A Sacred Duty
A Sacred Duty: Applying Jewish values to help heal the world, is a 2007 60-minute documentary from Jewish Vegetarians of North America and produced by Lionel Friedberg. The film focuses on Jewish teachings about caring for the earth, treatment of animals, the environment, with a focus on vegetarianism. Interviews with rabbis and scholars are interspersed with footage and stills illustrating the points being discussed; the film opens with footage of a NASA rocket launch, an animation of our solar system, a quote from Deuteronomy 30:19 about choosing between life and death. This is followed by a statement that humanity has not been caring for the Earth properly according to Jewish teachings. Next comes a section about ancient Jewish texts and "sacred words" that provide "specific instructions on how to be custodians of the world in which we live." Throughout the film, quotes from the Torah, illustrated with closeups of Hebrew scrolls, Jews praying, nature scenes, will be contrasted with the various environmental threats facing humanity today.
The scene shifts once again to the Earth from space. The narrator uses that country as a microcosm of current global problems related to air and water pollution, over-population, climate change, health concerns, etc; the film moves on to look at problems globally, with scenes shot all over the world. The focus shifts to the United States where all the relevant issues are discussed in detail. Reference is made to the United Nations FAO 2006 report, Livestock's Long Shadow, which makes the claim that livestock agriculture produces more greenhouse gasses than all the world's vehicles combined. Next comes a brief presentation, illustrated with simple animated charts, on how meat production is an inefficient way to produce food for a hungry world; this moves into footage of animal abuses on feedlots and factory farms and the pollution produced by these facilities. The film focuses on the advantages of vegetarianism for reducing pollution and solving world hunger. With a change of diet toward vegetarianism, the film asserts, many of these environmental and health problems can be solved.
After some fast-moving images of people and nature accompanied by music, the film ends with the same statement from Deuteronomy about "life and death," voiced over a sunrise. Narrated by Lionel Friedberg. Biblical quotations are read by Theodore Bikel; the following people appear in the film: Chief Rabbis Rabbi Shear Yashuv Cohen—Ashkenazic Chief Rabbi of Haifa Rabbi David Rosen—Former Chief Rabbi of Ireland. C.. Yael Ukeles - Director: Derech Hateva, JerusalemActivists Dr. Joel Fuhrman, M. D. - a proponent of micro-nutrient diet. Roberta Kalechofsky - Founder and director of Jews for Animal Rights and Micah Publications. Dr. Richard H. Schwartz - Author of Judaism and Vegetarianism and president of Jewish Vegetarians of North America. Schwartz had seen the Christian Vegetarian Association's 2006 film, Honoring God's Creation, felt that a similar film would be effective in the Jewish community. At the time, he envisioned the film to be about 30 minutes long. Production began in 2005 with a basic proposal and outline in the JVNA's newsletter, along with a statement that Lionel Friedberg was willing to do it for "a low fee to cover his costs."
The film was underwritten through private contributions. Preliminary drafts of the script were circulated among members of the JVNA advisory committee and others for input and went through numerous revisions. Meanwhile and Friedberg set about interviewing possible participants and filming nature footage in both Israel and the United States; some stock footage was acquired. The showing of slaughterhouse footage was controversial; some members of a test audience in Staten Island, New York, branded it as propaganda. "Richard and I were accused of making a propaganda film for the vegetarian movement. We were accused of showing'horrors that are impossible to watch,'" Friedberg recalls, but he felt. In co
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism, is a Jewish religious group. It arose as a spiritual revival movement in contemporary Western Ukraine during the 18th century, spread throughout Eastern Europe. Today, most affiliates reside in the United States. Israel Ben Eliezer, the "Baal Shem Tov", is regarded as its founding father, his disciples developed and disseminated it. Present-day Hasidism is a sub-group within Ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is noted for its religious conservatism and social seclusion, its members adhere both to Orthodox Jewish practice – with the movement's own unique emphases – and the traditions of Eastern European Jews, so much so that many of the latter, including various special styles of dress and the use of the Yiddish language, are nowadays associated exclusively with Hasidism. Hasidic thought draws on Lurianic Kabbalah, and, to an extent, is a popularization of it. Teachings emphasize God's immanence in the universe, the need to cleave and be one with him at all times, the devotional aspect of religious practice, the spiritual dimension of corporeality and mundane acts.
