Choctaw County, Mississippi
Choctaw County is a county located in the central part of U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,547, its northern border is the Big Black River, which flows southwest into the Mississippi south of Vicksburg. The county seat is Ackerman; the county is named after the Choctaw tribe of Native Americans, who long occupied this territory as their homeland before being forced to move west of the Mississippi River by federal troops under the Indian Removal Act of 1830. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 420 square miles, of which 418 square miles is land and 1.7 square miles is water. The Big Black River forms the county's northern border. Webster County, Mississippi - north Oktibbeha County, Mississippi - east Winston County, Mississippi - southeast Attala County, Mississippi - southwest Montgomery County, Mississippi - west Natchez Trace Parkway Tombigbee National Forest The adjacent table reflects major decreases in population from 1910 to 1920, from 1940 to 1960.
These were periods of the Great Migration from the South by African Americans, who first moved to jobs in industrial cities in the North and Midwest. In the 1940s and after, they moved to the West Coast for jobs in the defense industry. Farm work declined with mechanization of agriculture, but blacks migrated to escape the violence and social repression of Mississippi, where they had been disenfranchised since 1890 and lived under Jim Crow laws. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 8,543 people residing in the county. 68.1% were White, 30.2% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from some other race and 1.1% of two or more races. 1.4 % were Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,758 people, 3,686 households, 2,668 families residing in the county; the population density was 23 people per square mile. There were 4,249 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.03% White, 30.68% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.42% from other races, 0.42% from two or more races.
0.81% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,686 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.30% were married couples living together, 14.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.60% were non-families. 25.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.80% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 24.90% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, 15.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 91.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,020, the median income for a family was $31,095. Males had a median income of $26,966 versus $17,798 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,474.
About 17.70% of families and 24.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.80% of those under age 18 and 21.30% of those age 65 or over. Choctaw County School District operates public schools, including Choctaw County High School, Ackerman Elementary, French Camp Elementary, Weir Elementary. French Camp Academy, which provides in-house private education in grades 7 through 12, is located in French Camp. Colleges and universities within a 60-mile radius of the center of the county include: East Mississippi Community College Holmes Community College Mississippi State University Mississippi University for Women Ackerman French Camp Mathiston Weir Bywy Chester ReformPanhandle Bankston Pigeon Roost James Blackwood, American Gospel singer and one of the founding members of legendary Southern Gospel quartet The Blackwood Brothers. Turner Catledge, Managing editor of The New York Times from 1952 to 1964 and the paper's first executive editor. David A. Chandler, Former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Mississippi.
James Plemon "J. P." Coleman 52nd Governor of Mississippi and a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. Thomas Fulton, Former conductor of the New York Metropolitan Opera Dennis Johnson Fullback for Mississippi State University who played for the New York Giants and Buffalo Bills in the NFL. Kenneth Johnson, NFL defensive back for the Green Bay Packers Tony Kimbrough, Former professional football quarterback Raymond Edwin "Ray" Mabus Jr. 60th Governor of Mississippi and 75th United States Secretary of the Navy. Hoyt Ming, old-time fiddler. Alvin McKinley, NFL defensive tackle who played for the Carolina Panthers, Cleveland Browns, Denver Broncos and New Orleans Saints. Roy Oswalt, a major league pitcher for the Colorado Rockies, his wife Nicole live in Weir. Cheryl Prewitt, Miss America 1980 and Miss Mississippi 1979 Kristi M. Fondren, Author "Walking on the Wild Side: Long-Distance Hiking on the Appalachian Trail" The song "Choctaw County Affair" from Carrie Underwood's 2015 album Storyteller is set in Choctaw County, Mississippi.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Choctaw County, Mississippi Choctaw County Courthouse Pictures
A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
Kosciusko is a city in Attala County, United States, is the birthplace of James Meredith and Oprah Winfrey. The population was 7,402 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Attala County. Kosciusko developed along the historic Natchez Trace used by generations of Native Americans and European settlers; the modern Natchez Trace Parkway passes through the city, located northeast of the state capital of Jackson. It is named for General Tadeusz Kościuszko, a Polish-Lithuanian officer who served with the Continental Army and assisted United States military efforts during the American Revolution; the name has been Anglicized as "Kosciusko". The settlement was named Red Bud Springs for one of three natural springs that were present in the city. Throughout the 19th century, agriculture was predominated by the raising of cotton, which remains an important crop in the area. Kosciusko was the home of Magnolia Bible College from 1976 to 2005, it is the birthplace of civil rights activist James Meredith and TV series host and cultural leader Oprah Winfrey.
