The Cheyenne are one of the indigenous people of the Great Plains and their language is of the Algonquian language family. The Cheyenne comprise two Native American tribes, the Só'taeo'o or Só'taétaneo'o and the Tsétsêhéstâhese; these tribes merged in the early 19th century. Today, the Cheyenne people are split into two federally recognized Nations: the Southern Cheyenne, who are enrolled in the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes in Oklahoma, the Northern Cheyenne, who are enrolled in the Northern Cheyenne Tribe of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation in Montana. At the time of their first contact with the Europeans, the Cheyenne were living in the area of what is now Minnesota. At times they have been allied with the Lakota and Arapaho, at other points enemies of the Lakota. In the early 18th century they migrated west across the Mississippi River and into North and South Dakota, where they adopted the horse culture. Having settled the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Powder River Country of present-day Montana, they introduced the horse culture to Lakota bands about 1730.
Allied with the Arapaho, the Cheyenne pushed the Kiowa to the Southern Plains. In turn, they were pushed west by the more numerous Lakota; the Cheyenne Nation or Tsêhéstáno was at one time composed of ten bands that spread across the Great Plains from southern Colorado to the Black Hills in South Dakota. They fought their traditional enemies, the Crow and the United States Army forces. In the mid-19th century, the bands began to split, with some bands choosing to remain near the Black Hills, while others chose to remain near the Platte Rivers of central Colorado; the Northern Cheyenne, known in Cheyenne either as Notameohmésêhese, meaning "Northern Eaters" or as Ohmésêhese meaning "Eaters", live in southeastern Montana on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation. Tribal enrollment figures, as of late 2014, indicate that there are 10,840 members, of which about 4,939 reside on the reservation. 91% of the population are Native Americans, with 72.8% identifying themselves as Cheyenne. More than one quarter of the population five years or older spoke a language other than English.
The Southern Cheyenne, known in Cheyenne as Heévâhetaneo'o meaning "Roped People", together with the Southern Arapaho, form the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, in western Oklahoma. Their combined population is 12,130, as of 2008. In 2003 8,000 of these identified themselves as Cheyenne, although with continuing intermarriage it has become difficult to separate the tribes; the Cheyenne Nation is composed of two tribes, the Só'taeo'o or Só'taétaneo'o and the Tsétsêhéstâhese, which translates to "those who are like this". These two tribes had always traveled together, becoming merged sometime after 1831, when they were still noted as having separate camps; the Suhtai were said to have had different speech and customs from their traveling companions. The name "Cheyenne" may be derived from Dakota Sioux exonym for Šahíyena. Though the identity of the Šahíya is not known, many Great Plains tribes assume it means Cree or some other people who spoke an Algonquian language related to Cree and Cheyenne; the Cheyenne word for Ojibwe is a word that sounds similar to the Dakota word Šahíya.
Another of the common etymologies for Cheyenne is "a bit like the alien speech". According to George Bird Grinnell, the Dakota had referred to themselves and fellow Siouan-language bands as "white talkers", those of other language families, such as the Algonquian Cheyenne, as "red talkers"; the etymology of the name Tsitsistas, which the Cheyenne call themselves, is uncertain. According to the Cheyenne dictionary, offered online by Chief Dull Knife College, there is no definitive consensus and various studies of the origins and the translation of the word has been suggested. Grinnell's record is typical, it most means related to one another bred, like us, our people, or us. The term for the Cheyenne homeland is Tsiihistano." The Cheyenne of Montana and Oklahoma speak the Cheyenne language, known as Tsêhésenêstsestôtse. 800 people speak Cheyenne in Oklahoma. There are only a handful of vocabulary differences between the two locations; the Cheyenne alphabet contains 14 letters. The Cheyenne language is one of the larger Algonquian-language group.
