The East Zhejiang Maritime Affairs/Folk Custom Museum is a museum located in Yinzhou District in Ningbo, China. It is located in the Qing'an Guildhall, a reconstructed complex which once housed a temple to the sea-goddess Mazu. Built in 1191, the complex was destroyed and rebuilt several times. After its mid-19th century restoration by Ningbo's guild of Fujianese merchants, it was acclaimed as one of the most beautiful temples in China and was used by the merchants as their guildhall, it was destroyed in 1949 as the Communists were fighting the Chinese Civil War, suffered further harm during the Cultural Revolution, but was repaired from 1997–2001. It reopened in June 2001 as a museum dedicated to eastern Zhejiang's maritime history and local arts and crafts; the museum has been listed as a Major Historical and Cultural Site Protected at the National Level since 2001. The museum's director is Huang Zhesu; the diverse roles the location has served have caused it to appear in English accounts under a variety of names before the adoption of pinyin as a standard romanization scheme.
It was known as the Tianhou Temple, the Tianhou Palace, the Tien-how-kung or Tianhou Gong, the Queen of Heaven Temple, the Temple of the Queen of Heaven, or the Palace of the Empress of Heaven, from one of Mazu's epithets. From its local pronunciation, it sometimes appears as Tín Heo Kōng. Another of Mazu's epithets sometimes gave it Tín Fi Kōng, it is known as the Sea Goddess Temple. After it was rebuilt by Fujianese merchants in the mid-19th century, it became known as the Fujianese Guildhall, the Qing'an Guildhall, or Qing'an Assembly Hall; the merchants' involvement in northern maritime trade led local Chinese to refer to it as the North Guildhall. In English, it was called the Fukien or Fujian Temple, Fukien Guildhall, Fokien Guild House or Guildhouse, the Guild House of Fokien Merchants, the Guildhall for the Fujian People or Fukien Hui Kuan; the present-day museum is sometimes translated as the Museum of Maritime Affairs and Folk Custom in Eastern Zhejiang. The complex lies at the heart of present-day Ningbo on the east bank of the Yong River as it is formed by the confluence of the Fenghua and Yuyao rivers.
Merchants from Fujian first built it in 1191 under the Southern Song as a temple to the sea-goddess Mazu in her role as the Empress of Heaven. It lay at the water's edge between its East and Bridge gates, it was rebuilt in the 1680s. After Ningbo and Xiamen were reopened to international trade by the treaty ending the First Opium War, nine prosperous merchants—Dong Binru, Feng Yuxiang, Su Qinghe, Fei Lengkan, Fei Fusheng, Sheng Bindeng, Tong Xianglong, Gu Xuan—rebuilt the temple from 1850 to'53. Samuel Wells Williams considered it Ningbo's "most elegant and solid building". John Thomson, an early photographer who traveled extensively along the coasts of the Qing Empire considered it "one of the finest examples of temple architecture in the Empire." He was drawn to its elaborate carvings and careful stylization: "even the minutest details among the ornaments of the building are full of deep significance to native art and the Buddhist or Hindoo mythology". The Ningbonese scholar Dong Pei studied the temple's history, inscribing his findings on a tablet preserved at the museum.
It was destroyed by the Communists in 1949 during the last phases of their war against Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists. The site was further damaged during the 1960s' Cultural Revolution, with the second door being destroyed; the temple's ruin was left to the elements until Ningbo's Culture and Press Bureau began renovating it in 1997. It reopened to the public as a museum in June 2001, when the State Council designated it among its 5th batch of cultural relics entitled to national protection, it is one of the largest surviving Mazu temples in China and some of the old stone carvings have been preserved and incorporated into the present museum. The west-facing complex covers 5,000 square meters and consists, from front to back, of the Entrance, Second Door, Front Stage, Great Hall, Rear Stages, Rear Chamber; the second door, having been destroyed during the Cultural Revolution, was reconstructed from historical drawings held by Southeast University. The front stage is 9.5 meters high, 5.2 meters wide, about as deep, being square.
