Alexander II of Epirus
Alexander II was a king of Epirus, the son of Pyrrhus and Lanassa, the daughter of the Sicilian tyrant Agathocles. He succeeded his father as king in 272 BC, continued the war which his father had begun with Antigonus II Gonatas, whom he succeeded in driving from the kingdom of Macedon, he was, dispossessed of both Macedon and Epirus by Demetrius II of Macedon, the son of Antigonus II. By their assistance and that of his own subjects, who entertained a great attachment for him, he recovered Epirus, it appears. Alexander married his paternal half-sister Olympias, by whom he had two sons, Ptolemy and a daughter, Phthia. On the death of Alexander, around 242 BC, Olympias assumed the regency on behalf of her sons, married Phthia to Demetrius. There are extant copper coins of this king; the former bear a youthful head covered with the skin of an elephant's head. The reverse represents Pallas holding a spear in one hand and a shield in the other, before her stands an eagle on a thunderbolt. Connop Thirlwall, History of Greece, vol. viii Johann Gustav Droysen, Hellenismus Benediktus Niese, Geschichte der griechischen und makedonischen Staaten Karl Julius Beloch, Griechische Geschichte vol. iii
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
Abhaya Caranaravinda Bhaktivedānta Svāmi was an Indian spiritual teacher and the founder-preceptor of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness known as the "Hare Krishna Movement". Members of the ISKCON movement view Bhaktivedānta Swāmi as a representative and messenger of Krsna Caitanya. Born Abhay Charan De in Calcutta, he was educated at the Scottish Church College in Calcutta. Before adopting the life of a novice renunciate in 1950, he was married with children and owned a small pharmaceutical business. In 1959 he started writing commentaries on Vaishnava scriptures. In his years, as a traveling Vaishnava monk, he became an influential communicator of Gaudiya Vaishnava theology to India and to the West through his leadership of ISKCON, founded in 1966; as the founder of ISKCON, he "emerged as a major figure of the Western counterculture, initiating thousands of young Americans." He received criticism from anti-cult groups, as well as a favorable welcome from religious scholars such as J. Stillson Judah, Harvey Cox, Larry Shinn and Thomas Hopkins, who praised Bhaktivedānta Swāmi's translations and defended the group against distorted media images and misinterpretations.
In respect to his achievements, religious leaders from other Gaudiya Vaishnava movements have given him credit. He has been described as a charismatic leader, in the sense used by sociologist Max Weber, as he was successful in acquiring followers in the United States, Europe and elsewhere, his mission was to propagate, throughout the world, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, a school of Vaishnavite Hinduism, taught to him by his guru, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati. After his death in 1977, ISKCON, the society he founded based on a type of Hindu Krishnaism using the Bhagavata Purana as a central scripture, continued to grow. In February 2014, ISKCON's news agency reported reaching a milestone of distributing over half a billion of his books since 1965, his translation of and commentary on the Bhagavad Gītā, titled Bhagavad-gītā As It Is, is considered by adherents of the ISKCON movement and many Vedic scholars as one of the finest literary works of Vaishnavism translated into the English Language. Swāmījī — original honorific used by American disciples Prabhupāda — bestowed by American disciples, 1968, popularised by ISKCON Śrīla Prabhupāda — bestowed by American disciples, 1968, popularised by ISKCON His Divine Grace — title of address bestowed by American disciples, popularised by ISKCON Svāmī Mahārāj — used in his home denomination Gauḍīya Maṭha Śrīla Bhaktivedānta — used in Chaitanya Mission / Science of Identity Born on 4 September 1896, the day after Janmastami, one of the most important Vaishnava holidays, in a humble house in the Tollygunge suburb of Calcutta in a Bengali Suvarna Banik family, he was named Abhay Charan, "one, fearless, having taken shelter at Lord Krishna's feet."
Since he was born on the day of Nandotsava he was called Nandulāl. His parents, "Sriman" Gour Mohan De and "Srimati" Rajani De, were devout Vaishnavas. In accordance with Bengali tradition, his mother had gone to the home of her parents for the delivery, only a few days Abhay returned with parents to his home at 6 Sitakanta Banerjee Lane, Kolkata 700005, he received a European-led education in the Scottish Church College, well reputed among Bengalis. The professors, most of whom were Europeans, were known as sober, moral men, it is believed that the students received a good education; the college was located near the De's family home on Harrison Road. During his years in the college, Abhay Charan De was a member of the English Society as well as that of the Sanskrit Society, it has been suggested that his education provided him a foundation for his future leadership, he graduated in 1920 with majors in English and economics. He rejected his diploma in response to Gandhi's independence movement.
