasgow; this section of Dover Street, between Breadalbane and Claremont streets, was demolished in the 1970s. Connolly refers to this in his 1983 song "I Wish I Was in Glasgow" with the lines "I would take you there and show you but they've pulled the building down" and "They bulldozed it all to make a road." The flat had only two rooms: a kitchen-living room, with a recess, where the children slept and another room for their parents. The family bathed in the kitchen sink, there was no hot water. In 1946, when he was four years old, Connolly's mother abandoned her children while their father was serving as an engineer in the Royal Air Force in Burma.
"I've never felt abandoned by her", Connolly explained in 2009. "My mother was a teenager. My father was in Burma; the Germans were dropping all kinds of crap on the town. We lived at the docks, so that's where all the bombs were happening, she was a teenager with two kids in a slum. A guy says, ` I love you. Come with me.' Given the choice, I think. It looks. I don't have an ounce of feelings, she tried to survive."Connolly and his older sister Florence were cared for by two aunts and Mona Connolly, his father's sisters, in their cramped tenement in Stewartville Street, Partick. "My aunts told me I was stupid, which still affects me today pretty badly. It's just a belief, it gets worse. I'm a happy man now but I still have the scars of that." Regarding his sister, Connolly has called her his "great defender". "To this day, he explained in 2009, "Guys say,'God, your sister... We didn't dare beat you up – your sister was a nightmare', she used to get after them." In the mid-1960s, Flo was on holiday in Dunoon with two children.
"My mother said,'I saw Florence walking along, I followed her.'" "I said,'Did you speak to her?"Oh, no, I didn't,' she said. I thought,'Oh, my god. It's like being a ghost while you're still alive.' Walking behind your own child. Having a look. I couldn't bear that."The aunts resented the children for the fact that they had to sacrifice their young lives to look after them. It was Mona, troubled the most by having to care for her niece and nephew. "It was big of her to take on the responsibility, but having said that, I wish people wouldn't do that. I wish people wouldn't be big for five minutes and rotten for twenty years. Just keep your'big' and keep your'rotten' and get out of my life, quite frankly, I would rather have gone to a children's home and be with a lot of other kids being treated the same. To this day, I'm still working on the things she did to me."Connolly credits one of John Bradshaw's publications with helping him deal with his past demons. "He reckons that if this trauma happened to you when you were five or six emotionally, that part of you remains five or six.
And what you have to do is carry that five- or six-year-old around with you and try and help that other part of you. It sounds a bit airy-fairy, but I think he's something of a genius, Mr. Bradshaw."Connolly, Sr. returned from the war, a stranger to his children, shortly after the move to Partick. He never spoke to them about their mother's departure. Connolly's biography Billy, written by wife Pamela Stephenson, documented years of physical and sexual abuse by his father, which began when he was ten and lasted until he was about 15. "Sometimes, when father hit me, I flew over the settee backwards in a sitting position. It was fabulous. Just like real flying, except you didn't get a cup of tea or a safety belt or anything." In 1949, Mona gave birth to a son, Michael, by a "local man". He was presented as a brother to Billy and Flo, nobody questioned it. Connolly's bedroom had double windows, which directly faced St Peter's Primary School across the street. Now defunct, the schoo
Government of Pittsburgh
The Government of Pittsburgh is composed of the Mayor, the City Council, various boards and commissions. Most of these offices are housed within the Pittsburgh City-County Building; the Government of Pittsburgh receives its authority from the Pennsylvania General Assembly pursuant to Part III of Title 53 of the Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes, relating to Cities of the Second Class. The Mayor of Pittsburgh is elected every 4 years; the current mayor is Bill Peduto. Since the 1950s the Mayor's Chief of Staff has assumed a large role in advising, long term planning and as a "gatekeeper" to the mayor; the Pittsburgh City Council is a nine-member city council. City council members are chosen by plurality elections in each of nine districts; the mayor appoints the position of Pittsburgh Police Chief. The city and its immediate suburbs are served by the four-year elected Allegheny County District Attorney to prosecute criminal offenses and the congressionally appointed U. S. District Attorney for the Western District of Pennsylvania for federal offenses.