Hasidim, the adherents of Hasidism, are organized in independent sects known as "courts" or dynasties, each headed by its own hereditary leader, a Rebbe. Reverence and submission to the Rebbe are key tenets, as he is considered a spiritual authority with whom the follower must bond to gain closeness to God; the various "courts" share basic convictions, but operate apart, possess unique traits and customs. Affiliation is retained in families for generations, being Hasidic is as much a sociological factor – entailing, as it does, birth into a specific community and allegiance to a dynasty of Rebbes – as it is a purely religious one. There are several "courts" with many thousands of member households each, hundreds of smaller ones; as of 2016, there were over 130,000 Hasidic households worldwide, about 5% of the global Jewish population. The terms hasid and hasidut, meaning "pietist" and "piety", have a long history in Judaism; the Talmud and other old sources refer to the "Pietists of Old" who would contemplate an entire hour in preparation for prayer.
The phrase denoted devoted individuals who not only observed the Law to its letter, but performed good deeds beyond it. Adam himself is honored with the title in tractate Eruvin 18b by Rabbi Meir: "Adam was a great hasid, having fasted for 130 years." The first to adopt the epithet collectively were the hasidim in Second Temple period Judea, known as Hasideans after the Greek rendering of their name, who served as the model for those mentioned in the Talmud. The title continued to be applied as an honorific for the exceptionally devout. In 12th-century Rhineland, or Ashkenaz in Jewish parlance, another prominent school of ascetics named themselves hasidim. In the 16th century, when Kabbalah spread, the title became associated with it. Jacob ben Hayyim Zemah wrote in his glossa on Isaac Luria's version of the Shulchan Aruch that, "One who wishes to tap the hidden wisdom, must conduct himself in the manner of the Pious." The movement founded by Israel Ben Eliezer in the 18th century adopted the term hasidim in the original connotation.
But when the sect grew and developed specific attributes, from the 1770s, the names acquired a new meaning. Its common adherents, belonging to groups each headed by a spiritual leader, were henceforth known as Hasidim; the transformation was slow: The movement was at first referred to as "New Hasidism" by outsiders to separate it from the old one, its enemies derisively mocked its members as Mithasdim, " pretend hasidim". Yet the young sect gained such a mass following that the old connotation was sidelined. In popular discourse, at least, Hasid came to denote someone who follows a religious teacher from the movement, it entered Modern Hebrew as such, meaning "adherent" or "disciple". One was not a hasid anymore, observed historian David Assaf, but a Hasid of someone or some dynasty in particular; this linguistic transformation paralleled that of the word tzaddik, "righteous", which the Hasidic leaders adopted for themselves – though they are known colloquially as Rebbes or by the honorific Admor.
Denoting an observant, moral person, in Hasidic literature tzaddik became synonymous with the hereditary master heading a sect of followers. The lengthy history of Hasidism, the numerous schools of thought therein, its use of the traditional medium of homiletic literature and sermons – comprising numerous references to earlier sources in the Pentateuch and exegesis as a means to grounding oneself in tradition – as the sole channel to convey its ideas, all made the isolation of a common doctrine challenging to researchers; as noted by Joseph Dan, "Every attempt to present such a body of ideas has failed". Motifs presented by scholars in the past as unique Hasidic contributions were revealed to have been common among both their predecessors and opponents, all the more so regarding many other traits that are extant – these play, Dan added, "a prominent role in modern non-Hasidic and anti-Hasidic writings as well"; the difficulty of separating the movement's philosophy from that of its main inspiration, Lurianic Kabbalah, determining what was novel and what a recapitulation baffled historians.
Some, like Louis Jacobs, regarded the early masters as innovators who introduced "much, new if only by emphasis".