At 22 years of age he married Radharani Devi, 11 years old, in a marriage arranged by their parents. At 14, she gave birth to Abhay's first son. In 1922, when he first met his spiritual master, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, he was requested to spread the message of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in the English language. In 1933 he became a formally initiated disciple of Bhaktisiddhānta. In 1944, he started the publication called Back to Godhead, for which he acted as writer, publisher, copy editor and distributor, he designed the logo, an effulgent figure of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in the upper left corner, with the motto: "Godhead is Light, Nescience is darkness" greeting the readers. In his first magazine he wrote: Under the circumstances since 1936 up to now, I was speculating whether I shall venture this difficult task and that without any means and capacity. In 1947, the Gaudiya Vaishnava Society recognised his scholarship with the title Bhaktivedanta, meaning "one who has realised that devotional service to the Supreme Lord is the end of all knowledge".
His well known name, Prabhupāda, is a Sanskrit title meaning "he who has taken the shelter of the lotus feet of the Lord" where prabhu denotes "Lord", pāda means "taking shelt
Eugen Julius Theodor Hultzsch was a German Indologist and epigraphist, known for his work in deciphering the inscriptions of Ashoka. Born in Dresden on 29 March 1857, Hultzsch studied at the Dresden College of the Sacred Cross and the University of Lipsia, where he studied Oriental languages. On completion of his graduation, Hultzsch moved to Vienna. In 1886, Hultzsch moved to and settled down in India, where he was employed by the Archaeological Survey of India as Chief Epigraphist to the Government of Madras. Hultzsch joined the Archaeological Survey of India in 1886 when the Epigraphy section of the ASI was formed and was the ASI's first chief epigraphist. Hultzsch deciphered inscriptions in a number of Hindu temples in South India and published them, he edited a part of volume 9 of Epigraphia Indica. Among his best known work are his decipherment of the inscriptions of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka. In South India, he is remembered for his deciphering of the inscriptions in the Pancha Rathas in December 1886 and the Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur in October 1887.
The inscriptions on the Pancha Rathas were published in volume one of the book South Indian Inscriptions while those of the Brihadeeswarar Temple in volume 2. In 1903, Hultzsch resigned from the ASI and returned to Europe, where he served as professor of Sanskrit at the University of Halle. Hultzsch was succeeded as Chief Epigraphist by V. Venkayya. Hultzsch died on 16 January 1927 at the age of sixty-nine. "Prominent Epigraphists of Sanskrit and Dravidian". Archaeological Survey of India. Biography in The Indian Biographical Dictionary Hultzsch's 1925 edition of the Inscriptions of Aśoka at archive.org Janert, Klaus Ludwig, "Hultzsch, Eugen" in: Neue Deutsche Biographie 10, p. 31 f
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation which began in the central Indo-Gangetic Plain c. 600 BCE. It gets its name from the Vedas, which are liturgical texts containing details of life during this period that have been interpreted to be historical and constitute the primary sources for understanding the period; these documents, alongside the corresponding archaeological record, allow for the evolution of the Vedic culture to be traced and inferred. The Vedas were composed and orally transmitted with precision by speakers of an Old Indo-Aryan language who had migrated into the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent early in this period; the Vedic society was patrilineal. Early Vedic Aryans were a Late Bronze Age society centred in the Punjab, organised into tribes rather than kingdoms, sustained by a pastoral way of life. Around c. 1200–1000 BCE, Vedic Aryans spread eastward to the fertile western Ganges Plain and adopted iron tools which allowed for clearing of forest and the adoption of a more settled, agricultural way of life.