The city and its residents are served by the elected four-year term Allegheny County Sheriff and the County council-appointed Allegheny County Police Department Chief. Pittsburgh finances are subject to the Pittsburgh Intergovernmental Cooperation Authority, the city's state-appointed financial oversight body. Many governmental functions are carried out by boards and commissions; these organizations include: Allegheny County Sanitary Authority Allegheny Regional Asset District Board Pittsburgh Parking Authority Sports and Exhibition Authority Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh Stadium Authority Government of Pennsylvania Official website Pittsburgh Code and Charter from Municode
Occupy Pittsburgh was a collaboration that has included peaceful protests and demonstrations, with an aim to overcome economic inequality, corporate greed and the influence of corporations and lobbyists on government. The protest has taken place at several locations in Pittsburgh, notably Market Square, Mellon Green and the city's Oakland neighborhood adjacent to the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University, and East Liberty neighborhood. As of June 2012, Occupy Pittsburgh had continued to engage in organized meetings and actions; the protests drew as many as 4,000 people. The protests included an encampment at Mellon Green. Although the park is owned by BNY Mellon, it did not request protesters to vacate, the movement citing the "public space" provisions of the city code to justify their occupation. After BNY Mellon filed in court on December 12, 2011 to end the encampment, Occupy Pittsburgh members responded by serving notice to evict the corporation from Pittsburgh. On February 8, 2012, the movement peacefully left Mellon Green.
Related portals: "Occupy Pittsburgh Protestors Vague About Eviction". CBS Pittsburgh. February 3, 2012. Retrieved March 3, 2012. Smith, Pohla. "Occupy Pittsburgh clearing out but some resist". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved March 3, 2012. Begos, Kevin. "Final eviction order issued for Occupy Pittsburgh". Yahoo News. Retrieved March 3, 2012. Associated Press. "Occupy Pittsburgh packing up tents before deadline". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved March 3, 2012. Official website Photos More photos
The iTunes Store is a software-based online digital media store operated by Apple Inc. that opened on April 28, 2003, as a result of Steve Jobs' push to open a digital marketplace for music. As of January 2017, iTunes offered over 35-40 million songs, 2.2 million apps, 25,000 TV shows, 65,000 films. When it opened, it was the only legal digital catalog of music to offer songs from all five major record labels; as of June 2013, iTunes Store possessed 575 million active user accounts, served over 315 million mobile devices, including Apple Watches, iPods, iPhones, Apple TV and iPads. Steve Jobs saw the opportunity to open a digital marketplace for music due to the rising popularity of downloadable tracks. In 2002, Jobs made an agreement with the five major record labels to offer their content through iTunes. ITunes Store was introduced by Jobs at the company's Worldwide Developers Conference in April 2003, it was available on Mac computers and the iPod, was expanded to Microsoft Windows in October 2003.
In April 2008, the iTunes Store was the largest music vendor in the United States, in February 2010, it was the largest music vendor in the world. ITunes Store's revenues in the first quarter of 2011 totaled nearly US$1.4 billion. By May 28, 2014, the store had sold 35 billion songs worldwide. In 2016, it was reported, it was reported that iTunes-style digital download sales had dropped 24% as streaming sales continued to increase. In April 2018, the iTunes app was added to the Microsoft Windows 10 app store. Beginning in the spring of 2019, the iTunes app became available on Samsung Smart TVs. Following the introduction of iTunes Store, individual songs were all sold for the same price, though Apple introduced multiple prices in 2007. Music in the store is in the Advanced Audio Coding format, the MPEG-4-specified successor to MP3. Songs were only available with DRM and were encoded at 128 kbit/s. At the January 2009 Macworld Expo, Apple announced that all iTunes music would be made available without DRM, encoded at the higher-quality rate of 256 kbit/s.
This model, known as "iTunes Plus", had been available only for music from EMI and some independent labels. Users can sample songs by listening to previews, ninety seconds in length, or thirty seconds for short tracks. In addition, iTunes Store offers apps, which are applications used for various purposes that are compatible with the iPod Touch, iPhone, iPad, although some apps are for the iPhone or iPad only; some Apps cost money and some are free. Developers can decide which prices they want to charge for apps, from a pre-set list of pricing tiers, from free to several hundred dollars; when someone downloads an App, 70 percent of the purchase goes to the developer, 30 percent goes to Apple. At the Macworld 2008 keynote, Steve Jobs, Apple's CEO at the time, announced iTunes movie rentals. Movies are available for rent in iTunes Store on the same day they are released on DVD, though iTunes Store offers for rental some movies that are still in theaters. Movie rentals are only viewable for 48 hours after users begin viewing them.
ITunes Store offers one low-priced movie rental a week: in the United States, this rental costs 99 cents. Movie rentals are not yet available in all countries but it is available in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand. There is a weekly promotion in which one to three songs are available to download for free to logged-in users. Free downloads are available on Tuesdays, remain free until the following Tuesday, when the store gets refreshed with new content; some artists choose to have select songs available for no charge. This is not available at all iTunes Stores; some iTunes television programs have begun the same technique to encourage brand loyalty. In fact, iTunes Store has a "Free TV Episodes" page where free episodes are organized by length, either as "featurettes" or full length episodes. Free content can vary from a preview of a show to bonus content to pilot episodes and entire seasons of TV shows; some networks, such as ABC and NBC, have their own pages of "Free Season Premieres".