An electronic book known as an e-book or eBook, is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices. Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a printed book", some e-books exist without a printed equivalent. E-books can be read on dedicated e-reader devices, but on any computer device that features a controllable viewing screen, including desktop computers, laptops and smartphones. In the 2000s, there was a trend of print and e-book sales moving to the Internet, where readers buy traditional paper books and e-books on websites using e-commerce systems. With print books, readers are browsing through images of the covers of books on publisher or bookstore websites and selecting and ordering titles online. With e-books, users can browse through titles online, when they select and order titles, the e-book can be sent to them online or the user can download the e-book.
At the start of 2012 in the U. S. more e-books were published online. The main reasons for people buying e-books online are lower prices, increased comfort and a larger selection of titles. With e-books, "lectronic bookmarks make referencing easier, e-book readers may allow the user to annotate pages." "Although fiction and non-fiction books come in e-book formats, technical material is suited for e-book delivery because it can be searched" for keywords. In addition, for programming books, code examples can be copied; the amount of e-book reading is increasing in the U. S.. This is increasing, because by 2014 50% of American adults had an e-reader or a tablet, compared to 30% owning such devices in 2013. E-books are referred to as "ebooks", "eBooks", "Ebooks", "e-Books", "e-journals", "e-editions" or as "digital books"; the devices that are designed for reading e-books are called "e-readers", "ebook device" or "eReaders". Some trace the idea of an e-reader that would enable a reader to view books on a screen to a 1930 manifesto by Bob Brown, written after watching his first "talkie".
He titled it The Readies, playing off the idea of the "talkie". In his book, Brown says movies have outmaneuvered the book by creating the "talkies" and, as a result, reading should find a new medium: “A simple reading machine which I can carry or move around, attach to any old electric light plug and read hundred-thousand-word novels in 10 minutes if I want to, I want to.” Brown's notion, was much more focused on reforming orthography and vocabulary, than on medium: introducing huge numbers of portmanteau symbols to replace normal words, punctuation to simulate action or movement. E-readers never followed a model at all like Brown's. Brown predicted the miniaturization and portability of e-readers. In an article, Jennifer Schuessler writes, "The machine, Brown argued, would allow readers to adjust the type size, avoid paper cuts and save trees, all while hastening the day when words could be'recorded directly on the palpitating ether.'" He felt the e-reader should bring a new life to reading.
Schuessler relates it to a DJ spinning bits of old songs to create a beat or an new song as opposed to just a remix of a familiar song. The inventor of the first e-book is not agreed upon; some notable candidates include the following: In 1949, Ángela Ruiz Robles, a teacher from Ferrol, patented the Enciclopedia Mecánica, or the Mechanical Encyclopedia, a mechanical device which operated on compressed air where text and graphics were contained on spools that users would load onto rotating spindles. Her idea was to create a device which would decrease the number of books that her pupils carried to school; the final device would include audio recordings, a magnifying glass, a calculator and an electric light for night reading. Her device was never put into production but one of her prototypes is kept in the National Museum of Science and Technology in La Coruna, Spain; the first e-book may be the Index Thomisticus, a annotated electronic index to the works of Thomas Aquinas, prepared by Roberto Busa, S.
J. beginning in 1949 and completed in the 1970s. Although stored on a single computer, a distributable CD-ROM version appeared in 1989. However, this work is sometimes omitted. In 2005, the Index was published online. Alternatively, some historians consider electronic books to have started in the early 1960s, with the NLS project headed by Doug Engelbart at Stanford Research Institute, the Hypertext Editing System and FRESS projects headed by Andries van Dam at Brown University. FRESS documents were structure-oriented rather than line-oriented. All these systems provided extensive hyperlinking and other capabilities. Van Dam is thought to have coined the term "electronic book", it was established enough to use in an article title by 1985. FRESS was used for reading extensive primary texts on
Breslov (Hasidic group)
Breslov is a branch of Hasidic Judaism founded by Rebbe Nachman of Breslov, a great-grandson of the Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidism. Its adherents strive to develop an intense, joyous relationship with God and receive guidance toward this goal from the teachings of Rebbe Nachman; the movement has had no central, living leader for the past 200 years, as Rebbe Nachman did not designate a successor. As such, they are sometimes referred to as the טויטער חסידים, since they have never had another formal Rebbe since Nachman's death. However, certain groups and communities under the Breslov banner refer to their leaders as "Rebbe"; the movement weathered strong opposition from all other Hasidic movements in Ukraine throughout the 19th century, yet at the same time experienced growth in numbers of followers from Ukraine, Belarus and Poland. By World War I, thousands of Breslov Hasidim were located in those places. After the Bolshevik Revolution, Communist crackdowns forced the movement underground in Russia.
