Enrico Fermi Institute
The Institute for Nuclear Studies was founded September 1945 as part of the University of Chicago with Samuel King Allison as director. On November 20, 1955 it was renamed The Enrico Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies; the name was shortened to The Enrico Fermi Institute in January 1968. Physicist Enrico Fermi was involved in the founding years of the institute, it was at his request that Allison took the position as the first director. In addition to Fermi and Allison, the initial faculty included Harold C. Urey, Edward Teller, Joseph E. Mayer, Maria Goeppert Mayer. Theoretical and experimental particle physics. Herbert L. Anderson James Cronin Enrico Fermi Riazuddin Robert Geroch James Hartle Craig Hogan Faheem Hussain Leo Kadanoff Edward Kolb Emil Martinec Joseph E. Mayer Maria Goeppert Mayer Yoichiro Nambu Marcel Schein John Alexander Simpson Edward Teller Michael Turner Harold C. Urey Carlos E. M. Wagner Robert M. Wald Gregor Wentzel Particle physics James Franck Institute The Enrico Fermi Institute website
A physicist is a scientist who specializes in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe. Physicists are interested in the root or ultimate causes of phenomena, frame their understanding in mathematical terms. Physicists work across a wide range of research fields, spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic and particle physics, through biological physics, to cosmological length scales encompassing the universe as a whole; the field includes two types of physicists: experimental physicists who specialize in the observation of physical phenomena and the analysis of experiments, theoretical physicists who specialize in mathematical modeling of physical systems to rationalize and predict natural phenomena. Physicists can apply their knowledge towards solving practical problems or to developing new technologies; the study and practice of physics is based on an intellectual ladder of discoveries and insights from ancient times to the present.
Many mathematical and physical ideas used today found their earliest expression in ancient Greek culture, for example in the work of Euclid, Thales of Miletus and Aristarchus. Roots emerged in ancient Asian culture and in the Islamic medieval period, for example the work of Alhazen in the 11th century; the modern scientific worldview and the bulk of physics education can be said to flow from the scientific revolution in Europe, starting with the work of Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler in the early 1600s. Newton's laws of motion and Newton's law of universal gravitation were formulated in the 17th century; the experimental discoveries of Faraday and the theory of Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism were developmental high points during the 19th century. Many physicists contributed to the development of quantum mechanics in the early-to-mid 20th century. New knowledge in the early 21st century includes a large increase in understanding physical cosmology; the broad and general study of nature, natural philosophy, was divided into several fields in the 19th century, when the concept of "science" received its modern shape.
Specific categories emerged, such as "biology" and "biologist", "physics" and "physicist", "chemistry" and "chemist", among other technical fields and titles. The term physicist was coined by William Whewell in his 1840 book The Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences. A standard undergraduate physics curriculum consists of classical mechanics and magnetism, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, laboratory experience. Physics students need training in mathematics, in computer science. Any physics-oriented career position requires at least an undergraduate degree in physics or applied physics, while career options widen with a Master's degree like MSc, MPhil, MPhys or MSci. For research-oriented careers, students work toward a doctoral degree specializing in a particular field. Fields of specialization include experimental and theoretical astrophysics, atomic physics, biological physics, chemical physics, condensed matter physics, geophysics, gravitational physics, material science, medical physics, molecular physics, nuclear physics, radiophysics, electromagnetic field and microwave physics, particle physics, plasma physics.
The highest honor awarded to physicists is the Nobel Prize in Physics, awarded since 1901 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. National physics professional societies have many awards for professional recognition. In the case of the American Physical Society, as of 2017, there are 33 separate prizes and 38 separate awards in the field; the three major employers of career physicists are academic institutions and private industries, with the largest employer being the last. Physicists in academia or government labs tend to have titles such as Assistants, Professors, Sr./Jr. Scientist, or postdocs; as per the American Institute of Physics, some 20% of new physics Ph. D.s holds jobs in engineering development programs, while 14% turn to computer software and about 11% are in business/education. A majority of physicists employed apply their skills and training to interdisciplinary sectors. Job titles for graduate physicists include Agricultural Scientist, Air Traffic Controller, Computer Programmer, Electrical Engineer, Environmental Analyst, Medical Physicist, Oceanographer, Physics Teacher/Professor/Researcher, Research Scientist, Reactor Physicist, Engineering Physicist, Satellite Missions Analyst, Science Writer, Software Engineer, Systems Engineer, Microelectronics Engineer, Radar Developer, Technical Consultant, etc.
