Paavo Tapio Lipponen is a Finnish politician and former reporter. He was Prime Minister of Finland from 1995 to 2003, Chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Finland from 1993 to 2005, he served as Speaker of the Parliament of Finland from 2003 to 2007 and was his party's nominee in the 2012 Finnish presidential election but received only 6.7% of the votes, making it the biggest defeat the Social Democratic Party has had in Finnish Presidential elections. Lipponen was born in son of Orvo Lipponen and his wife Hilkka Iisalo. Paavo's maternal grandparents were his wife Siiri Törnroos. Paavo Lipponen spent his youth in Kuopio. Receiving his gymnasium diploma from the Lyceum of Kuopio in 1959, he studied philosophy and literature at Dartmouth College for one year on a Fulbright scholarship. Soon after returning to Finland he moved to Helsinki where he attained a master's degree in international relations from the University of Helsinki in 1971, he was the editor of the influential student newspaper Ylioppilaslehti 1963–1965 and a freelance reporter for the Finnish Broadcasting Company 1965–1967.
Lipponen made various controversial statements. According to Alpo Rusi's book Vasemmalta ohi, Lipponen began cooperation with the East German secret police Stasi in 1969; the book suggests. In a 2008 interview Lipponen said that he had been a "target of East German manipulation", it is rumored. Alpo Rusi has suggested that Lipponen had an alias and operation in the KGB, he held various posts in the Social Democratic Party organisation from 1967 to 1979. Lipponen's opinions were changed. In a speech in 1978 Lipponen asserted. Lipponen first came into the political limelight when he was secretary to Prime Minister Mauno Koivisto from 1979 to 1982. Having to substitute for the busy Prime Minister, Lipponen was soon dubbed vara-Manu. Lipponen was a Member of the Parliament of Finland from 1983 to 1987 and from 1991 until he retired in 2007. In 1993 SDP chairman Ulf Sundqvist was suspected and convicted of a large financial fraud. Lipponen was elected the new chairman in 1993, he led the party to victory in the parliamentary election of 1995.
Lipponen formed a cabinet of five parties including leftist parties. Lipponen's economic policies were, dominated by the right-wing; the main task of the cabinet was to decrease the number of unemployed. Tight fiscal policies allowed the participation of Finland in the European Monetary Union, which resulted in the introduction of the Euro in 1999. Foreign trade increased above the European average 1995-1999. Laws for a new constitution were passed and it took effect on 1 March 2000. Lipponen headed the SDP campaign in 1999 which resulted in losses, but the SDP remained the largest party in the parliament; the coalition formed in 1995 was renewed. During the second Lipponen cabinet, he headed Finland's six months in the EU presidency and pursued pro-integration and pro-expansion policies. Lipponen introduced the concept of a European constitution during a speech in Bruges in 2000, he headed the SDP campaign of 2003, which led to victory for the SDP. The chairman of the Center Party, Anneli Jäätteenmäki, formed a new cabinet, Lipponen took the position of Speaker of Parliament.
Lipponen was succeeded by Eero Heinäluoma. Lipponen left the parliament in 2007. On 15 August 2008, during the 2008 South Ossetia war, Nord Stream, a Russian gas project, announced that it had signed a consulting contract with Lipponen. According to Nord Stream, he advises on the Environmental Impact Assessment and permit applications in Finland, he provides independent consultations according to his expertise in Finnish administrative and decision-making procedures within the energy sector. As a result of the scandal that followed, Lipponen relinquished his office in the parliament building and resigned from all of his duties in Finland except veteran activities. In an article published in October 2008, Lipponen discussed the Russian response in Georgia and warned Europe of its dependence on Russian gas. Lipponen criticised the way many Finnish and German politicians were opposed to nuclear power and stated that their fundamentalism destroys both energy security and climate policy. Poland blocked Lipponen's candidacy as EU foreign policy chief because of Lipponen's ties to Nord Stream.
