Margaret of Burgundy, Queen of Sicily
Margaret of Burgundy was the second wife of Charles I of Sicily, and thus Queen of Sicily. The second daughter of Odo, Count of Nevers, and Maud of Dampierre and she became Queen consort of Sicily by her marriage to Charles of Anjou, King of Sicily and Count of Anjou and Provence, on 18 November 1268. Their only daughter, died in infancy and she became titular Queen consort of Jerusalem, after Charles bought the title from Mary of Antioch in 1277. She and her husband lost the title of King and Queen of Sicily in 1283, becoming King and Queen of Naples only. After Charles died in 1285, Margaret retired to her lands in Tonnerre, residing in the castle there with Margaret of Brienne and Catherine I of Courtenay, titular Empress of Constantinople. There at Tonnerre, the three women lived lives of charity and prayer, Margaret founded there l’Hospice des Fontenilles, and she died in 1308 without children, she left her possessions to her great-nephew, John II of Châlon-Auxerre. She was buried in the lHospice
Louis I, Count of Flanders
Louis I was Count of Flanders and Rethel. He was the son of Louis I, Count of Nevers, and Joan, Countess of Rethel and he succeeded his father as count of Nevers and his grandfather as count of Flanders in 1322. He inherited the county of Rethel from his mother, in 1320 Louis married Margaret, second daughter of King Philip V of France and Joan II, Countess of Burgundy, who would inherit her mothers counties of Burgundy and Artois in 1361. This marriage alliance made him break with the policy of his grandfather Robert III. His pro-French policies and excessive taxations levied by Louis caused an uprising in 1323, beginning as a series of scattered rural riots, the peasant insurrection escalated into a full-scale rebellion that dominated public affairs in Flanders for nearly five years until 1328. The rebels, led by Nicolaas Zannekin, captured the towns of Nieuwpoort, Ieper, in Kortrijk, Zannekin was able to capture Louis himself. In 1325 the King of France, Charles IV intervened whereupon Louis was released from captivity in February 1326, the peace didnt last long and soon hostilities erupted again which made the count flee to France.
Louis was able to convince his new liege Philip VI of France to come to his aid and Zannekin, when the Hundred Years War started, Louis remained steadfast in his French policy, even with the county being economically dependent on England. His actions resulted in an English boycott of the trade which in turn sparked a new insurrection under Jacob van Artevelde. In 1339 the count had to flee his lands, never being able to return, Louis was killed at the Battle of Crécy in 1346. He and Margaret had one son, Louis II of Flanders, who succeeded him
Philip III of France
It can refer to Philippe III de Croÿ and Philippe III, Duke of Orléans. Philip III, called the Bold, was King of France from 1270 to 1285, Philip proved indecisive, soft in nature, and timid. The strong personalities of his parents apparently crushed him, and policies of his father dominated him, people called him the Bold on the basis of his abilities in combat and on horseback and not on the basis of his political or personal character. He was pious but not cultivated and he followed the suggestions of others, first of Pierre de La Broce and of his uncle King Charles I of Naples and Albania. His father, Louis IX, died in Tunis during the Eighth Crusade, who was accompanying him, came back to France to claim his throne and was anointed at Reims in 1271. Philip made numerous territorial acquisitions during his reign, the most notable being the County of Toulouse which was annexed to the Crown lands of France in 1271. Following the Sicilian Vespers, a rebellion triggered by Peter III of Aragon against Philips uncle Charles I of Naples, Philip was forced to retreat and died from dysentry in Perpignan in 1285.
He was succeeded by his son Philip the Fair, Philip was born in Poissy to King Saint Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence, queen consort of France. As a younger son, Philip was not expected to rule a kingdom, at the death of his elder brother Louis in 1260, he became the heir to the throne. He was 15 years old and has less skill than his brother, being of a character, submissive and versatile. Pope Urban IV released Philip from his oath on June 6,1263, from 1268 Pierre de La Brosse became mentor. Saint Louis provided him his own advice, writing in particular Enseignements and he received a very faith-oriented education. Guillaume dErcuis was his chaplain before being the tutor of his son, as Count of Orléans, he accompanied his father to the Eighth Crusade in Tunis,1270. After taking Carthage, the army was struck by an epidemic of dysentery and his brother John Tristan, Count of Valois died first, on August 3, and on August 25 the king died. To prevent putrefaction of the remains of the sovereign, they recoursed to Mos Teutonicus, Philip, 25 years old, was proclaimed king in Tunis.