By placing it before the main hall, it was thought that the gods could enjoy watching the opera shows. The walls were designed to produce a resonating effect during performances; the front and rear chambers and the two stages are linked by wing-rooms to one another. The southwest corner has seven side-rooms; the north side includes a separate area for greenery and the north and west sides each have a private courtyard, used as the offices for the guildhall. The style is believed to have been influential and copied. To the north of the present complex lies Qing'an Park; the museum collects regional art concerning Mazu, including large frescos. Its naval exhibits include the wooden steering wheel recovered from the wreck of the SS Jiangya, which struck a mine near the mouth of the Huangpu River in 1948 as Shanghainese were fleeing to Ningbo from the oncoming Communists. Given the high number of stowaways, it is thought that more than 3000 people were killed in the explosion, making it the worst or 2nd-worst maritime disasters in history.
The museum preserves a few hundred stone and brick carvings. The 14 tile carvings over the entrance include Twin Dragons Playing with a Pearl, the Eight Immortals Crossing the Sea, "Dragon Tongue Squad", Fis
Zen is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China during the Tang dynasty as the Chan school of Chinese Buddhism and developed into various schools. Chán Buddhism was influenced by Taoist philosophy Neo-Daoist thought. From China, Chán spread south to Vietnam and became Vietnamese Thiền, northeast to Korea to become Seon Buddhism, east to Japan, becoming Japanese Zen; the term Zen is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of the Middle Chinese word 禪, which traces its roots to the Indian practice of dhyāna. Zen emphasizes rigorous self-control, meditation-practice, insight into the nature of things, the personal expression of this insight in daily life for the benefit of others; as such, it de-emphasizes mere knowledge of sutras and doctrine and favors direct understanding through spiritual practice and interaction with an accomplished teacher. The teachings of Zen include various sources of Mahayana thought Yogachara, the Tathāgatagarbha sūtras and the Huayan school, with their emphasis on Buddha-nature and the Bodhisattva-ideal.
The Prajñāpāramitā literature as well as Madhyamaka thought have been influential in the shaping of the apophatic and sometimes iconoclastic nature of Zen rhetoric. The word Zen is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of the Middle Chinese word 禪, which in turn is derived from the Sanskrit word dhyāna, which can be translated as "absorption" or "meditative state"; the actual Chinese term for the "Zen school" is Chánzong, while "Chan" just refers to the practice of meditation itself or the study of meditation though it is used as an abbreviated form of Chánzong. The practice of dhyana or meditation sitting meditation is a central part of Zen Buddhism; the practice of Buddhist meditation first entered China through the translations of An Shigao, Kumārajīva, who both translated Dhyāna sutras, which were influential early meditation texts based on the Yogacara teachings of the Kashmiri Sarvāstivāda circa 1st-4th centuries CE. Among the most influential early Chinese meditation texts include the Anban Shouyi Jing, the Zuochan Sanmei Jing and the Damoduolo Chan Jing.
While dhyāna in a strict sense refers to the four dhyānas, in Chinese Buddhism, dhyāna may refer to various kinds of meditation techniques and their preparatory practices, which are necessary to practice dhyāna. The five main types of meditation in the Dhyāna sutras are ānāpānasmṛti. According to the modern Chan master Sheng Yen, these practices are termed the "five methods for stilling or pacifying the mind" and serve to focus and purify the mind, can lead to the dhyana absorptions. Chan shares the practice of the four foundations of mindfulness and the Three Gates of Liberation with early Buddhism and classic Mahayana. Early Chan texts teach forms of meditation that are unique to Mahayana Buddhism, for example, the Treatise on the Essentials of Cultivating the Mind which depicts the teachings of the 7th-century East Mountain school teaches a visualization of a sun disk, similar to that taught in the Sutra of the Contemplation of the Buddha Amitáyus. Chinese Buddhists developed their own meditation manuals and texts, one of the most influential being the works of the Tiantai patriarch, Zhiyi.