A majority of Physics terminal bachelor's degree holders are employed in the private sector. Other fields are academia and military service, nonprofit entities and teaching. Typical duties of physicists with master's and doctoral degrees working in their domain involve research and analysis, data preparation, instrumentation and development of industrial or medical equipment and software development, etc. Chartered Physicist is a chartered status and a professional qualification awarded by the Institute of Physics, it is denoted by the postnominals "CPhys". Achieving chartered status in any profession denotes to the wider community a high level of specialised subject knowledge and professional competence. According to the Institute of Physics, holders of the award of the Chartered Physicist demonst
Order of Culture
The Order of Culture is a Japanese order, established on February 11, 1937. The order has one class only, may be awarded to men and women for contributions to Japan's art, science, technology, or anything related to culture in general; the order is conferred by the Emperor of Japan in person on Culture Day each year. The badge of the order, in gold with white enamel, is in the form of a Tachibana orange blossom; the badge is suspended on a gold and enamel wreath of mandarin orange leaves and fruit, in turn suspended on a purple ribbon worn around the neck. The Order of Culture and Persons of Cultural Merit function together in honoring contributions to the advancement and development of Japanese culture in a variety of fields such as academia and others; the Emperor himself presents the honor at the award ceremony, which takes place at the Imperial Palace on the Day of Culture. Candidates for the Order of Culture are selected from the Persons of Cultural Merit by the Minister of Education, Sports and Technology, upon hearing views of all the members of the selection committee for the Persons of Cultural Merit.
The Minister recommends the candidates to the Prime Minister so that they can be decided by the Cabinet. The system for Persons of Cultural Merit was established in 1951 by the Law on Pensions for the Persons of Cultural Merit; the purpose is to honor persons of cultural merit by providing a special government-sponsored pension. Since 1955, the new honorees have been announced on the Day of Culture, the same day as the award ceremony for the Order of Culture. A complete list can be found here. Akira Ifukube. A composer of classical music and film scores. Ryukichi Inada. A physician, a prominent academic, bacteriologist researcher. Hideo Kobayashi. An author, who established literary criticism as an independent art form in Japan. Hantaro Nagaoka. A physicist and a pioneer of Japanese physics in the early Meiji period. Nakamura Kichiemon I. 1st kabuki actor to receive this honor. Nakamura Utaemon VI. A famous kabuki actor, known for his oyama roles. Kaii Higashiyama. A famous artist and writer, renowned for his Nihonga style paintings.
Kinjiro Okabe. An electrical engineering researcher and professor who developed the split-anode magnetron. Jirō Osaragi. A popular writer in Shōwa period. Junjiro Takakusu. An academic, an advocate for expanding higher education opportunities, an internationally known Buddhist scholar. Kenjiro Takayanagi. A pioneer in the development of television. Morohashi Tetsuji. An important figure in the world of Japanese studies and Sinology. Susumu Tonegawa. A scientist who won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1987. Eiji Yoshikawa. A historical novelist. Masaru Ibuka. Co-founder and Chairman of Sony Corporation. Takashi Asahina. Orchestral conductor. Tadao Umesao. Ethnologist. Hideo Shima. Railway engineer. Shigemitsu Dandō. Criminologist. Shūsaku Endō. Writer. Hanae Mori. Fashion designer. Rizō Takeuchi. Historian of Japan. Masatoshi Koshiba. Nobel Prize-winning physicist. Hirofumi Uzawa. Economist. Ikuo Hirayama. Nihonga artist. Tadamitsu Kishimoto. Immunologist. Hiroyuki Agawa. Writer. Takeshi Umehara. Scholar of Japanese cultural studies.