Kosciusko has hosted the Central Mississippi Fair for over 100 years. Kosciusko is located at 33°3′29″N 89°35′18″W, along the Yockanookany River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.6 square miles, of which 7.5 square miles is land and 0.13% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,372 people, 2,885 households, 1,906 families residing in the city; the population density was 977.8 people per square mile. There were 3,174 housing units at an average density of 421.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 53.66% White, 44.57% African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.60% from other races, 0.54% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.06% of the population. There were 2,885 households out of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were married couples living together, 21.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.9% were non-families. 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.04. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 20.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $21,737, the median income for a family was $29,000. Males had a median income of $27,423 versus $16,487 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,478. About 20.9% of families and 24.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.9% of those under age 18 and 20.1% of those age 65 or over. The city of Kosciusko is served by the Kosciusko School District. Kosciusko has been featured as part of the Mississippi Blues Trail since 2009. Dave Barnes, singer-songwriter and musician Billy Ray Bates, professional basketball player, was born in Kosciusko.
Eva Webb Dodd, Anna Boyd Ellington, Mary Comfort Leonard, Delta Gamma Fraternity Clarence Harmon, NFL player James Meredith, civil rights figure Charlie Musselwhite, blues harmonica player and bandleader was born in Kosciusko in 1944. Topher Payne, playwright Oprah Winfrey, television host/personality, who lived in Kosciusko up to age six Marc Woodard, NFL player The climate is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Kosciusko has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; the data below are from the WRCC, compiled from 1893 to the time. City of Kosciusko official website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Leake County, Mississippi
Leake County is a county located in the center of the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,805, its county seat is Carthage. The county is named for Walter Leake, the Governor of Mississippi from 1822 to 1825. In 2010, the center of population of Mississippi was located near the town of Lena. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 585 square miles, of which 583 square miles is land and 2.5 square miles is water. Mississippi Highway 13 Mississippi Highway 16 Mississippi Highway 25 Mississippi Highway 35 Mississippi Highway 43 Natchez Trace Parkway Attala County Neshoba County Scott County Madison County Natchez Trace Parkway As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 23,805 people residing in the county. 49.5% were White, 40.6% Black or African American, 6.0% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 2.8% of some other race and 0.8% of two or more races. 4.3% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 20,940 people, 7,611 households, 5,563 families residing in the county.
The population density was 36 people per square mile. There were 8,585 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 56.14% White, 37.42% Black or African American, 4.56% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.14% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races. 2.10% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,611 households out of which 34.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.20% were married couples living together, 16.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.90% were non-families. 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.13. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.90% under the age of 18, 10.10% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years.
For every 100 females there were 98.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,055, the median income for a family was $32,147. Males had a median income of $27,367 versus $18,307 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,365. About 18.10% of families and 23.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.90% of those under age 18 and 23.90% of those age 65 or over. The county is quite rural, with Carthage three towns; these have The Mississippi Department of Corrections contracted for development of the Walnut Grove Youth Correctional Facility, which opened in 2001 in the town of Walnut Grove. The facility was operated by Training Corporation. By 2006, the Town of Walnut Grove annexed the land of the prison, resulting in an apparent increase in population, chiefly associated with prisoners. MTC was cited for problems with poor treatment of prisoners, abuses within the facility; the state closed it in 2016.