His works seemed to have exerted some influence on the earliest meditation manuals of the Chán school proper, an early work being the imitated and influential Tso-chan-i. During sitting meditation, practitioners assume a position such as the lotus position, half-lotus, Burmese, or seiza using the dhyāna mudrā. A square or round cushion placed on a padded mat is used to sit on. To regulate the mind, Zen students are directed towards counting breaths. Either both exhalations and inhalations are counted; the count can be up to ten, this process is repeated until the mind is calmed. Zen teachers like Omori Sogen teach a series of long and deep exhalations and inhalations as a way to prepare for regular breath meditation. Attention is placed on the energy center below the navel. Zen teachers promote diaphragmatic breathing, stating that the breath must come from the lower abdomen, that this part of the body should expand forward as one breathes. Over time the breathing should become smoother and slower.
When the counting becomes an encumbrance, the practice of following the natural rhythm of breathing with concentrated attention is recommended. Another common form of sitting meditation is called "Silent illumination"; this practice was traditionally promoted by the Caodong school of Chinese Chan and is associated with Hongzhi Zhengjue who wrote various works on the practice. This method derives from the Indian Buddhist practice of the union of śamatha and vipaśyanā. In Hongzhi's practice of "nondual objectless meditation" the mediator strives to be aware of the totality of phenomena instead of focusi
Hangzhou romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China. It sits at the head of Hangzhou Bay, which separates Ningbo. Hangzhou grew to prominence as the southern terminus of the Grand Canal and has been one of the most renowned and prosperous cities in China for much of the last millennium; the city's West Lake, a UNESCO World Heritage site west of the city, is among its best-known attractions. A study conducted by PwC and China Development Research Foundation saw Hangzhou ranked first among "Chinese Cities of Opportunity". Hangzhou is considered a World City with a "Beta+" classification according to GaWC. Hangzhou is classified as a sub-provincial city and forms the core of the Hangzhou metropolitan area, the fourth-largest in China. During the 2010 Chinese census, the metropolitan area held 21.102 million people over an area of 34,585 km2. Hangzhou prefecture had a registered population of 9,018,000 in 2015. In September 2015, Hangzhou was awarded the 2022 Asian Games.
It will be the third city in China to host the Asian Games after Beijing 1990 and Guangzhou 2010. Hangzhou, an emerging technology hub and home to the e-commerce giant Alibaba hosted the eleventh G20 summit in 2016; the celebrated neolithic culture of Hemudu is known to have inhabited Yuyao, 100 km north-east of Hangzhou, as far back as seven thousand years ago. It was during this time. Excavations have established that the jade-carving Liangzhu culture inhabited the area around the present city around five thousand years ago; the first of Hangzhou's present neighborhoods to appear in written records was Yuhang, which preserves an old Baiyue name. Hangzhou was made the seat of the prefecture of Hang in AD 589, entitling it to a city wall, constructed two years later. By a longstanding convention seen in other cities like Guangzhou and Fuzhou, the city took on the name of the area it administered and became known as Hangzhou. Hangzhou was at the southern end of China's Grand Canal; the canal evolved over centuries but reached its full length by 609.
In the Tang dynasty, Bai Juyi was appointed governor of Hangzhou. An accomplished poet, his deeds at Hangzhou have led to his being praised as a great governor, he noticed that the farmland nearby depended on the water of West Lake, but due to the negligence of previous governors, the old dyke had collapsed, the lake so dried out that the local farmers were suffering from severe drought. He ordered the construction of a stronger and taller dyke, with a dam to control the flow of water, thus providing water for irrigation and mitigating the drought problem; the livelihood of local people of Hangzhou improved over the following years. Bai Juyi used his leisure time to enjoy the West Lake, visiting it daily, he ordered the construction of a causeway connecting Broken Bridge with Solitary Hill to allow walking, instead of requiring a boat. He had willows and other trees planted along the dyke, making it a beautiful landmark; this causeway was named "Bai Causeway", in his honor. It is listed as one of the Seven Ancient Capitals of China.