While the US iTunes Store has offered as many as three free songs each week in recent years, the store has instead replaced the three aforementioned categories with a unified "Single of the Week" banner, with the week's single being from a new up and coming artist. In 2015, Apple discontinued the "Single of the Week" program. A song costs 99¢. By default, songs that are more than 10 minutes are considered "Album Only". For special offers, song prices can be free. By default, music albums cost $9.99 or the price of all the songs combined if it is less than $9.99. However, the music album's distributor can set a higher price for the album, which happens on popular music albums. For special offers, prices of music albums can be dropped to $5.99, $6.99, or $7.99. On June 30, 2015 Apple launched Apple Music as a subscription service available in 110 countries. New subscribers are offered a three-month free trial with ongoing subscriptions priced from $9.99/month in the US and £9.99 in the UK. By default, H
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
Western Pennsylvania English
Western Pennsylvania English, known more narrowly as Pittsburgh English or popularly as Pittsburghese, is a dialect of American English native to the western half of Pennsylvania, centered on the city of Pittsburgh, but appearing as far north as Erie County, as far east as Sunbury, Pennsylvania, as far west as metropolitan Youngstown, as far south as micropolitan Clarksburg. Associated with the white working class of Pittsburgh, users of the dialect are colloquially known as "Yinzers". Scots-Irish, Pennsylvania German, Polish and Croatian immigrants to the area all provided certain loanwords to the dialect. Although many of the sounds and words found in this dialect are popularly thought to be unique to the city of Pittsburgh only, this is a misconception, since the dialect resides throughout the greater part of western Pennsylvania and surrounding areas. Central Pennsylvania an intersection of several dialect regions, was identified in 1949 by Hans Kurath as a sub-region between western and eastern Pennsylvania, though some scholars have more identified it within the western Pennsylvania dialect region.
Since the time of Kurath's study, one of western Pennsylvania's defining features, the cot–caught merger, has expanded into central Pennsylvania, moving eastward until being blocked at Harrisburg. The only feature whose distribution is restricted exclusively to the immediate vicinity of Pittsburgh is monophthongization, in which words such as house, found, or sauerkraut are sometimes pronounced with an "ah" sound instead of the more standard pronunciation of "ow", rendering eye spellings such as hahs, dahn and sahrkraht. Speakers of Pittsburgh English are sometimes called "Yinzers", in reference to their use of the 2nd-person plural pronoun "yinz." The word "yinzer" is sometimes heard as pejorative, indicating a lack of sophistication, although the term is now used in a variety of ways. Older men are more to use the accent than women, "...possibly because of a stronger interest in displaying local identity...." A defining feature of Western Pennsylvania English is the cot–caught merger, in which and merges to a rounded vowel:.
Therefore and caught are both pronounced. While the merger of these low back vowels is widespread elsewhere in the United States, the rounded realizations of the merged vowel around is less common, except in Canada and Northeastern New England; the sound as in oh begins more fronted in the mouth, as in the Southern U. S. or Southern England. Therefore, go is pronounced. /uː/ as in food and rude is fronted, diphthongized, as in much of the American South and West. The diphthong, as in ow, is monophthongized to in some environments, including before nasal consonants, liquid consonants and obstruents; this monophthongization does not occur, however, in word-final positions, where the diphthong remains. This is one of the few features, if not the only one, restricted exclusively to western Pennsylvania in North America, although it can sometimes be found in other accents of the English-speaking world, such as Cockney and South African English; this sound may be the result of contact from Slavic languages during the early twentieth century.
Monopthongization occurs for the sound, as in eye, before liquid consonants, so that tile is pronounced. Due to this phenomenon, tire may merge with the sound of tar:. An epenthetic sound may occur after vowels in a small number of words, such as in water pronounced like warter, wash like warsh. A number of vowel mergers occur uniquely in Western Pennsylvania English before the consonant; the pair of vowels and may each merge before the consonant, cause both steel and still to be pronounced as something like. And may merge before /l/, so that pool and pole may merge to something like. On the /iːl/~/ɪl/ merger, Labov and Boberg note "the stereotype of merger of /il ~ iyl/ is based only on a close approximation of some forms, does not represent the underlying norms of the dialect"; the /iː/~/ɪ/ merger is found in western Pennsylvania, as well as parts of the southern United States, including Alabama and the west. On the other hand, the /u/~/ʊ/ merger is found only in western Pennsylvania; the /iː/~/ɪ/ merger towards may appear before.