The second half of the Vedic period was characterised by the emergence of towns, a complex social differentiation distinctive to India, the Kuru Kingdom's codification of orthodox sacrificial ritual. During this time, the central Ganges Plain was dominated by a related but non-Vedic Indo-Aryan culture; the end of the Vedic period witnessed the rise of true cities and large states as well as śramaṇa movements which challenged the Vedic orthodoxy. The Vedic period saw the emergence of a hierarchy of social classes. Vedic religion developed into Brahmanical orthodoxy, around the beginning of the Common Era, the Vedic tradition formed one of the main constituents of the so-called "Hindu synthesis". Archaeological cultures identified with phases of Vedic material culture include the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture, the Gandhara grave culture, the Black and red ware culture and the Painted Grey Ware culture; the accepted period of earlier Vedic age is dated back to the second millennium BCE. After the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilisation, which ended c. 1900 BCE, groups of Indo-Aryan peoples migrated into north-western India and started to inhabit the northern Indus Valley.
The Indo-Aryans were a branch of the Indo-Iranians, which—according to the most widespread hypothesis—have originated in the Andronovo culture in the Bactria-Margiana area, in present northern Afghanistan. Some writers and archaeologists have opposed the notion of a migration of Indo-Aryans into India. Edwin Bryant and Laurie Patton used the term "Indo-Aryan Controversy" for an oversight of the Indo-Aryan Migration theory, some of its opponents; these ideas are outside the academic mainstream. Mallory and Adams note that two types of models "enjoy significant international currency" as to the Indo-European homeland, namely the Anatolian hypothesis, a migration out of the Eurasian steppes. According to Upinder Singh, "The original homeland of the Indo-Europeans and Indo-Aryans is the subject of continuing debate among philologists, historians and others; the dominant view is. Another view, advocated by some Indian scholars, is that they were indigenous to the subcontinent."The knowledge about the Aryans comes from the Rigveda-samhita, i. e. the oldest layer of the Vedas, composed c.
1500–1200 BCE. They brought with them practices; the Vedic beliefs and practices of the pre-classical era were related to the hypothesised Proto-Indo-European religion, the Indo-Iranian religion. According to Anthony, the Old Indic religion emerged among Indo-European immigrants in the contact zone between the Zeravshan River and Iran, it was "a syncretic mixture of old Central Asian and new Indo-European elements", which borrowed "distinctive religious beliefs and practices" from the Bactria–Margiana culture. The Rigveda contains accounts of conflicts between the Dasas and Dasyus, it describes Dasas and Dasyus as people who do not perform sacrifices or obey the commandments of gods. Their speech is described as mridhra which could variously mean soft, hostile, scornful or abusive. Other adjectives which describe their physical appearance are subject to many interpretations. However, some modern scholars such as Asko Parpola connect the Dasas and Dasyus to Iranian tribes Dahae and Dahyu and believe that Dasas and Dasyus were early Indo-Aryan immigrants who arrived into the subcontinent before the Vedic Aryans.
Accounts of military conflicts between the various tribes of Vedic Aryans are described in the Rigveda. Most notable of such conflicts was the Battle of Ten Kings, which took place on the banks of the river Parushni; the battle was fought between the tribe Bharatas, led by their chief Sudas, against a confederation of ten tribes. The Bharatas lived around the upper regions of the river Saraswati, while the Purus, their western neighbours, lived along the lower regions of Saraswati; the other tribes dwelt north-west of the Bharatas in the region of Punjab. Division of the waters of Ravi could have been a reason for the war; the confederation of tribes tried to inundate the Bharatas by opening the embankments of Ravi, yet Sudas emerged victorious in the Battle of Ten Kings. Purukutsa, the chief of the Purus, was killed in the battle and the Bharatas and the Purus merged into a new tribe, the Kuru, after the war. After the 12th
Antigonus II Gonatas
Antigonus II Gonatas was a powerful ruler who solidified the position of the Antigonid dynasty in Macedon after a long period defined by anarchy and chaos and acquired fame for his victory over the Gauls who had invaded the Balkans. Antigonus Gonatas was born around 319 BC in Gonnoi in Thessaly unless Gonatas is derived from an iron plate protecting the knee, he was related to the most powerful of the Diadochi. Antigonus's father was Demetrius Poliorcetes, the son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus, who controlled much of Asia, his mother was the daughter of Antipater. The latter controlled Macedonia and the rest of Greece and was recognized as regent of the empire, which in theory remained united. In this year, Antipater died, leading to further struggles for territory and dominance; the careers of Antigonus's grandfather and father showed great swings in fortune. After coming closer than anyone to reuniting the empire of Alexander, Antigonus Monophthalmus was defeated and killed in the great battle of Ipsus in 301 BC and the territory he controlled was divided among his enemies, Ptolemy and Seleucus.