Thousands of Hasidim were imprisoned or executed during the Great Purge of the 1930s, killed by Nazis who invaded Ukraine in 1941. The movement was regenerated in the United Kingdom, United States, Israel by those who escaped, with large numbers of Yemenite Jews and other Mizrahim joining the sect. "Breslov" is the name used nowadays by Breslover followers for the town of Bratslav, where Rebbe Nachman lived for the last eight years of his life. Bratslav is located on the Bug river in Ukraine, midway between Tulchin to the south and Nemirov to the north—9 miles from each. Bratslav should not be confused with Wrocław, a town now located in Poland, called in German "Breslau", pronounced "Breslov" in Yiddish, a renowned Jewish center in its own right. Prior to his arrival in Breslov in 1802, Rebbe Nachman lived and taught in other towns in Ukraine such as Ossatin, Moheilov and Odessa, but upon his arrival in Breslov he declared, "Today we have planted the name of the Breslover Hasidim. This name will never disappear, because my followers will always be called after the town of Breslov."Later, followers said the name of the town dovetailed with the Rebbe's teachings.
He encouraged Jews to remove the barriers that stood between themselves and a closer relationship with God. They noted that the Hebrew letters of the word Breslov can be rearranged to spell lev basar, "a heart of flesh"—echoing the prophecy in Ezekiel: "I will take away your heart of stone and give you a heart of flesh." (For this reason, some adherents spell the name of the Hasidut, "Breslev", stressing the lev. Contemporary Breslov teacher Rabbi Shmuel Moshe Kramer of Jerusalem noted that the gematria of the Hebrew letters of Breslov is 294, as is the Hebrew spelling of Nachman ben Faiga —the names of Rebbe Nachman and his mother; the Breslov approach places great emphasis on serving God through the sincerity of the heart, with much joy and living life as intensely as possible. Breslov teachings emphasize emunah as a means to teshuvah, that every Jew on any level of Divine service is required to yearn to return to God, no matter how high or low he or she is situated on the spiritual echelon.
Breslover Hasidim see the study and fulfillment of Torah life as the means to a joyful existence, their approach to worship is personalized and emotional, with much clapping and dancing. Rabbi Nachman said, "It is a great mitzvah to always be happy". In this same lesson, he notes that leading intellectuals in the medical field will attest to depression and bitterness being the main cause of most mental and physical ailments. Rebbe Nachman placed great emphasis on Jewish prayer. Besides the regular daily services in the synagogue, Rebbe Nachman advised his followers to engage in hitbodedut, on a daily basis. Rebbe Nachman claimed that every true tzaddik attained his lofty spiritual level uniquely because of hitbodedut; the Rebbe explained that hitbodedut is the loftiest form of Divine service, that it is impossible to be a good Jew without this practice. During hitbodedut, the individual pours out his thoughts and concerns to God in his mother tongue, as if talking to a close personal friend; the goal is to establish complete unification with God and a clearer understanding of one's personal motives and goals.
A sub-group of the Breslov sect, colloquially known as Na Nachs, use the Na Nach Nachma Nachman Meuman mantra, based on a permutation of the Hebrew letters of Rebbe Nachman's name. This mantra was not used by Rebbe Nachman himself, but was taught in the 20th century by Rabbi Yisroel Ber Odesser; the NaNach movement however is controversial within the wider Breslov Chassidus as they place less emphasis on learning traditional Jewish texts such as the Talmud and for their wild dancing in the streets. Rabbi Nachman always maintained that his high spiritual level was due to his own efforts and not to his famous lineage or any other circumstances of his birth, he insisted that all Jews could reach the same level as he, disagreed with those who thought that the main reason for a Rebbe's greatness was the superior level of his soul. Another Breslov practice is the annual Rosh Hashanah kibbutz, a large gathering at the grave of Rabbi Nachman in Uman, Ukraine on the Jewish New Year. Rabbi Nachman himself said: "My Rosh Hashana is greater than everything.