Ryōji Noyori. Nobel Prize-winning chemist. Hideki Shirakawa. Nobel Prize-winning chemist. Isuzu Yamada. Actress. Chie Nakane. Social anthropologist. Toshio Yodoi. Sculptor. Kyōhei Fujita. Glass artist. Kaneto Shindō. Film director. Kōichi Tanaka. Nobel Prize-winning scientist. Kazuhiko Nishijima. Physicist. Sadako Ogata. Political scientist and diplomat. Makoto Ōoka. Poet and literary critic. Yōji Totsuka. Physicist. Nakamura Jakuemon, Kabuki actor Toan Kobayashi, Seal carver Shizuka Shirakawa, Scholar of Chinese-language literature Horin Fukuoji, Nihonga painter Mitsuko Mori. Actress. Makoto Saitō. Political scientist, specializing in American political history. Ryuzan Aoki, Ceramic artist Toshio Sawada, Civil engineer Shigeaki Hinohara, Doctor Yoshiaki Arata. A pioneer of nuclear fusion research. Jakuchō Setouchi. Writer/Buddhist nun. Hidekazu Yoshida. Music critic. Chusaku Oyama, Nihonga painter Miyohei Shinohara, Economist Akira Mikazuki. Former justice minister and professor emeritus. Shinya Nakamura. Sculptor. Kōji Nakanishi.
Organic chemist. Tokindo Okada, Developmental biologist Shigeyama Sensaku, Kyogen performer Hironoshin Furuhashi. Sportsman and sports bureaucrat. Kiyoshi Itō. A mathematician whose work is now called Itō calculus. Donald Keene. A Japanologist, teacher, writer and interpreter of Japanese literature and culture. Makoto Kobayashi. A physicist, awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics. Toshihide Masukawa. A theoretical physicist, awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics. Seiji Ozawa. A conductor noted for his interpretations of large-scale late Romantic works. Osamu Shimomura. An organic chemist and marine biologist, awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Seiko Tanabe. Author. Sumio Iijima. Physicist. Tōjūrō Sakata IV. Kabuki actor. Katsura Beicho, Rakugo performer Akira Hayami, Historian Yorio Hinuma, Virologist Tadao Ando. Architect. Akito Arima. Nuclear physicist. Issei Miyake. Fashion designer. Eiichi Negishi. Chemistry Nobel Prize l
In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings. It describes how these strings propagate through interact with each other. On distance scales larger than the string scale, a string looks just like an ordinary particle, with its mass and other properties determined by the vibrational state of the string. In string theory, one of the many vibrational states of the string corresponds to the graviton, a quantum mechanical particle that carries gravitational force, thus string theory is a theory of quantum gravity. String theory is a broad and varied subject that attempts to address a number of deep questions of fundamental physics. String theory has been applied to a variety of problems in black hole physics, early universe cosmology, nuclear physics, condensed matter physics, it has stimulated a number of major developments in pure mathematics; because string theory provides a unified description of gravity and particle physics, it is a candidate for a theory of everything, a self-contained mathematical model that describes all fundamental forces and forms of matter.
Despite much work on these problems, it is not known to what extent string theory describes the real world or how much freedom the theory allows in the choice of its details. String theory was first studied in the late 1960s as a theory of the strong nuclear force, before being abandoned in favor of quantum chromodynamics. Subsequently, it was realized that the properties that made string theory unsuitable as a theory of nuclear physics made it a promising candidate for a quantum theory of gravity; the earliest version of string theory, bosonic string theory, incorporated only the class of particles known as bosons. It developed into superstring theory, which posits a connection called supersymmetry between bosons and the class of particles called fermions. Five consistent versions of superstring theory were developed before it was conjectured in the mid-1990s that they were all different limiting cases of a single theory in eleven dimensions known as M-theory. In late 1997, theorists discovered an important relationship called the AdS/CFT correspondence, which relates string theory to another type of physical theory called a quantum field theory.