The fate of Antigonus Gonatas, now 18, was tied with that of his father Demetrius, who escaped from the battle with 9,000 troops. Jealousy among the victors allowed Demetrius to regain part of the power his father had lost, he conquered Athens and in 294 BC he seized the throne of Macedonia from Alexander, the son of Cassander. Because Antigonus Gonatas was the grandson of Antipater and the nephew of Cassander through his mother, his presence helped to reconcile the supporters of these former kings to the rule of his father. In 292 BC, while Demetrius was campaigning in Boeotia, he received news that Lysimachus, the ruler of Thrace and the enemy of his father, had been taken prisoner by Dromichaetes, a ruler of the Getae. Hoping to seize Lysimachus' territories in Thrace and Asia, Demetrius delegated command of his forces in Boeotia to Antigonus and marched north. While he was away, the Boeotians rose in rebellion, but were defeated by Antigonus, who bottled them up in Thebes. After the failure of his expedition to Thrace, Demetrius rejoined his son at the siege of Thebes.
As the Thebans defended their city stubbornly, Demetrius forced his men to attack the city at great cost though there was little hope of capturing it. It is said that, distressed by the heavy losses, Antigonus asked his father: "Why, father, do we allow these lives to be thrown away so unnecessarily?" Demetrius appears to have showed his contempt for the lives of his soldiers by replying: "We don't have to find rations for the dead." But he showed a similar disregard for his own life and was badly wounded at the siege by a bolt through the neck. In 291 BC, Demetrius took the city after using siege engines to demolish its walls, but control of Macedonia and most of Greece was a stepping stone to his plans for further conquest. He aimed at nothing less than the revival of Alexander's empire and started making preparations on a grand scale, ordering the construction of a fleet of 500 ships, many of them of unprecedented size; such preparations and the obvious intent behind them alarmed the other kings, Ptolemy and Pyrrhus, who formed an alliance.
In the spring of 288 BC Ptolemy's fleet appeared off Greece. At the same time, Lysimachus attacked Macedonia from the east. Demetrius left Antigonus in control of the rest of Greece. By now the Macedonians had come to resent the extravagance and arrogance of Demetrius, were not prepared to fight a difficult campaign for him. In 287 BC, Pyrrhus took the Macedonian city of Beroea and Demetrius's army promptly deserted and went over to the enemy, much admired by the Macedonians for his bravery. At this change of fortune, the mother of Antigonus, killed herself with poison. Meanwhile, Athens revolted. Demetrius therefore returned and besieged the city, but he soon grew impatient and decided on a more dramatic course. Leaving Antigonus in charge of the war in Greece, he assembled all his ships and embarked with 11,000 infantry and all his cavalry to attack Caria and Lydia, provinces of Lysimachus; as Demetrius was chased across Asia Minor to the Taurus Mountains by the armies of Lysimachus and Seleucus, Antigonus attained success in Greece.
Ptolemy's fleet was driven off and Athens surrendered. In 285 BC, worn down by his fruitless campaign, surrendered to Seleucus. At this point, he wrote to his son and to his commanders in Athens and Corinth telling them to henceforth consider him a dead man and to ignore any letters they might receive written under his seal. Macedonia, had been divided between Pyrrhus and Lysimachus, but like two wolves sharing a piece of meat, they soon fought over it with the result that Lysimachus drove Pyrrhus out and took over the whole kingdom. Following the capture of his father, Antigonus proved himself a dutiful son, he wrote to all the kings Seleucus, offering to surrender all the territory he controlled and proposing himself as a hostage for his father's release, but to no avail. In 283 BC, at the age of 55, Demetrius died in captivity in Syria; when Antigonus heard that his father's remains were being brought to him, he put to sea with his entire fleet, met Seleucus's ships near the Cyclades, took the relics to Corinth with great ceremony.
After this, the remains were interred at the town of Demetrias that his father had founded in Thessaly. In 282 BC, Seleucus declared war