I cannot understand how it is that if my followers belie
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2017, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and 45th-largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 422,331; the Twin Cities metropolitan area consists of Minneapolis, its neighbor Saint Paul, suburbs which altogether contain about 3.6 million people, is the third-largest economic center in the Midwest. Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital; the city is abundantly rich in water, with 13 lakes, the Mississippi River and waterfalls. It was once a hub for timber; the city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Seattle. In 2011, Minneapolis proper was home to the fifth-highest number of Fortune 500 headquarters in the United States; as an integral link to the global economy, Minneapolis is categorized as a global city.
Minneapolis has one of the largest LGBT populations in the U. S. proportional to its overall population. Noted for its strong music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. Reflecting the region's status as an epicenter of folk and alternative rock music, the city served as the launching pad for several of the 20th century's most influential musicians, including Bob Dylan and Prince. Minneapolis has become noted for its underground and independent hip-hop and rap scenes, producing artists such as Brother Ali and Dessa; the name Minneapolis is attributed to Charles Hoag, the city's first schoolmaster, who combined mni, a Dakota Sioux word for water, polis, the Greek word for city. Descendants of first peoples, Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents when French explorers arrived in 1680. For a time, amicable relations were based on fur trading. More European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Native Americans.
After the Revolutionary War, Great Britain granted the land east of the Mississippi to the United States. In the early 19th century, the United States acquired land to the west from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Fort Snelling, just south of present-day Minneapolis, was built in 1819 by the United States Army, it attracted traders and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, allowing people arriving from the East to settle there. Preoccupied with the Civil War, the United States government reneged on its promises of cash payments to the Dakota, resulting in hunger, the Dakota War of 1862, internment and hardship; the Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town in 1856, on the Mississippi's west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the year rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago, it joined with the east-bank city of St. Anthony in 1872. Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River and a source of power for its early industry.
Forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, mills for cotton, paper and planing wood. Due to the occupational hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s; the farmers of the Great Plains grew grain, shipped by rail to the city's 34 flour mills. Millers have used hydropower elsewhere since the 1st century B. C. but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were so remarkable the city has been described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has seen." A father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Washburn converted his business from gristmills to revolutionary technology, including "gradual reduction" processing by steel and porcelain roller mills capable of producing premium-quality pure white flour quickly.
Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from Hungary by William de la Barre. Charles A. Pillsbury and the C. A. Pillsbury Company across the river were a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to use the new methods; the hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable, Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best in the world. Not until did consumers discover the value in the bran that "... Minneapolis flour millers dumped" into the Mississippi. After 1883, a Minneapolis miller started a new industry when he began to sell bran byproduct as animal feed. Millers cultivated relationships with academic scientists at the University of Minnesota; those scientists backed them politically on many issues, such as in the early 20th century when health advocates in the nascent field of nutrition criticized the flour "bleaching" process. At peak production, a single mill at Washburn-Crosby made enough flour for 12 million loaves of bread each day.
Further, by 1895, through the efforts of silent partner William Hood Dunwoody, Washburn-Crosby exported four
Nachman of Breslov
Nachman of Breslov known as Reb Nachman of Bratslav, Reb Nachman Breslover, Nachman from Uman, was the founder of the Breslov Hasidic movement. Rebbe Nachman, a great-grandson of the Baal Shem Tov, revived the Hasidic movement by combining the esoteric secrets of Judaism with in-depth Torah scholarship, he attracted thousands of followers during his lifetime, his influence continues today through many Hasidic movements such as Breslov Hasidism. Rebbe Nachman's religious philosophy revolved around closeness to God and speaking to God in normal conversation "as you would with a best friend." The concept of hitbodedut is central to his thinking. Rebbe Nachman was born on April 4, 1772 in the town of Międzybóż, in the Podolia region of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and, now in Ukraine. In the same year, the First Partition of Poland was agreed on, the region and surrounding ones were taken over by the Russian Empire. Rebbe Nachman's mother, was the daughter of Adil, daughter of the Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidic Judaism.