The vowel /ʌ/ before, may lower into the vowel of the cot–caught merger mentioned above, so that mull can sound identical to mall/maul:. L-vocalization is common in the Western Pennsylvania dialect, in which an sounds like a /w/, or a cross between a vowel and a "dark" /l/, when at the end of a syllable. An example is; this phenomenon is common in African-American English. Western Pennsylvania English speakers may use falling intonation at the end of questions, for example, in "Are you painting your garage?". Such speakers use falling pitch for yes/no questions for which they are quite sure of the answer. So, a speaker uttering the above example is confirming what they think they know, that yes, the person they're talking to is painting his/h
Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama and Georgia. While the Appalachian Mountains stretch from Belle Isle in Canada to Cheaha Mountain in Alabama, the cultural region of Appalachia refers only to the central and southern portions of the range, from the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia, southwesterly to the Great Smoky Mountains; as of the 2010 United States Census, the region was home to 25 million people. Since its recognition as a distinctive region in the late 19th century, Appalachia has been a source of enduring myths and distortions regarding the isolation and behavior of its inhabitants. Early 20th century writers engaged in yellow journalism focused on sensationalistic aspects of the region's culture, such as moonshining and clan feuding, portrayed the region's inhabitants as uneducated and prone to impulsive acts of violence. Sociological studies in the 1960s and 1970s helped to dispel these stereotypes.
While endowed with abundant natural resources, Appalachia has long struggled and been associated with poverty. In the early 20th century, large-scale logging and coal mining firms brought wage-paying jobs and modern amenities to Appalachia, but by the 1960s the region had failed to capitalize on any long-term benefits from these two industries. Beginning in the 1930s, the federal government sought to alleviate poverty in the Appalachian region with a series of New Deal initiatives, such as the construction of dams to provide cheap electricity and the implementation of better farming practices. On March 9, 1965, the Appalachian Regional Commission was created to further alleviate poverty in the region by diversifying the region's economy and helping to provide better health care and educational opportunities to the region's inhabitants. By 1990, Appalachia had joined the economic mainstream, but still lagged behind the rest of the nation in most economic indicators. Since Appalachia lacks definite physiographical or topographical boundaries, there has been some disagreement over what the region encompasses.
The most used modern definition of Appalachia is the one defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission in 1965 and expanded over subsequent decades. The region defined by the Commission includes 420 counties and eight independent cities in 13 states, including all of West Virginia, 14 counties in New York, 52 in Pennsylvania, 32 in Ohio, 3 in Maryland, 54 in Kentucky, 25 counties and 8 cities in Virginia, 29 in North Carolina, 52 in Tennessee, 6 in South Carolina, 37 in Georgia, 37 in Alabama, 24 in Mississippi; when the Commission was established, counties were added based on economic need, rather than any cultural parameters. The first major attempt to map Appalachia as a distinctive cultural region came in the 1890s with the efforts of Berea College president William Goodell Frost, whose "Appalachian America" included 194 counties in 8 states. In 1921, John C. Campbell published The Southern Highlander and His Homeland in which he modified Frost's map to include 254 counties in 9 states.
A landmark survey of the region in the following decade by the United States Department of Agriculture defined the region as consisting of 206 counties in 6 states. In 1984, Karl Raitz and Richard Ulack expanded the ARC's definition to include 445 counties in 13 states, although they removed all counties in Mississippi and added two in New Jersey. Historian John Alexander Williams, in his 2002 book Appalachia: A History, distinguished between a "core" Appalachian region consisting of 164 counties in West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, a greater region defined by the ARC. In the Encyclopedia of Appalachia, Appalachian State University historian Howard Dorgan suggested the term "Old Appalachia" for the region's cultural boundaries, noting an academic tendency to ignore the southwestern and northeastern extremes of the ARC's pragmatic definition. While exploring inland along the northern coast of Florida in 1528, the members of the Narváez expedition, including Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, found a Native American village near present-day Tallahassee, whose name they transcribed as Apalchen or Apalachen.
The name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north. Pánfilo de Narváez's expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15, 1528, applied the name. Now spelled "Appalachian", it is the fourth oldest surviving European place-name in the U. S. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves; the first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutiérrez' map of 1562. Le Moyne was the first European to apply "Apalachen" to a mountain range as opposed to a village, native tribe, or a southeastern region of North America; the name was not used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century. A competing and more popular name was the "Allegheny Mountains", "Alleghenies", "Alleghania." In the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either "Appalachia" or "Alleghania". In northern U. S. dialects, the mountains are pronounced or.
The cultural region of Appalachia is pronounced /æpəˈleɪʃə/ /æpəˈleɪtʃə/, all with a third syllable like "lay". In southern U. S. dialects, the mountains are called the, the cultural region of Appalachia is pronounced /ˈæpəˈlætʃə/, both with a third syllable like the "la" in "latch". This pronunciation is favored in th