It was first the capital of the Wuyue Kingdom from 907 to 978 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Named Xifu at the time, it was one of the three great bastions of culture in southern China during the tenth century, along with Nanjing and Chengdu. Leaders of Wuyue were noted patrons of the arts of Buddhist temple architecture and artwork; the dyke built to protect the city by King Qian Liu gave the Qiantang its modern name. Hangzhou became a cosmopolitan center, drawing scholars from throughout China and conducting diplomacy with neighboring Chinese states, with Japan and the Khitan Liao dynasty. In 1089, while another renowned poet Su Shi was the city's governor, he used 200,000 workers to construct a 2.8 km long causeway across West Lake. The lake was once a lagoon tens of thousands of years ago. Silt blocked the way to the sea and the lake was formed. A drill in the lake-bed in 1975 found the sediment of the sea. Artificial preservation prevented the lake from evolving into a marshland.
The Su Causeway built by Su Shi, the Bai Causeway built by Bai Juyi, a Tang dynasty poet, once the governor of Hangzhou, were both built out of mud dredged from the lake bottom. The lake is surrounded by hills on the western sides; the Baochu Pagoda sits on the Baoshi Hill to the north of the lake. Arab merchants lived in Hangzhou during the Song dynasty, due to the fact that the oceangoing trade passages took precedence over land trade during this time. There were Arabic inscriptions from the 13th century and 14th century. During the period of the Yuan dynasty, Muslims were persecuted through the banning of their traditions, they participated in revolts against the Mongols; the Fenghuangshi mosque was constructed by an Egyptian trader. Ibn Battuta is known to have visited the city of Hangzhou in 1345. During his stay at Hangzhou, he was impressed by the large number of well-crafted and well-painted Chinese wooden ships with colored sails and silk awnings in the canals, he attended a banquet held by Qurtai, the Yuan Mongol administrator of the city, who according to Ibn Battuta, was fond of the skills of local Chinese conjurers.
Hangzhou was chosen as the new capital of the Southern Song dynasty in 1132, wh
Wang Shu is a Chinese architect based in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. He is the dean of the School of Architecture of the China Academy of Art. With his practice partner and wife Lu Wenyu, he founded the firm Amateur Architecture Studio. In 2012, Wang became the first Chinese citizen to win the Pritzker Prize, the world's top prize in architecture; the award was the subject of some controversy since the Pritzker committee did not award Lu Wenyu, his wife and architectural partner, despite their years of collaboration. Wang Shu was born on 4 November 1963 in Ürümqi, the capital of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China's far west, he began to paint as a child, without any formal training in art. Despite the anti-intellectual fervor of the "cultural revolution", his mother gave him access to the library and he read from "Pushkin to Lu Xun." As a compromise between his passion of art and engineering, his parents' recommendation, Wang chose to study architecture at the Nanjing Institute of Technology in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province and received a bachelor's degree in 1985 and a master's degree in 1988.
Although Wang lived in Ürümqi and Beijing in his early life, after college he moved to Hangzhou for the city's natural landscapes and ancient tradition of art. He worked for the Zhejiang Academy of Fine Arts and in 1990 completed his first architectural project, a youth centre in the city of Haining near Hangzhou. Wang did not have any commissions between 1990 and 1998. During that time his wife Lu Wenyu supported the family. Instead, he chose to further his studies at the School of Architecture of Tongji University in Shanghai, earning a PhD in 2000. In 1997, Wang and his wife Lu Wenyu an architect, founded the firm Amateur Architecture Studio, they chose the name as a rebuke of the "professional, soulless architecture" practiced in China, which they believe has contributed to the large-scale demolition of many old urban neighborhoods. Wang joined the faculty of the China Academy of Art in 2000 as a professor, became the Head of the Architecture Department in 2003, was named Dean of the School of Architecture in 2007.
In 2000, Wang designed the Library of Wenzheng College at Soochow University, which won the inaugural Architecture Art Award of China in 2004. His Five Scattered Houses in Ningbo won the Holcim Award for Sustainable Construction in the Asia Pacific in 2005. In 2008 his Vertical Courtyard Apartments in Hangzhou was nominated for the International Highrise Award. In 2008 he completed a project he won in 2004 after an international competition; the building's facade is constructed of recycled bricks, its shape - resembling nearby mountains - reflects its natural setting. The museum won the top architecture prize in China. Wang's other major projects include the Ningbo Museum of Art, the Xiangshan campus of the China Academy of Art and the Old Town Conservation of Zhongshan Street, Hangzhou, his architecture has been described as "opening new horizons while at the same time resonates with place and memory", as a rare example of critical regionalism in China. Wang creates modern buildings applying older techniques.
