# Yojana

Yojana
Unit system Arthashastra
Unit of length
Symbol Yojan
Unit conversions
1 Yojan in ... ... is equal to ...
SI units    12300 m <-- based on standard used for the Kos (unit) wiki article -->
imperial/US units    7.64 mi
403408 ft

A Yojana (Sanskrit: योजन) is a Vedic measure of distance that was used in ancient India. A Yojana is about 12–15 km. (i.e. 4 Kosh = 1 Yojana and 1 kosh is 2 - 3.5 km)

## Yojana as per "Vishnu Purana"

Yojana is defined in Chapter 6 of Book 1 of the ancient vedic text “Vishnu Purana” as follows:[1]

### Clearly defined

Measurement Equals to... (in Hindu measurement) Notes
10 Paramanus 1 Parasúkshma Paramanu refers to atom.
10 Parasúkshmas 1 Trasarenu
10 Trasarenus 1 Mahírajas (particle of dust)
10 Mahírajas 1 Bálágra (hair’s point)
10 Bálágra 1 Likhsha
10 Likhsha 1 Yuka
10 Yukas 1 Yavodara (heart of barley)
10 Yavodaras 1 Yava (barley grain of middle size)
10 Yava 1 Angula 1.89 cm or approx 3/4 inch – here angula doesn't mean 1 inch rather 3/4 inch
2 Vitasti 1 Hasta (cubit)
4 Hastas [1] Dhanu
1 Danda 2 Nárikás equals 6 feet (1.8 m) [1] Paurusa (a man’s height)
2000 Dhanus 1 Gavyuti (distance to which a cow’s call or lowing can be heard) 12,000 feet (3.7 km)
4 Gavyutis 1 Yojana
1 Yojana 9.09 miles or 14.63 kilometers

## Variations on length

The length of the yojana varies depending on the different standards adopted by different Indian astronomers; in the Surya Siddhanta of the 5th century, for example, a yojana was equivalent to 8.0 km (5 mi),[2] and the same was true for Aryabhata's Aryabhatteeya (499).[3] However, 14th century scholar Paramesvara defined the yojana to be about 1.5 times larger, equivalent to about 13 km (8 mi).[2] A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada gives the equivalent length of a yojana as about 13 km (8 mi)[4] throughout his translations of the Bhagavata Purana. Some other traditional Indian scholars give measurements between 6.4 km and 8 km (4–5 miles) or thereabouts.[citation needed] In The Ancient Geography of India, Alexander Cunningham says that a yojana is traditionally held to be between 8 and 9 miles and calculates by comparison with Chinese units of length that it could have been between 6.7 mi (10.8 km) and 8.2 mi (13.2 km).[5]