With neither great personality or will, very pious, but a good rider and he was unable to command the troops at the death of his father. He left his uncle Charles I of Naples to negotiate with Muhammad I al-Mustansir, Hafsid Sultan of Tunis and he got the payment of tribute from the caliph of Tunis in exchange for the departure of the crusaders. A treaty was concluded October 28,1270 between the kings of France and Navarre and the barons on one hand and the caliph of Tunis on the other
Arthur II, Duke of Brittany
Arthur II, of the House of Dreux, was Duke of Brittany from 1305 to his death. He was the first son of John II and Beatrice, daughter of Henry III of England, after he inherited the ducal throne, his brother John became Earl of Richmond. As duke, Arthur was independent of the French crown and he divided his duchy into eight battles, Léon, Landreger, Gwened, Naoned and Sant Malou. In 1309, he convoked the first Estates of Brittany and it was the first time in French history that the third estate was represented. Arthur died at Château de lIsle in Saint Denis en Val and was interred in a tomb of the cordeliers of Vannes. The tomb was vandalised during the French Revolution, but repaired and is on display today, in 1275, Arthur married Marie, Viscountess of Limoges, daughter of Guy VI, Viscount of Limoges and Margaret, Lady of Molinot. Her maternal grandparents were Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy and his first wife Yolande of Dreux and they were parents of three children, John III, Duke of Brittany.
Guy of Brittany, Count of Penthièvre, peter of Brittany, Seigneur of Dol-Combourg and Sant-Maloù. In May,1292, Arthur married Yolande of Dreux, who was Countess of Montfort, daughter of Robert IV, Count of Dreux, Yolande had briefly been Queen Consort of Scotland by her first marriage. They were parents of seven children, John of Montfort, married Guy X, Lord of Laval. Married Robert, Count of Marle, Lord of Cassel, married Bouchard VI, Count of Vendôme, a member of the House of Montoire
The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary, and vary from country to country and era to era. There is often a variety of ranks within the noble class. g, san Marino and the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles often distinguish nobles from non-nobles, although in many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil. The term derives from Latin nobilitas, the noun of the adjective nobilis. In modern usage, nobility is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies and it rapidly came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. Nobility is a historical and often legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income. Being wealthy or influential cannot, ipso facto, make one noble, various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens.
Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se, usually privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate. Most nobles wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small and it included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although often at a price. Nobles were expected to live nobly, that is, from the proceeds of these possessions, work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. In some countries, the lord could impose restrictions on such a commoners movements. Nobles exclusively enjoyed the privilege of hunting, in France, nobles were exempt from paying the taille, the major direct tax. In some parts of Europe the right of war long remained the privilege of every noble. During the early Renaissance, duelling established the status of a respectable gentleman, Nobility came to be associated with social rather than legal privilege, expressed in a general expectation of deference from those of lower rank.
By the 21st century even that deference had become increasingly minimised, in France, a seigneurie might include one or more manors surrounded by land and villages subject to a nobles prerogatives and disposition. Seigneuries could be bought, sold or mortgaged, if erected by the crown into, e. g. a barony or countship, it became legally entailed for a specific family, which could use it as their title. Yet most French nobles were untitled, in other parts of Europe, sovereign rulers arrogated to themselves the exclusive prerogative to act as fons honorum within their realms. Nobility might be inherited or conferred by a fons honorum
Margaret of Provence
Margaret of Provence was Queen of France as the wife of King Louis IX. Margaret was born in the spring of 1221 in Forcalquier and she was the eldest of four daughters of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence, and Beatrice of Savoy. Her younger sisters were Queen Eleanor of England, Queen Sanchia of Germany and she was especially close to Eleanor, to whom she was close in age, and with whom she sustained friendly relationships until they grew old. Margaret and her father entertained the knight well, and soon Blanche was negotiating with the count of Provence, Margaret was chosen as a good match for the king more for her religious devotion and courtly manner than her beauty. She was escorted to Lyon by her parents for the treaty to be signed. From there, she was escorted to her wedding in Sens by her uncles from Savoy, William, on 27 May 1234 at the age of thirteen, Margaret became wife of Louis IX of France and queen consort of France. She was crowned the following day, the wedding and her coronation as queen were celebrated at the cathedral of Sens.