Lipponen was his party's nominee in the 2012 Finnish presidential election. He was knocked out in the first round. Lipponen has declined the honour of being named a Counselor of State, the highest honour in Finland, saying that no-one outside of Finland knows what a Valtioneuvos is and that he is satisfied with being "former Prime Minister". Lipponen played water polo in his youth at the highest national level, he lives with his second wife, Päivi Lipponen, has three children. Lipponen I Cabinet Lipponen II Cabinet Bilderberg Group
A student publication is a media outlet such as a newspaper, television show, or radio station produced by students at an educational institution. These publications cover local and school related news, but they may report on national or international news as well. Most student publications are either part of a curricular class or run as an extracurricular activity. Student publications serve as both a platform for community discussion and a place for those interested in journalism to develop their skills; these publications report news, publish opinions of students and faculty, may run advertisements catered to the student body. Besides these purposes, student publications serve as a watchdog to uncover problems at the school; the majority of student publications are funded through their educational institution. Some funds may be generated through sales and advertisements, but the majority comes from the school itself; because of this, educational institutions have specific way in which they can influence the publications through funding.
Due to the rise in adoption of Internet accessible devices such as computers and smartphones, many high schools and colleges have begun offering online editions of their publications in addition to printed copies. Due to publishing content online student publications are now able to reach a much wider audience than before. With many student publications moving to online, content is more accessible to the student body and production of the content is easier and cheaper; as printed student publications become more and more scarce and student publications move online to best fit the news needs of today's students, student newspapers will run into several issues. One of these issues is the increase in demand for new content. While an update once a day or once a week was once acceptable for a student publication, real time information resources will soon be demanded by students who grew up with constant updates of news coverage; this shift in content demand will require more time by the student newspaper staff.
One of these issues is what is called the "daily me." Coined by Cass Sunstein in his book Republic.com, the "daily me" is the current trend of online readers looking for personalized information providers. In this way the reader deals with only the subjects. In this way readers are not inconvenienced by material they have no interest in and can personalize an information product themselves, providing added value to both themselves and the provider. However, some believe this trend may not be the best for society, now faced with a public that chooses how well to be informed. On a campus paper, this trend will manifest itself in the increased number of "hits" to the common "sports" and "opinion" sections of the paper, while hard news sections go un-noticed; this new type of print culture could result in drastic formatting and content changes for student newspapers. Gair rhydd, the student paper at Cardiff University, courted controversy when, on February 4, 2006, it reproduced the cartoons printed in Jyllands-Posten, depicting Muhammad.
The issue was withdrawn from publication within a day of being released, the editor and two other student journalists were suspended, a public apology was published in the next issue. In the same month, two editors of the Daily Illini, the independent student newspaper of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, were suspended after deciding to publish six of the twelve cartoons. However, student publications took a lead role in reprinting the Muhammad cartoons accompanying them with explanatory editorials. No fewer than 16 student newspapers and magazines in the United States, a handful in other countries, ran one or more of the caricatures. University student newspapers in the Australia are independent of university administration yet are connected with or run by the student representative organisation operating at the campus. Editors tend to be elected by the student body on a separate ticket to other student representatives and are paid an honorarium, although some student organisations have been known to employ unelected staff to coordinate the production of the newspaper.
Australian student newspapers have courted controversy since their inception. One of the more notorious of these controversies involved the publication of an article which incited readers to shoplift; the July edition of the magazine was banned by the Office of Film and Literature Classication following a campaign by conservative talkback radio hosts and other media to have the material banned. The four editors of the July 1995 edition of La Trobe University student magazine Rabelais were subsequently charged with publishing and depositing an objectionable publication. An objectional publication was defined as one that incites criminal activity; the editors lodged an appeal. The appeal was defeated by the full bench of the Federal Court, who refused the editors application to appeal to the High Court of Australia; the charges were dropped in March 1999. Many student newspapers in Canada are independent from student unions; such autonomous papers are funded by student fees won by referendums, as well as advertising, are run by their staffs, with no faculty input.