The Só'taeo'o or Suhtai bands of Southern and Northern Cheyenne spoke Só'taéka'ękóne or Só'taenęstsestôtse, a language so close to Tsêhésenêstsestôtse, that it is sometimes termed a Cheyenne dialect. The earliest known written historical record of the Cheyenne comes from the mid-17th century, when a group of Cheyenne visited the French Fort Crevecoeur, near present-day Peoria, Illinois; the Cheyenne at this time lived between the Mississippi River and Mille Lacs Lake in present-day Minnesota. The Cheyenne economy was based on the collection of wild rice and hunting of bison, which lived in the prairies 70–80 miles west of the Cheyenne villages. According to tribal history, during the 17th century, the Cheyenne had been driven by the Assiniboine from the Great Lakes region to present-day Minnesota and No
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Lea County, New Mexico
Lea County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census, the population was 64,727; because of oil lease sales in September 2018, the population is expected to double. Its county seat is Lovington, it is both north of the Texas state line. Lea County comprises NM Micropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,394 square miles, of which 4,391 square miles is land and 3.3 square miles is water. Lea County is located in the southeast corner of borders Texas to the south and east; the Permian Basin, 250 miles wide and 350 miles long, underlies Lea County and adjacent Eddy County as well as a big piece of West Texas. It produces 500,00 barrels of crude a day, this number was expected to double in 2019; the shale in this basin lies 3,000 to 15,000 feet below the surface, below a salt bed and a groundwater aquifer. As of the 2000 census, there were 55,511 people, 19,699 households, 14,715 families residing in the county.
The population density was 13 people per square mile. There were 23,405 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 67.13% White, 4.37% Black or African American, 0.99% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 23.81% from other races, 3.27% from two or more races. 39.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 19,699 households out of which 39.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.80% were married couples living together, 12.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.30% were non-families. 22.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.20. In the county, the population was spread out with 30.10% under the age of 18, 10.10% from 18 to 24, 27.30% from 25 to 44, 20.30% from 45 to 64, 12.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years.
For every 100 females there were 100.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,799, the median income for a family was $34,665. Males had a median income of $32,005 versus $20,922 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,184. About 17.30% of families and 21.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.00% of those under age 18 and 14.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 64,727 people, 22,236 households, 16,260 families residing in the county; the population density was 14.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 24,919 housing units at an average density of 5.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 75.0% white, 4.1% black or African American, 1.2% American Indian, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 16.6% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 51.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 9.3% were German, 7.6% were Irish, 7.2% were English, 6.3% were American.
Of the 22,236 households, 41.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.8% were married couples living together, 13.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.9% were non-families, 22.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.82 and the average family size was 3.30. The median age was 31.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $43,910 and the median income for a family was $48,980. Males had a median income of $44,714 versus $25,847 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,637. About 15.2% of families and 17.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.5% of those under age 18 and 11.1% of those age 65 or over. The following public-use airports are located in the county: Lea County Regional Airport – Hobbs Lea County-Jal Airport – Jal Lea County-Zip Franklin Memorial Airport – Lovington Tatum Airport – Tatum In the 2004 Presidential election, Lea County was the top New Mexico county, as far as percentage, for Republican George W. Bush.
He beat John Kerry 79%-20%. In 2008, the Republican candidate John McCain beat Democratic candidate Barack Obama by a wide but smaller margin, 72% to 27%. Eunice Hobbs Jal Lovington Tatum Monument Nadine North Hobbs Caprock Crossroads Maljamar McDonald Lea County had produced several National Rodeo Champions starting with Jake McClure starting back in 1930. Troy Fort. More recent Champions are from the Cooper family and Roy; this family is from southwest of Hobbs. All of these men have been National Champions. Several golfers have made it to the PGA and most famous is Kathy Whitworth, an LPGA Hall of Famer; the men Golfers include Sean Murphy and Chris Blocker. Ronnie and Sean were from Chris from Hobbs and Kathy from Jal. Brian Urlacher, Chicago Bears football linebacker, represented Lea County in the National Football League. National Register of Historic Places listings in Lea County, New Mexico
Texas's 19th congressional district
Texas' Nineteenth Congressional District of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves the upper midwestern portion of the state of Texas The district includes portions of the State from Lubbock to Abilene. The current Representative from the 19th District is Republican Jodey Arrington. District 19's current boundaries were drawn up during the controversial 2003 Texas State Legislature Redistricting made famous by the Texas Eleven; the district was redrawn in such a way that two Congressional incumbents and Democrat Charlie Stenholm, were pitted against one another in the 2004 Congressional elections. Neugebauer won with over 58% of the vote; the border runs along the western boundary with New Mexico, runs along county borders to include far reaching cities. The area is predominantly rural, with the exceptions of Abilene and Lubbock, includes many state parks and farms; this is one of the most conservative districts in the nation. It has not supported a Democratic presidential candidate since 1964.