His father Simcha was the son of Rabbi Nachman of Horodenka, one of the Baal Shem Tov's disciples, after whom Rebbe Nachman was named. Rebbe Nachman had two brothers, Yechiel Zvi and Yisroel Mes, a sister, Perel. Rebbe Nachman told his disciples that as a small child, he avoided the pleasures of this world and set his sights on spirituality, he paid his melamed three extra coins for every page of Talmud that he taught him, beyond the fee that his father was paying the teacher, to encourage the teacher to cover more material. From the age of six, he would go out at night to pray at the grave of his great-grandfather, the Baal Shem Tov, immerse in the mikveh afterward. At the age of 13, he married Sashia, daughter of Rabbi Ephraim, moved to his father-in-law's house in Ossatin, he acquired his first disciple on his wedding day, a young man named Shimon, several years older than he was. He continued to attract new followers in the Medvedevka region in the years that followed. In 1798–1799 he traveled to the Land of Israel, where he was received with honor by the Hasidim living in Haifa and Safed.
In Tiberias, his influence brought about a reconciliation between the Lithuanian and Volhynian Hasidim. Shortly before Rosh Hashana 1800, Rebbe Nachman moved to the town of Zlatopol; the townspeople invited him to have the final word on who would lead the Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur prayer services. The man chosen to lead Neilah, the final prayer service of Yom Kippur, did not meet the Rebbe's approval; the man was struck dumb and forced to step down, to his great embarrassment. After the fast ended, Rebbe Nachman spoke in a light-hearted way about what the man's true intentions had been, the man was so incensed that he denounced Rebbe Nachman to Rabbi Aryeh Leib of Shpola, known as the "Shpoler Zeide", a prominent Hasidic rabbi and early disciple of Rabbi Pinchas of Koretz, a leading figure in the first generation of Hasidut, thus began the Shpoler Zeide's vehement campaign against Breslov Hasidism. During this time he visited many synagogues, including the Great Synagogue in Dubno in Volhynia, with the largest one in Ukraine and the graves of relatives in the same city.
In 1802, Rebbe Nachman moved to the town of Bratslav known as "Breslov" and "Bracław". Here he declared, ``; this name will never disappear, because my followers will always be called after the town of Breslov."His move to the town of Breslov brought him into contact with Nathan Sternhartz, a 22-year-old Torah scholar in the nearby town of Nemirov, eight miles north of Breslov. Over the next eight years, Reb Noson became his foremost disciple and scribe, recording all of Rebbe Nachman's formal lessons as well as transcribing the Rebbe's magnum opus, Likutey Moharan. After Rebbe Nachman's death, Reb Noson recorded all the informal conversations he and other disciples had had with the Rebbe, published all of Rebbe Nachman's works as well as his own commentaries on them. Rebbe Nachman and his wife Sashia had two sons. Two daughters died within a year and a half of their births, their surviving children were Adil, Sarah and Chayah. Sashia died of tuberculosis on June 11, 1807, the eve of Shavuot, was buried in Zaslov just before the festival began.
The following month, Rebbe Nachman became engaged to a woman from Brody whose father was the wealthy Joshua Trachtenberg. Right after the engagement, Rebbe Nachman contracted tuberculosis. In May 1810, a fire broke out in Bratslav. A group of maskilim living in Uman invited him to live in their town, provided housing for him as his illness worsened. Many years before, Rebbe Nachman had passed through Uman and told his disciples, "This is a good place to be buried." He was referring to the cemetery where 2000 Jewish martyrs of the Haidamak Massacre of Uman of 1768 were buried. Rebbe Nachman died of tuberculosis at the age of 38 on the fourth day of Sukkot 1810, was buried in that cemetery. During the Rebbe's lifetime, thousands of Hasidim traveled to be with him for the Jewish holidays of Rosh Hashana, Chanuka, an