About 55 of Canada's student newspapers belong to a co-operative and newswire s
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Cultural universals are found in all human societies; the concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization, philosophy and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society. In the humanities, one sense of culture as an attribute of the individual has been the degree to which they have cultivated a particular level of sophistication in the arts, education, or manners; the level of cultural sophistication has sometimes been seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Such hierarchical perspectives on culture are found in class-based distinctions between a high culture of the social elite and a low culture, popular culture, or folk culture of the lower classes, distinguished by the stratified access to cultural capital.
In common parlance, culture is used to refer to the symbolic markers used by ethnic groups to distinguish themselves visibly from each other such as body modification, clothing or jewelry. Mass culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated forms of consumer culture that emerged in the 20th century; some schools of philosophy, such as Marxism and critical theory, have argued that culture is used politically as a tool of the elites to manipulate the lower classes and create a false consciousness, such perspectives are common in the discipline of cultural studies. In the wider social sciences, the theoretical perspective of cultural materialism holds that human symbolic culture arises from the material conditions of human life, as humans create the conditions for physical survival, that the basis of culture is found in evolved biological dispositions; when used as a count noun, a "culture" is the set of customs and values of a society or community, such as an ethnic group or nation. Culture is the set of knowledge acquired over time.
In this sense, multiculturalism values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes "culture" is used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society, a subculture, or a counterculture. Within cultural anthropology, the ideology and analytical stance of cultural relativism holds that cultures cannot be objectively ranked or evaluated because any evaluation is situated within the value system of a given culture; the modern term "culture" is based on a term used by the Ancient Roman orator Cicero in his Tusculanae Disputationes, where he wrote of a cultivation of the soul or "cultura animi," using an agricultural metaphor for the development of a philosophical soul, understood teleologically as the highest possible ideal for human development. Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a modern context, meaning something similar, but no longer assuming that philosophy was man's natural perfection, his use, that of many writers after him, "refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarism, through artifice, become human."In 1986, philosopher Edward S.
Casey wrote, "The word culture meant'place tilled' in Middle English, the same word goes back to Latin colere,'to inhabit, care for, worship' and cultus,'A cult a religious one.' To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensive to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, to attend to it caringly." Culture described by Richard Velkley:... meant the cultivation of the soul or mind, acquires most of its modern meaning in the writings of the 18th-century German thinkers, who were on various levels developing Rousseau's criticism of "modern liberalism and Enlightenment". Thus a contrast between "culture" and "civilization" is implied in these authors when not expressed as such. In the words of anthropologist E. B. Tylor, it is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Alternatively, in a contemporary variant, "Culture is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices and material expressions, over time, express the continuities and discontinuities of social meaning of a life held in common.
The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is "the way of life the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." Terror management theory posits that culture is a series of activities and worldviews that provide humans with the basis for perceiving themselves as "person of worth within the world of meaning"—raising themselves above the physical aspects of existence, in order to deny the animal insignificance and death that Homo sapiens became aware of when they acquired a larger brain. The word is used in a general sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols and to act imaginatively and creatively; this ability arose with the evolution of behavioral modernity in humans around 50,000 years ago, is thought to be unique to humans, although some other species have demonstrated similar, though much less complex, abilities for social learning. It is used to denote the co
Anti-communism is opposition to communism. Organized anti-communism developed after the 1917 October Revolution in Russia and it reached global dimensions during the Cold War, when the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in an intense rivalry. Anti-communism has been an element of movements holding many different political positions, including nationalist, social democratic, libertarian, fascist, capitalist and socialist viewpoints; the first organization dedicated to opposing communism was the Russian White movement, which fought in the Russian Civil War starting in 1918 against the established Communist government. The White movement was supported militarily by several allied foreign governments, which represented the first instance of anti-communism as a government policy; the Communist Red Army defeated the White movement and the Soviet Union was created in 1922. During the existence of the Soviet Union, anti-communism became an important feature of many different political movements and governments across the world.