Carthage Lena Sebastopol Walnut Grove Redwater Standing Pine Edinburg Good Hope Madden Midway Ofahoma Thomastown Dry counties National Register of Historic Places listings in Leake County, Mississippi Leake County Chamber of Commerce Leake County Development Association Leake County Courthouse Pictures Leake County Genealogy
River engineering is the process of planned human intervention in the course, characteristics, or flow of a river with the intention of producing some defined benefit. People have intervened in the natural course and behaviour of rivers since before recorded history—to manage the water resources, to protect against flooding, or to make passage along or across rivers easier. From Roman times, rivers have been used as a source of hydropower. From the late 20th century, river engineering has had environmental concerns broader than immediate human benefit and some river engineering projects have been concerned with the restoration or protection of natural characteristics and habitats. Hydromodification encompasses the systematic response to alterations to riverine and non-riverine water bodies such as coastal waters and lakes; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency has defined hydromodification as the "alteration of the hydrologic characteristics of coastal and non-coastal waters, which in turn could cause degradation of water resources."
River engineering has resulted in unintended systematic responses. The river engineering discipline now strives to repair hydromodified degradations and account for potential systematic response to planned alterations by considering fluvial geomorphology. Fluvial geomorphology is the study of. Fluvial geomorphology is the cumulation of a number of sciences including open channel hydraulics, sediment transport, physical geology, riparian ecology. River engineering attempts to understand fluvial geomorphology, implement a physical alteration, maintain public safety; the size of rivers above any tidal limit and their average freshwater discharge are proportionate to the extent of their basins and the amount of rain which, after falling over these basins, reaches the river channels in the bottom of the valleys, by which it is conveyed to the sea. The basin of a river is the expanse of country bounded by a watershed over which rainfall flows down towards the river traversing the lowest part of the valley, whereas the rain falling on the far slope of the watershed flows away to another river draining an adjacent basin.
River basins vary in extent according to the configuration of the country, ranging from the insignificant drainage areas of streams rising on high ground near the coast and flowing straight down into the sea, up to immense tracts of great continents, where rivers rising on the slopes of mountain ranges far inland have to traverse vast stretches of valleys and plains before reaching the ocean. The size of the largest river basin of any country depends on the extent of the continent in which it is situated, its position in relation to the hilly regions in which rivers arise and the sea into which they flow, the distance between the source and the outlet into the sea of the river draining it; the rate of flow of rivers depends upon their fall known as the gradient or slope. When two rivers of different sizes have the same fall, the larger river has the quicker flow, as its retardation by friction against its bed and banks is less in proportion to its volume than is the case with the smaller river.
The fall available in a section of a river corresponds to the slope of the country it traverses. Accordingly, in large basins, rivers in most cases begin as torrents with a variable flow, end as flowing rivers with a comparatively regular discharge; the irregular flow of rivers throughout their course forms one of the main difficulties in devising works for mitigating inundations or for increasing the navigable capabilities of rivers. In tropical countries subject to periodical rains, the rivers are in flood during the rainy season and have hardly any flow during the rest of the year, while in temperate regions, where the rainfall is more evenly distributed throughout the year, evaporation causes the available rainfall to be much less in hot summer weather than in the winter months, so that the rivers fall to their low stage in the summer and are liable to be in flood in the winter. In fact, with a temperate climate, the year may be divided into a warm and a cold season, extending from May to October and from November to April in the Northern hemisphere respectively.
The only exceptions are rivers which have their sources amongst mountains clad with perpetual snow and are fed by glaciers. But these rivers are liable to have their flow modified by the influx of tributaries subject to different conditions, so that the Rhone below Lyon has a more uniform discharge than most rivers, as the summer floods of the Arve are counteracted to a great extent by the low stage of the Saône flowing into the Rhone at Lyon, which has its floods in the winter when the Arve, on the contrary, is low. Another serious obstacle encountered in river engineering consists in the large quantity of detritus they bring down in flood-time, derived from the disintegration of the surface layers of the hills and slopes in the upper parts of the valleys by glaciers and rain; the power of a current to transport materia