Cocaine known as coke, is a strong stimulant used as a recreational drug. It is snorted, inhaled as smoke, or dissolved and injected into a vein. Mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate and large pupils. High doses can result in high blood pressure or body temperature. Effects begin within seconds to last between five and ninety minutes. Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery. Cocaine is addictive due to its effect on the reward pathway in the brain. After a short period of use, there is a high risk, its use increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those who smoke it, blood infections, sudden cardiac death. Cocaine sold on the street is mixed with local anesthetics, quinine, or sugar, which can result in additional toxicity. Following repeated doses a person may have decreased ability to feel pleasure and be physically tired.
Cocaine acts by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin and dopamine. This results in greater concentrations of these three neurotransmitters in the brain, it can cross the blood–brain barrier and may lead to the breakdown of the barrier. Cocaine is a occurring substance found in the coca plant, grown in South America. In 2013, 419 kilograms were produced legally, it is estimated. With further processing crack cocaine can be produced from cocaine. Cocaine is the second most used illegal drug globally, after cannabis. Between 14 and 21 million people use the drug each year. Use is highest in North America followed by South America. Between one and three percent of people in the developed world have used cocaine at some point in their life. In 2013, cocaine use directly resulted in 4,300 deaths, up from 2,400 in 1990; the leaves of the coca plant have been used by Peruvians since ancient times. Cocaine was first isolated from the leaves in 1860. Since 1961, the international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make recreational use of cocaine a crime.
Topical cocaine can be used as a local numbing agent to help with painful procedures in the mouth or nose. Cocaine is now predominantly used for lacrimal duct surgery; the major disadvantages of this use are cocaine's potential for cardiovascular toxicity and pupil dilation. Medicinal use of cocaine has decreased as other synthetic local anesthetics such as benzocaine, proparacaine and tetracaine are now used more often. If vasoconstriction is desired for a procedure, the anesthetic is combined with a vasoconstrictor such as phenylephrine or epinephrine; some ENT specialists use cocaine within the practice when performing procedures such as nasal cauterization. In this scenario dissolved cocaine is soaked into a ball of cotton wool, placed in the nostril for the 10–15 minutes before the procedure, thus performing the dual role of both numbing the area to be cauterized, vasoconstriction; when used this way, some of the used cocaine may be absorbed through oral or nasal mucosa and give systemic effects.
An alternative method of administration for ENT surgery is mixed with adrenaline and sodium bicarbonate, as Moffett's solution. Cocaine is a powerful nervous system stimulant, its effects can last from 30 minutes to an hour. The duration of cocaine's effects depends on the route of administration. Cocaine can be in the form of fine white powder, bitter to the taste; when inhaled or injected, it causes a numbing effect. Crack cocaine is a smokeable form of cocaine made into small "rocks" by processing cocaine with sodium bicarbonate and water. Crack cocaine is referred to. Cocaine use leads to increases in alertness, feelings of well-being and euphoria, increased energy and motor activity, increased feelings of competence and sexuality. Coca leaves are mixed with an alkaline substance and chewed into a wad, retained in the mouth between gum and cheek and sucked of its juices; the juices are absorbed by the mucous membrane of the inner cheek and by the gastrointestinal tract when swallowed. Alternatively, coca leaves can be consumed like tea.
Ingesting coca leaves is an inefficient means of administering cocaine. Because cocaine is hydrolyzed and rendered inactive in the acidic stomach, it is not absorbed when ingested alone. Only when mixed with a alkaline substance can it be absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach; the efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine is limited by two additional factors. First, the drug is catabolized by the liver. Second, capillaries in the mouth and esophagus constrict after contact with the drug, reducing the surface area over which the drug can be absorbed. Cocaine metabolites can be detected in the urine of subjects that have sipped one cup of coca leaf infusion. Orally administered cocaine takes 30 minutes to enter the bloodstream. Only a third of an oral dose is absorbed, although absorption has been shown to reach 60% in controlled settings. Given the slow rate of absorption, maximum physiological and psychotropic effects are attained 60 minutes after cocaine is administered by ingestion.
While the onset of these effects is slow, the effects are sustained for approxima
Willow Run Airport
Willow Run Airport is an airport in Van Buren Charter Township and Ypsilanti Township, near Ypsilanti, United States, serves freight and general aviation. Due to its proximity to Detroit Metropolitan Airport, no major airlines schedule passenger flights to or from Willow Run, it is included in the Federal Aviation Administration National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2017–2021, in which it is categorized as a national reliever airport facility. Opened in 1942, "Willow Run" was synonymous with the American industrial effort that contributed so much to Allied victory in World War II. Operated by the Ford Motor Company, the Willow Run manufacturing plant produced a total of 8,685 B-24 Liberator heavy bombers, completed and in kit form, before closure in April 1945. Today the Yankee Air Museum, in one of the airport hangars, has a large collection of vintage aircraft. Willow Run Airport covers 2,600 acres and has three runways, a continuously staffed FAA control tower, US Customs operations.