The marriage was a one in numerous aspects. Blanche still wielded strong influence over her son, and would throughout her life, as a sign of her authority, shortly after the wedding Blanche dismissed Margarets uncles and all of the servants she had brought with her from her childhood. Margaret resented Blanche and vice versa from the beginning, like her sisters, was noted for her beauty, she was said to be pretty with dark hair and fine eyes, and in the early years of their marriage she and Louis enjoyed a warm relationship. Her Franciscan confessor, William de St. Pathus, related that on cold nights Margaret would place a robe around Louis shoulders and they enjoyed riding together and listening to music. The attentions of the king and court being drawn to the new queen only made Blanche more jealous, Margaret accompanied Louis on Seventh Crusade. Though initially the crusade met with success, like the capture of Damietta in 1249, it became a disaster after the kings brother was killed. Queen Margaret was responsible for negotiations and gathering enough silver for his ransom and she was thus for a brief time the only woman ever to lead a crusade.
In 1250, while in Damietta, where she earlier in the year successfully maintained order. She convinced some of those who had been about to leave to remain in Damietta, when she realized her mistake, she burst into laughter and ordered the messenger, Tell your master evil days await him, for he has made me kneel to his camelines. However, Joinville remarked with noticeable disapproval that Louis rarely asked after his wife, Margaret could only reply that she dared not make such a vow without the kings permission, because when he discovered that she had done so, he would never let her make the pilgrimage. In the end, Joinville promised her that if she made the vow he would make the pilgrimage for her, and her leadership during the crusade had brought her international prestige and after she returned to France, Margaret was often asked to mediate disputes
Robert III, Count of Flanders
Robert III, called Robert of Béthune and nicknamed The Lion of Flanders, was the Count of Nevers from 1273 and Count of Flanders from 1305 until his death. Robert was the oldest son of Guy of Dampierre from his first marriage with Matilda of Béthune and his father essentially transferred the reign of Flanders to him in November 1299, during his war with Philip IV of France. Both father and son were taken into captivity in May 1300, Robert of Béthune gained military fame in Italy, when he fought at the side of his father-in-law, Charles I of Sicily against the last Hohenstaufens and Conradin. Together with his father he took part in 1270 in the Eighth Crusade, Guy of Dampierre broke all feudal bonds with the French king mainly under his influence. When the resistance seemed hopeless Robert allowed himself to be taken prisoner, together with his father and his brother William of Crèvecoeur, shortly before that he had become the de facto ruler of Flanders. He was locked in the castle of Chinon, contrary to popular belief, and the romantic portrayal by Hendrik Conscience in his novel about these events, he did not take part in the Battle of the Golden Spurs.
In July 1305, after his father had died in captivity, the execution of the Treaty of Athis-sur-Orge would mark the rule of Count Robert. Initially he achieved success in moving the countryside and the cities to fulfill their duties. However, in April 1310 he started to radically resist the French, with support of his subjects, both diplomatically and militarily he managed to make a stand against the French King. When he marched to Lille in 1319 the militia from Ghent refused to cross the Leie with him, when his grandson Louis I of Nevers pressured him as well, Robert gave up the battle and went to Paris in 1320 to restore feudal bonds with the French King. But even after that, he would hamper the execution of the Treaty of Athis-sur-Orge to the point of being excommunicated, Robert died in 1322 and was succeeded by his grandson, Count of Nevers and Rethel. He was buried in Flanders in Saint Martins Cathedral in Ypres and his body was only allowed to be transferred to the abbey of Flines when Lille and Douai were again part of the County of Flanders.
His first wife and his father were buried in this abbey. His first wife was Blanche, daughter of Charles I of Sicily and Beatrice of Provence and they had one son, who died young. His second wife was Yolande II, Countess of Nevers, daughter of Odo, Count of Nevers and they had five children, Louis I, Count of Nevers, married December 1290 Joan, Countess of Rethel. Their son was Louis I of Flanders, Count of Marle, married c.1323 Joan of Brittany, Lady of Nogent-le-Rotrou, daughter of Arthur II, Duke of Brittany. Their children were, Seigneur of Cassel and Yolande, married 1288 Enguerrand IV, Lord of Coucy, Viscount of Meaux. Yolande, married c.1287 Walter II of Enghien, married c.1314 Matthias of Lorraine, Lord of Warsberg
Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy
Hugh IV of Burgundy was Duke of Burgundy between 1218 and 1272. Hugh was the son of Odo III, Duke of Burgundy, Hugh married twice, first to Yolande de Dreux when he was 16 and she 17 years of age. He married Beatrice of Navarre, when he was 45. William III, in 1239, Hugh joined the Barons Crusade led by King Theobald I of Navarre and supported by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. The Burgundian troops allied with Richard of Cornwall and rebuilt Ascalon, Hugh was made titular king of Thessalonica in 1266, although it had been recaptured by the Epirus more than 40 years ago. Hugh IV died on 27 Oct 1272 at Villaines-en-Duismois, France