In the United States, anti-communism came to prominence with the First Red Scare of 1919–1920. During the 1920s and 1930s, opposition to communism in Europe was promoted by conservatives, social democrats and fascists. Fascist governments rose to prominence as major opponents of communism in the 1930s and they founded the Anti-Comintern Pact in 1936 as an anti-communist alliance. In Asia, the Empire of Japan and the Kuomintang were the leading anti-communist forces in this period. After World War II, fascism ceased to be a major political movement due to the defeat of the Axis powers; the victorious Allies were an international coalition led by the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, but after the war this alliance broke down into two opposing camps: a Communist one led by the Soviet Union and a capitalist one led by the United States. The rivalry between the two sides came to be known as the Cold War and during this period the United States government played a leading role in supporting global anti-communism as part of its containment policy.
There were numerous military conflicts between Communists and anti-Communists in various parts of the world, including the Chinese Civil War, the Korean War, the Vietnam War and the Soviet–Afghan War. NATO was founded as an anti-communist military alliance in 1949 and continued throughout the Cold War. With the Revolutions of 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, most of the world's Communist governments were overthrown and the Cold War ended. Anti-communism remains an important intellectual element of many contemporary political movements and organized anti-communism is a factor in the domestic opposition found to varying degrees within the People's Republic of China and other countries governed by Communist parties. Since the split of the Communist parties from the socialist Second International to form the Communist Third International, social democrats have been critical of Communism for its anti-democratic nature. Examples of left-wing critics of Communist states and parties are such as Friedrich Ebert, Boris Souveraine, Bayard Rustin, Irving Howe and Max Shachtman.
The American Federation of Labor has always been anti-communist. The more leftist Congress of Industrial Organizations purged its Communists in 1947 and has been staunchly anti-communist since. In Britain, the Labour Party strenuously resisted Communist efforts to infiltrate its ranks and take control of locals in the 1930s; the Labour Party became anti-communist and Labour Prime Minister Clement Attlee was a staunch supporter of NATO. Although most anarchists describe themselves as communists, most anarchists criticize authoritarian Communist parties and states. Many argue that Marxist concepts such as dictatorship of the proletariat and state ownership of the means of production are anathema to anarchism; some anarchists criticize communism from an individualist point of view. Anarchists participated in and rejoiced over the 1917 February Revolution as an example of workers taking power for themselves. However, after the October Revolution it became evident that the Bolsheviks and the anarchists had different ideas.
Anarchist Emma Goldman, deported from the United States to Russia in 1919, was enthusiastic about the revolution, but was left sorely disappointed and began to write her book My Disillusionment in Russia. Anarchist Peter Kropotkin proffered trenchant criticism of the emergent Bolshevik bureaucracy in letters to Vladimir Lenin, noting in 1920 that " is positively harmful for the building of a new socialist system. What is needed is local construction by local forces. Russia has become a Soviet Republic only in name". Many anarchists fought against Russian and Greek Communists—many were killed by them, such as Lev Chernyi, Camillo Berneri and Konstantinos Speras. In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels outline some provisional short-term measures that could be steps towards communism, they note: "These measures will, of course, be different in different countries. In most advanced countries, will be pretty applicable". Ludwig von Mises described this as a "10-point plan" for the redistribution of land and production and argues that the initial and ongoing forms of redistribution constitute direct coercion.
Neither Marx's 10-point plan nor the rest of the manifesto say anything about who has the right to carry out the plan. Milton Friedman argued that the absence of voluntary economic activity makes it too easy for repressive political leaders to grant themselves coercive powers. Friedman's view was shared by Friedrich
Vilho Veikko Päiviö Helanen was a Finnish civil servant and politician. A student as the University of Helsinki he gained an MA in 1923 and completed his doctorate in 1940. From 1924 to 1926 he edited the student paper Ylioppilaslehti and around this time joined the Academic Karelia Society, he served as chairman of the group from 1927-8, from 1934-5 and again from 1935–44, helping to turn the Society against democracy. Helanen visited Estonia in 1933 and was amazed at the high levels of popular support for the far right that he witnessed there, in contrast to Finland where it was a more marginal force; as a result, he was involved in the coup attempt of the Vaps Movement in Estonia in 1935. Helanen was a major inspiration for the Patriotic People's Movement and a close friend of Elias Simojoki, although he did not join the group and instead became a vocal supporter of Adolf Hitler, he formed his own group, Nouseva Suomi, in 1940 which, despite his earlier radicalism, became associated with the mainstream National Progressive Party.