The Ningbo Museum is constructed of bricks salvaged from buildings, demolished to facilitate new developments. Wang is a keen supporter of architectural heritage where globalisation has stripped cities of their special attributes."In an age where the goal is to offer a distinct, individualized style, Shu has shied away from such a prerogative. With his manner of seamlessly meshing the contemporary with the cultural, innovation with tradition, Shu’s work has come to define itself; the work is infused with fresh material juxtapositions and an expressive quality grounded in traditional formal proportions and scale." He requires his freshman architecture students to spend a year working with their hands, learning basic carpentry and bricklaying, Wang requires other teachers in the department learn basic building skills. Because he believes "Only people who understand the nature of materials can make art using the materials." In 2010, Wang and his wife Lu Wenyu together won the German Schelling Architecture Prize, in 2011 he received the Gold Medal from the French Academy of Architecture.
In 2012, Wang won the Pritzker Architecture Prize. In so doing, he became the first Chinese citizen to win this prize, the fourth youngest person to win; the jury, which included Pritzker laureate Zaha Hadid and the US Supreme Court justice Stephen Breyer, highlighted Wang's "unique ability to evoke the past, without making direct references to history" and called his work "timeless rooted in its context and yet universal." The chairman of the Hyatt Foundation said Wang's win represented "a significant step in acknowledging the role that China will play in the development of architectural ideals" going forward. Zhu Tao, a Chinese architectural critic and historian, speculated that the win could signify a turning point in Chinese architectural history saying the prize "sends a message that architecture is a cultural enterprise... that architects are creators of culture."Alejandro Aravena, a member of the Pritzker Prize jury, stated "Wang Shu’s outstanding architecture may be the consequence of being able to combine talent and intelligence.
This combination allows him to produce masterpieces when a monument is needed, but very careful and contained architecture when a monument is not the case. The intensity of his work may be a consequence of his relative youth, but the precision and appropriateness of his operations talk o
Yuhang is a suburban district of Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. Its 2013 population was estimated at 1.17 million. Its inhabitants speak a variety of Hangzhounese, a Wu dialect; the district contains the remains of Neolithic settlements from the Liangzhu period. Prior to the expansion of modern Hangzhou, Yuhang formed a separate city, it is the earliest settlement recorded in the area of present-day Hangzhou. Chinese scholars traditionally interpreted its name as a mistake for "Yu's Ferry", after the legendary account of Yu the Great's gathering of his lords at Mount Kuaiji around 2000 BC; this is now thought to be a folk etymology and Yuhang is certainly an ancient transliteration of an old Baiyue name. Yuhang was part of Kuaiji Commandery prior to the growth of Hangzhou following the 7th-century construction of the Sui's Grand Canal, it was administered from Hangzhou. Yuhang is the largest district of Hangzhou; the administration center of Yuhang District is Linping, a subcenter of Hangzhou located in the northeast side of downtown area.
It connects with the downtown via Metro Line 1. The famous tourist attractions here include Liangzhu Culture Museum, Jingshan Tea and Buddhist Monastery, Tangxi Ancient Town, The Grand Canal, Chaoshan Scenic Area, Tianducheng Resorts and Xixi National Wetland Park. Official website of Yuhang District Government
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period was an era of political upheaval in 10th-century Imperial China. Five states succeeded one another in the Central Plain, more than a dozen concurrent states were established elsewhere in South China, it was the last prolonged period of multiple political division in Chinese imperial history. Traditionally, the era started with the fall of the Tang dynasty in 907 AD and ended with the founding of the Song dynasty in 960. Many states had been de facto independent kingdoms long before 907. After the Tang had collapsed, the kings who controlled the Central plain crowned themselves as emperors. War between kingdoms occurred to gain control of the central plain for legitimacy and over the rest of China; the last of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms states, the Northern Han, was not vanquished until 979. Towards the end of the Tang, the imperial government granted increased powers to the jiedushi, the regional military governors; the An Lushan and Huang Chao Rebellion weakened the imperial government, by the early 10th century the jiedushi commanded de facto independence from its authority.