Republicans have held the seat since 1985. In the last three decades, a Democrat has only won 40 percent of the vote in this district twice, in 1984 and 2004. Much of this region continued to elect conservative Democrats to local offices and the Texas Legislature until 1994. Since the mid-1990s, Republicans have dominated every level of government. There are no elected Democrats left above the county level, Republicans win most races by 70 percent or more of the vote; the district voted 77% for George W. Bush in 2004 and 71% for John McCain in 2008. List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present "Current Election History". Office of the Secretary of State of Texas. Archived from the original on November 8, 2006.
Retrieved November 20, 2012
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Denver City, Texas
Denver City is a town located in Gaines County, but in Yoakum County in the far western portion of the U. S. state of Texas, just a short distance from the New Mexico boundary. It is named for Denver Productions; the population was 4,479 at the 2010 census. The town is located at the intersection of Texas State Highways 214 and 83. Oil and ranching remain important to Denver City; the first well was drilled by the wildcatter "Red" Davidson of Fort Worth on the ranch lands of L. P. and Ruth Bennett and her father, Dr. J. R. Smith. Oil gushed to the surface for the first time on October 10, 1935. A part of this Wasson Field, as it is known, is the site of the Yoakum County Park, donated in 1964 by Gene H. Bennett, the youngest son of the Bennetts. According to the Denver City Chamber of Commerce, Denver City is home to a functional hospital, One car dealership, One grocery store, One airport, Two hotels, Three churches, Six financial institutions. In 2008, the Denver City Independent School District presented a bond package for new and renovated facilities.
Upgrades include, Tennis Courts, Jr.. High Band Hall, Industrial Arts Facility, Sports Complex, Maintenance Center, Athletic Field House, Bus Barn. Renovations include, Jr. High Classrooms, Jr. High Science Labs, Jr. High Offices and Foyer, Jr. High Parking Lot, Main Field House, Bus Barn. On May 11, 2013, voters in both Denver City and Yoakum County, as well as Crosby County in West Texas, all under local-option prohibition laws, approved the sale of liquor. Denver City is located at 32°58′07″N 102°49′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, Denver City has a total area of 2.5 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, the population of Denver City is 4,479 with a total of 1,770 households, 1,578 families resided in the town; the racial makeup of the town was 70.5% White, 1.3% African American, 1% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 63.3 Hispanics or Latino, 60.1% Mexican, 0.1% Cuban, 2.5% from two or more races. Of the 4,426 households, 27.5.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.8% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.4% were not families.
22.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.27. In the town, the population was distributed as 34% ranging in age from 0 to 19, 5.8% from 20 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.2 years of age. According to a 2017 survey, the median income for a household in the town was $52,232, for a family was $67,630. Males had a median income of $65,495 versus $23,346 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,297. About 15.8% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19% of those under age 18 and 35% of those age 65 or over. Paul Leon Gooch, former alderman and mayor of Denver City, operated Dairy Mart and Broadway Superette, native of Muskogee, member of Church of Christ, interred at Denver City Memorial Park Cemetery Bert Gravitt and Bill Gravitt, inductees of the Texas High School Football Hall of Fame, 2010 Chad W. Jones, winner of Bronze Star and ARCOM with Valor awards in Operation Iraqi Freedom Robert Edgar Self, Jr. a businessman, served as mayor of Denver City from June 1978 – April 1979.
Elected to the city council in April 1975, he became mayor upon the resignation of Dan Harris. He served on the first Denver City zoning board and worked to gain approval of the Connor and Santa Fe housing additions. Born in Brownfield in Terry County, Self was an Eagle Scout, a graduate of Brownfield High School and Texas Tech University, served in the United States Army during World War II, he was proprietor of Collins Department Store. Services were held in the Denver City Church of Christ. Interment was at Denver City Memorial Park. Woodson Wade Lindsey, Freida Lonette Lindsey: The Lindsey family was an integral part of Denver City as proprietors of Lindsey Hardware for over 50 years, until the retirement of Woodson Lindsey in 1996. Denver City Heritage Museum Denver City Park Kiddie Park Yoakum County Swimming Pool Yoakum County Park Yoakum County Golf Course BaseBall Park Across from 15th street and West Ward Kelly-Dodson Elementary Texas portal Handbook of Texas Online: Denver City, Texas KCBD TV, Lubbock
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820