It is one of two facilities operated by the Wayne County Airport Authority, the other being Detroit Metropolitan Airport, which replaced Willow Run as the major commercial airport for the region starting in 1958. Worldwide cargo airlines Kalitta Air and National Airlines are based at Willow Run Airport. Willow Run Airport was named for a small stream that meandered through pastureland and woods until the late 1930s. Automobile pioneer Henry Ford bought the property that became the airport's runways and taxiways in 1931, used it for a decade as farmland for a "social engineering" experiment that brought inner-city boys to Willow Run Farm to learn about nature, farming tasks, the rural way of life; the residents at the Willow Run farms planted and harvested crops as well as running a maple syrup operation, sold their products at the farm market on the property. In the process, the boys learned self-discipline and the values of hard work, benefited from the fresh air that they had not been able to experience while growing up in congested cities.
See the Willow Run article for further details of manufacturing at the site. The coming of World War II to Europe and the Fall of France in 1940 alarmed many in the United States, in spite of an official policy of American neutrality, a number of government officials began preparing for the possibility of United States involvement. Henry Ford, himself an isolationist, was prevailed upon in the spring of 1941 to accept a contract to build B-24 Liberator heavy bombers for the Army Air Forces, under license from the plane's designer Consolidated Aircraft, he chose as the site his Willow Run Farm and commenced building a massive industrial plant that became the Willow Run manufacturing complex. Architect Albert Kahn designed the main structure, which had 3,500,000 square feet of factory space, an aircraft assembly line over a mile long, it was thought to be the largest factory under one roof anywhere in the world. To meet projected demand for the B-24, in early 1941 the Federal government established the Liberator Production Pool Program.
Although the Ford Trimotor had been a success in the 1920s, the company had since shied away from aviation, Ford was assigned to provide B-24 components with final assembly performed by Consolidated at its Fort Worth plant, or by fellow licensee Douglas Aircraft at its Tulsa, plant. However, in October 1941 Ford received permission from Consolidated and the Army to assemble complete Liberators on its own at its new Willow Run facility, it would take nearly a year before finished Liberators left the factory. The Willow Run plant was gigantic, it covered 65 acres and was a quarter of a mile wide and a half-mile long. The production line had a 90-degree turn at its two-thirds mark; the first Ford-built Liberators rolled off the Willow Run line in September 1942. Few if any of these saw combat, being used instead in training squadrons; the Willow Run bomber plant had many problems at startup, due in part to the mindsets and technical skills of both management and labor, who were each accustomed to the requirements of auto production, finding it difficult at first to adapt to the higher precision required in aircraft production.
The plant at Willow Run had labor problems, in particular high absentee rates and rapid employee turnover. In one month Ford had hired 2900 workers but had lost 3100. Ford officials were as a rule anti-union, Willow Run experienced one serious strike. Willow Run transitioned to production of the B-24H in June 1943. After another year, by which time the factory had begun producing the B-24J, the Army determined that Consolidated's San Diego plant and Willow Run could meet future requirements for Liberators; the Boeing B-29 Superfortress was taking over the long-range bombing mission in the Pacific theater and no new B-24 units were programmed for deployment in the Europe, the Mediterranean or in the CBI, the other theaters of the war. By fall 1944 Willow Run had moved from the B-24L to th
How I Met Your Mother (season 3)
The third season of the American television comedy series How I Met Your Mother premiered on September 24, 2007 and concluded on May 19, 2008. It consisted of 20 episodes, each running 22 minutes in length. CBS broadcast the third season on Monday nights at 8:00 pm in the United States until December 10, 2007 when the season was interrupted by the writer's strike, when the season continued on March 17, 2008 it was moved back to 8:30pm; the complete third season was released on Region 1 DVD on October 7, 2008. In the United Kingdom it aired via E4 from October 2009 weekdays at 7:30 pm. Josh Radnor as Ted Mosby Jason Segel as Marshall Eriksen Cobie Smulders as Robin Scherbatsky Neil Patrick Harris as Barney Stinson Alyson Hannigan as Lily Aldrin Bob Saget as Future Ted Mosby The third season of How I Met Your Mother was met with positive reviews. Michelle Zoromski of IGN gave the season a positive review and said that "the season was fun and clever, a good, consistent flow from the first two seasons"
Youth International Party
The Youth International Party, whose members were called Yippies, was an American radically youth-oriented and countercultural revolutionary offshoot of the free speech and anti-war movements of the 1960s. It was founded on December 31, 1967, they employed theatrical gestures, such as advancing a pig as a candidate for President in 1968, to mock the social status quo. They have been described as a theatrical, anti-authoritarian and anarchist youth movement of "symbolic politics". Since they were well known for street theater and politically themed pranks, they were either ignored or denounced by many of the "old school" political left. According to ABC News, "The group was known for street theater pranks and was once referred to as the'Groucho Marxists'." The Yippies had hierarchy. Abbie and Anita Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, Nancy Kurshan, Paul Krassner founded the Yippies at a meeting in the Hoffmans' New York apartment on December 31, 1967. "If the press had created'hippie,' could not we five hatch the'yippie'?"