Rising to be head of the civil service during the Second World War he was imprisoned after the war for treasonable offences. Following his release he worked for Suomi-Filmi and wrote a series of detective novels, he died of a heart attack in the railway station of Frankfurt am Main, West Germany
The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, the United States with its allies after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins between 1946, the year U. S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U. S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, the Truman Doctrine of 1947, ending between the Revolutions of 1989, which ended communism in Eastern Europe, the 1991 collapse of the USSR, when nations of the Soviet Union abolished communism and restored their independence. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars; the conflict split the temporary wartime alliance against Nazi Germany and its allies, leaving the USSR and the US as two superpowers with profound economic and political differences. The capitalist West was led by the United States, a federal republic with a two-party presidential system, as well as the other First World nations of the Western Bloc that were liberal democratic with a free press and independent organizations, but were economically and politically entwined with a network of banana republics and other authoritarian regimes, most of which were the Western Bloc's former colonies.
Some major Cold War frontlines such as Indochina and the Congo were still Western colonies in 1947. The Soviet Union, on the other hand, was a self-proclaimed Marxist–Leninist state led by its Communist Party, which in turn was dominated by a totalitarian leader with different titles over time, a small committee called the Politburo; the Party controlled the state, the press, the military, the economy, many organizations throughout the Second World, including the Warsaw Pact and other satellites, funded communist parties around the world, sometimes in competition with communist China following the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. The two worlds were fighting for dominance in low-developed regions known as the Third World. In time, a neutral bloc arose in these regions with the Non-Aligned Movement, which sought good relations with both sides. Notwithstanding isolated incidents of air-to-air dogfights and shoot-downs, the two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat. However, both were armed in preparation for a possible all-out nuclear world war.
Each side had a nuclear strategy that discouraged an attack by the other side, on the basis that such an attack would lead to the total destruction of the attacker—the doctrine of mutually assured destruction. Aside from the development of the two sides' nuclear arsenals, their deployment of conventional military forces, the struggle for dominance was expressed via proxy wars around the globe, psychological warfare, massive propaganda campaigns and espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events, technological competitions such as the Space Race; the first phase of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc, while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe and creating the NATO alliance; the Berlin Blockade was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the Communist side in the Chinese Civil War and the outbreak of the Korean War, the conflict expanded.
The USSR and the US competed for influence in Latin America and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia. The Soviets suppressed the Hungarian Revolution of 1956; the expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961, the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, the closest the two sides came to nuclear war. Meanwhile, an international peace movement took root and grew among citizens around the world, first in Japan from 1954, when people became concerned about nuclear weapons testing, but soon in Europe and the US; the peace movement, in particular the anti-nuclear movement, gained pace and popularity from the late 1950s and early 1960s, continued to grow through the'70s and'80s with large protest marches and various non-parliamentary activism opposing war and calling for global nuclear disarmament. Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, a new phase began that saw the Sino-Soviet split complicate relations within the Communist sphere, while US allies France, demonstrated greater independence of action.