One of the challenges of string theory is that the full theory does not have a satisfactory definition in all circumstances. Another issue is that the theory is thought to describe an enormous landscape of possible universes, this has complicated efforts to develop theories of particle physics based on string theory; these issues have led some in the community to criticize these approaches to physics and question the value of continued research on string theory unification. In the twentieth century, two theoretical frameworks emerged for formulating the laws of physics; the first is Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a theory that explains the force of gravity and the structure of space and time. The other is quantum mechanics, a different formulation to describe physical phenomena using the known probability principles. By the late 1970s, these two frameworks had proven to be sufficient to explain most of the observed features of the universe, from elementary particles to atoms to the evolution of stars and the universe as a whole.
In spite of these successes, there are still many problems. One of the deepest problems in modern physics is the problem of quantum gravity; the general theory of relativity is formulated within the framework of classical physics, whereas the other fundamental forces are described within the framework of quantum mechanics. A quantum theory of gravity is needed in order to reconcile general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics, but difficulties arise when one attempts to apply the usual prescriptions of quantum theory to the force of gravity. In addition to the problem of developing a consistent theory of quantum gravity, there are many other fundamental problems in the physics of atomic nuclei, black holes, the early universe. String theory is a theoretical framework that attempts to address many others; the starting point for string theory is the idea that the point-like particles of particle physics can be modeled as one-dimensional objects called strings. String theory describes how strings propagate through interact with each other.
In a given version of string theory, there is only one kind of string, which may look like a small loop or segment of ordinary string, it can vibrate in different ways. On distance scales larger than the string scale, a string will look just like an ordinary particle, with its mass and other properties determined by the vibrational state of the string. In this way, all of the different elementary particles may be viewed as vibrating strings. In string theory, one of the vibrational states of the string gives rise to the graviton, a quantum mechanical particle that carries gravitational force, thus string theory is a theory of quantum gravity. One of the main developments of the past several decades in string theory was the discovery of certain "dualities", mathematical transformations that identify one physical theory with another. Physicists studying string theory have discovered a number of these dualities between different versions of string theory, this has led to the conjecture that all consistent versions of string theory are subsumed in a single framework known as M-theory.
Studies of string theory have yielded a number of results on the nature of black holes and the gravitational interaction. There are certain paradoxes that arise when one attempts to understand the quantum aspects of black holes, work on string theory
Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its motion, behavior through space and time, that studies the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy the oldest. Over much of the past two millennia, chemistry and certain branches of mathematics, were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, the boundaries of physics which are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics enable advances in new technologies.
For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have transformed modern-day society, such as television, domestic appliances, nuclear weapons. Astronomy is one of the oldest natural sciences. Early civilizations dating back to beyond 3000 BCE, such as the Sumerians, ancient Egyptians, the Indus Valley Civilization, had a predictive knowledge and a basic understanding of the motions of the Sun and stars; the stars and planets were worshipped, believed to represent gods. While the explanations for the observed positions of the stars were unscientific and lacking in evidence, these early observations laid the foundation for astronomy, as the stars were found to traverse great circles across the sky, which however did not explain the positions of the planets. According to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descended from late Babylonian astronomy.
Egyptian astronomers left monuments showing knowledge of the constellations and the motions of the celestial bodies, while Greek poet Homer wrote of various celestial objects in his Iliad and Odyssey. Natural philosophy has its origins in Greece during the Archaic period, when pre-Socratic philosophers like Thales rejected non-naturalistic explanations for natural phenomena and proclaimed that every event had a natural cause, they proposed ideas verified by reason and observation, many of their hypotheses proved successful in experiment. The Western Roman Empire fell in the fifth century, this resulted in a decline in intellectual pursuits in the western part of Europe. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire resisted the attacks from the barbarians, continued to advance various fields of learning, including physics. In the sixth century Isidore of Miletus created an important compilation of Archimedes' works that are copied in the Archimedes Palimpsest. In sixth century Europe John Philoponus, a Byzantine scholar, questioned Aristotle's teaching of physics and noting its flaws.