In the last decades of the dynasty, they were not appointed by the court any more, but developed hereditary systems, from father to son or from patron to protégé. They had their own armies rivalling the "palace armies" and amassed huge wealth, as testified by their sumptuous tombs, thus ensued the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. North China Zhu Wen at Bianzhou, precursor to Later Liang Li Keyong and Li Cunxu at Taiyuan, precursor to Later Tang Liu Rengong and Liu Shouguang at Youzhou, precursor to Yan Li Maozhen at Fengxiang, precursor to Qi Luo Shaowei at Weibo Wang Rong at Zhenzhou Wang Chuzhi at Dingzhou South China Yang Xingmi at Yangzhou, precursor to Wu Qian Liu at Hangzhou, precursor to Wuyue Ma Yin at Tanzhou, precursor to Chu Wang Shenzhi at Fuzhou, precursor to Min Liu Yin at Guangzhou, precursor to Southern Han Wang Jian at Chengdu, precursor to Former Shu During the Tang Dynasty, the warlord Zhu Wen held the most power in northern China. Although he was a member of Huang Chao's rebel army, he took on a crucial role in suppressing the Huang Chao Rebellion.
For this function, he was awarded the Xuanwu Jiedushi title. Within a few years, he had consolidated his power by destroying neighbours and forcing the move of the imperial capital to Luoyang, within his region of influence. In 904, he made his 13-year-old son a subordinate ruler. Three years he induced the boy emperor to abdicate in his favour, he proclaimed himself emperor, thus beginning the Later Liang. During the final years of the Tang Dynasty, rival warlords declared independence in the provinces they governed—not all of which recognized the emperor's authority. Li Cunxu and Liu Shouguang fiercely fought, he defeated Liu Shouguang in 915, declared himself emperor in 923. Thus began the Shatuo Later Tang — the first in a long line of conquest dynasties. After reuniting much of northern China, in 925 Cunxu conquered the Former Shu, a regime, set up in Sichuan; the Later Tang had a few years of relative calm, followed by unrest. In 934, Sichuan again asserted independence. In 936, Shi Jingtang, a Shatuo jiedushi from Taiyuan, was aided by the ethnic-Khitan Liao dynasty in a rebellion against the Later Tang.
In return for their aid, Shi Jingtang promised annual tribute and the Sixteen Prefectures to the Khitans. The rebellion succeeded. Not long after the founding of the Later Jin, the Khitans came to regard the emperor as a proxy ruler for China proper. In 943, the Khitans declared war and within three years seized the capital, marking the end of Later Jin, but while they had conquered vast regions of China, the Khitans were unable or unwilling to control those regions and retreated from them early in the next year. To fill the power vacuum, the jiedushi Liu Zhiyuan entered the imperial capital in 947 and proclaimed the advent of the Later Han, establishing a third successive Shatuo reign; this was the shortest of the five dynasties. Following a coup in 951, General Guo Wei, a Han Chinese, was enthroned, thus beginning the Later Zhou. However, Liu Chong, a member of the Later Han imperial family, established a rival Northern Han regime in Taiyuan and requested Khitan aid to defeat the Later Zhou.
After the death of Guo Wei in 951, his adopted son Chai Rong succeeded the throne and began a policy of expansion and reunification. In 954, his army defeated combined Khitan and Northern Han forces, ending their ambition of toppling the Later Zhou. Between 956 and 958, forces of Later Zhou conquered much of Southern Tang, the most powerful regime in southern China, which ceded all the territory north of the Yangtze in defeat. In 959, Chai Rong attacked the Liao in an attempt to recover territories ceded during the Later Jin. After many victories, he succumbed to illness. In 960, the general Zhao Kuangyin staged a coup and took the throne for himself, founding the Northern Song Dynasty; this is the official end of Ten Kingdoms period. During the next two decades, Zhao Kuangyin and his successor Zhao Kuan
Gongshu is a core district of Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang province, China