The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, while the US experienced internal turmoil from the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War, which ended with the defeat of the US-backed Republic of Vietnam, prompting further adjustments. By the 1970s, both sides had become interested in making allowances in order to create a more stable and predictable international system, ushering in a period of détente that saw Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and the US opening relations with the People's Republic of China as a strategic counterweight to the Soviet Union. Détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979; the early 1980s were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of KAL Flight 007 and the "Able Archer" NATO military exercises, both in 1983. The United States increased diplomatic and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was suffering from economic stag
University of Helsinki
The University of Helsinki is a university located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829, but was founded in the city of Turku in 1640 as the Royal Academy of Åbo, at that time part of the Swedish Empire. It is the largest university in Finland with the widest range of disciplines available. Around 36,500 students are enrolled in the degree programs of the university spread across 11 faculties and 11 research institutes; as of 1 August 2005, the university complies with the harmonized structure of the Europe-wide Bologna Process and offers Bachelor, Master and Doctoral degrees. Admission to degree programmes is determined by entrance examinations, in the case of bachelor's degrees, by prior degree results, in the case of master and postgraduate degrees. Entrance is selective, it has been ranked a top 100 university in the world according to the 2016 ARWU, QS and THE rankings. The university is bilingual, with teaching by law provided both in Swedish. Since Swedish, albeit an official language of Finland, is a minority language, Finnish is by far the dominating language at the university.
Teaching in English is extensive throughout the university at Master and Doctoral levels, making it a de facto third language of instruction. Remaining true to its traditionally strong Humboldtian ethos, the University of Helsinki places heavy emphasis on high-quality teaching and research of a top international standard, it is a member of various prominent international university networks, such as Europaeum, UNICA, the Utrecht Network, is a founding member of the League of European Research Universities. The first predecessor of the university, The Cathedral School of Åbo, was founded in 1276 for education of boys to become servants of the Church; as the university was founded in 1640 by Queen Christina of Sweden in Turku, as the Åbo Kungliga Akademi, the senior part of the school formed the core of the new university, while the junior year courses formed a grammar school. It was the third university founded in the Swedish Empire, following Uppsala University and the Academia Gustaviana in Dorpat.
The second period of the university's history covers the period when Finland was a Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire, from 1809 to 1917. As Finland became part of the Russian Empire in 1809, Emperor Alexander I expanded the university and allocated substantial funds to it. Following the Great Fire of Turku in 1827, higher education within the country was moved to Helsinki, the new administrative heart of the Grand Duchy, in 1828, renamed the Imperial Alexander University in Finland in honour of the late benefactor of the university. In the capital the primary task of the university was to educate the Grand Duchy’s civil servants; the university became a community subscribing to the new Humboldtian ideals of science and culture, studying humanity and its living environment by means of scientific methods. The new statutes of the university enacted in 1828 defined the task of the university as promoting the development of “the Sciences and Humanities within Finland and, educating the youth for the service of the Emperor and the Fatherland”.
The Alexander University was a centre of national life that promoted the birth of an independent Finnish State and the development of Finnish identity. The great men of 19th century Finland, Johan Vilhelm Snellman, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, Elias Lönnrot and Zachris Topelius, were all involved in the activities of the university; the university became a major center of Finnish cultural and legal life in 19th century Finland, became a remarkable primum mobile of the nationalist and liberal cultural movements, political parties, student organisations. In the 19th century university research changed from being collection-centred to being experimental and analytical; the more scientific approach of the university created new disciplines. As the scientific disciplines developed, Finland received more scholarly knowledge and educated people, some of whom entered evolving industry or the government; the third period of the university's history began with the creation of the independent Republic of Finland in 1917, with the renaming of the university as the University of Helsinki.
Once Finland gained her independence in 1917 the university was given a crucial role in building the nation state and, after World War II, the welfare state. Members of the academic community promoted the international relations of the new state and the development of its economic life. Furthermore, they were involved in national politics and the struggle for equality. In the interwar period the university was the scene of a conflict between those who wanted to advance the usage of Finnish language in the university, to the detriment of Swedish and those who opposed such move. Geographer Väinö Tanner was one of the most vocal defenders of Swedish language usage. Swedish People's Party of Finland initiated a campaign collecting 153 914 signatures in defense of the Swedish language that were handed to the parliament and government in October 1934. On an international front academics from Denmark, Sweden and Iceland sent letters to the diplomatic representations of Finland in their respective countries warning about a weakening of the Nordic unity that would result from diminishing the role of Swedish in the University of Helsinki.
In the 20th century, scholarly research at the University of Helsinki reached the level of the