Abbie Hoffman wrote. Other activists associated with the Yippies include Stew Albert, Ed Rosenthal, Allen Ginsberg, Judy Gumbo,Ed Sanders, Robin Morgan, Phil Ochs, Robert M. Ockene, William Kunstler, Jonah Raskin, Steve Conliff, Jerome Washington,John Sinclair, Dana Beal, Betty Andrew, Matthew Landy Steen, Joanee Freedom, Danny Boyle, Ben Masel, Tom Forcade, Paul Watson, David Peel, Wavy Gravy, Aron Kay, Tuli Kupferberg, Jill Johnston, Daisy Deadhead, Leatrice Urbanowicz, Bob Fass, Mayer Vishner, John Murdock, Alice Torbush, Judy Lampe, Walli Leff, Patrick K. Kroupa, Steve DeAngelo, Dean Tuckerman, Dennis Peron, Jim Fouratt, Steve Wessing, John Penley, Brenton Lengel. A Yippie flag was seen at anti-war demonstrations; the flag had a black background with a five-pointed red star in the center, a green cannabis leaf superimposed over it. When asked about the Yippie flag, an anonymous Yippie identified only as "Jung" told The New York Times that "The black is for anarchy; the red star is for our five point program.
And the leaf is for marijuana, for getting ecologically stoned without polluting the environment." This flag is mentioned in Hoffman's Steal This Book. Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin became the most famous Yippies—and bestselling authors—in part due to publicity surrounding the five-month Chicago Seven Conspiracy trial of 1969, they both used the phrase "ideology is a brain disease" to separate the Yippies from mainstream political parties that played the game by the rules. Hoffman and Rubin were arguably the most colorful of the seven defendants accused of criminal conspiracy and inciting to riot at the August 1968 Democratic National Convention. Hoffman and Rubin used the trial as a platform for Yippie antics—at one point, they showed up in court attired in judicial robes; the term Yippie was invented by Krassner and Hoffman on New Year's Eve 1967. Paul Krassner wrote in a January 2007 article in the Los Angeles Times: We needed a name to signify the radicalization of hippies, I came up with Yippie as a label for a phenomenon that existed, an organic coalition of psychedelic hippies and political activists.
In the process of cross-fertilization at antiwar demonstrations, we had come to share an awareness that there was a linear connection between putting kids in prison for smoking pot in this country and burning them to death with napalm on the other side of the planet. Anita Hoffman liked the word, but felt that The New York Times and other "strait-laced types" needed a more formal name to take the movement seriously; that same night she came up with Youth International Party, because it symbolized the movement and made for a good play on words. Along with the name Youth International Party, the organization was simply called Yippie!, as in a shout for joy. "What does Yippie! Mean?" Abbie Hoffman wrote. "Energy – fun – fierceness – exclamation point!" The Yippies held their first press conference in New York at the Americana Hotel March 17, 1968, five months before the August 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Judy Collins sang at the press conference; the Chicago Sun-Times reported it with an article titled: "Yipes!
The Yippies Are Coming!" The Yippie "New Nation" concept called for the creation of alternative, counterculture institutions: food co-ops. Yippies believed these cooperative institutions and a radicalized hippie culture would spread until they supplanted the existing system. Many of these ideas/practices came from other counter-cultural groups such as the Diggers, the San Francisco Mime Troupe, the Merry Pranksters/Deadheads, the Hog Farm, the Rainbow Family, the Esalen Institute, the Peace and Freedom Party, the White Panther Party and The Farm. There was much overlap, social interaction and cross-pollination within these groups and the Yippies, so there was much crossover membership, as well as similar influences and intentions."We are a people. We are a new nation," YIP's New Nation Statement said of the burgeoning hippie movement. "We want everyone to control their own life and to care for one another... We cannot tolerate attitudes and machines whose purpose is the destruction of life, the accumulation of profit."The goal was a decentralized, anarchistic nation rooted in the borderless hippie counterculture and its communal ethos.
Abbie Hoffman wrote: We shall not defeat Amerika by organizing a political