He introduced the theory of impetus. Aristotle's physics was not scrutinized until John Philoponus appeared, unlike Aristotle who based his physics on verbal argument, Philoponus relied on observation. On Aristotle's physics John Philoponus wrote: “But this is erroneous, our view may be corroborated by actual observation more than by any sort of verbal argument. For if you let fall from the same height two weights of which one is many times as heavy as the other, you will see that the ratio of the times required for the motion does not depend on the ratio of the weights, but that the difference in time is a small one, and so, if the difference in the weights is not considerable, that is, of one is, let us say, double the other, there will be no difference, or else an imperceptible difference, in time, though the difference in weight is by no means negligible, with one body weighing twice as much as the other”John Philoponus' criticism of Aristotelian principles of physics served as an inspiration for Galileo Galilei ten centuries during the Scientific Revolution.
Galileo cited Philoponus in his works when arguing that Aristotelian physics was flawed. In the 1300s Jean Buridan, a teacher in the faculty of arts at the University of Paris, developed the concept of impetus, it was a step toward the modern ideas of momentum. Islamic scholarship inherited Aristotelian physics from the Greeks and during the Islamic Golden Age developed it further placing emphasis on observation and a priori reasoning, developing early forms of the scientific method; the most notable innovations were in the field of optics and vision, which came from the works of many scientists like Ibn Sahl, Al-Kindi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Farisi and Avicenna. The most notable work was The Book of Optics, written by Ibn al-Haytham, in which he conclusively disproved the ancient Greek idea about vision, but came up with a new theory. In the book, he presented a study of the phenomenon of the camera obscura (his thousand-year-old
Makoto Kobayashi (physicist)
Makoto Kobayashi is a Japanese physicist known for his work on CP-violation, awarded one fourth of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature." Makoto Kobayashi was born in Nagoya, Japan in 1944. After World War II ended, he was only two years old at the time, he lost his father Hisashi. Kobayashi family's house rendered to ashes by the Bombing of Nagoya, so they stayed at his mother's family house. One of Makoto's cousin, Toshiki Kaifu, were living in the same place, who became Prime Minister of Japan. After graduating from the School of Science of the Nagoya University in 1967, he obtained a DSc degree from Graduate School of Science of the Nagoya University in 1972. During college years, he receive guidance from professor others. After completing his doctoral research at Nagoya University in 1972, Kobayashi worked as a research associate on particle physics at Kyoto University.
Together, with his colleague Toshihide Maskawa, he worked on explaining CP-violation within the Standard Model of particle physics. Kobayashi and Maskawa's theory required that there were at least three generations of quarks, a prediction, confirmed experimentally four years by the discovery of the bottom quark. Kobayashi and Maskawa's article, "CP Violation in the Renormalizable Theory of Weak Interaction", published in 1973, is the fourth most cited high energy physics paper of all time as of 2010; the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix, which defines the mixing parameters between quarks was the result of this work. Kobayashi and Maskawa were jointly awarded half of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics for this work, with the other half going to Yoichiro Nambu. In recognition of three Nobel laureates' contributions, the bronze statues of Shin'ichirō Tomonaga, Leo Esaki, Makoto Kobayashi was set up in the Central Park of Azuma 2 in Tsukuba City in 2015. April 1972 – Research Associate of Kyoto University July 1979 – Assistant Professor of the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics April 1989 – Professor of the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Head of Physics Division II April 1997 – Professor of the Institute of Particle and Nuclear Science, KEK Head of Physics Division II April 2003 – Director, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK April 2004 – Trustee, KEK June 2006 – Professor emeritus of KEK. 1979 – Nishina Memorial Prize 1985 – Sakurai Prize 1995 – Asahi Prize 2001 – Person of Cultural Merit 2007 – High Energy and Particle Physics Prize by European Physical Society 2008 – Nobel Prize in Physics In October 2008, Kobayashi was honored with Japan's Order of Culture.
2010 -- Member of Japan Academy Kobayashi was educated in Nagoya, Japan. He married Sachiko Enomoto in 1975. After his first wife died, Kobayashi married Emiko Nakayama in 1990, they had Yuka. Progress of Theoretical Physics List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Kyoto University List of Japanese Nobel laureates Progress of Theoretical Physics Makoto Kobayashi, Professor emeritus of KEK