2018 Winter Olympics
The 2018 Winter Olympics known as the XXIII Olympic Winter Games and known as PyeongChang 2018, was an international winter multi-sport event, held between 9 and 25 February 2018 in Pyeongchang County, Gangwon Province, South Korea, with the opening rounds for certain events held on 8 February 2018, the eve of the opening ceremony. Pyeongchang was elected as the host city in July 2011, during the 123rd IOC Session in Durban, South Africa; this was the first time that South Korea had hosted the Winter Olympics and the second Olympics held in the country overall, after the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. It was the third time that an East Asian country had hosted the Winter Games, after Sapporo and Nagano, both in Japan, it was the first of three consecutive Olympics to be held in East Asia, the other two being the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo and the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing. The Games featured 102 events over fifteen disciplines in seven sports, with the addition of "big air" snowboarding, mass start speed skating, mixed doubles curling, mixed team alpine skiing to the Winter Olympic programme.
2,914 athletes from 92 NOCs competed, including the debuts of Ecuador, Kosovo, Malaysia and Singapore. After a state-sponsored doping program was exposed following the 2014 Winter Olympics, the Russian Olympic Committee was suspended, selected athletes were allowed to compete neutrally under the IOC designation of "Olympic Athletes from Russia". Despite tense relations, North Korea agreed to participate in the Games, enter with South Korea during the opening ceremony as a unified Korea, field a unified team in women's ice hockey. Norway led the total medal tally with 39, followed by Germany's 31 and Canada's 29. Germany and Norway were tied for the most gold medals won. Host nation South Korea won seventeen medals, their highest medal haul at a Winter Olympics, five of which were gold. Pyeongchang bid to host both the 2010 and 2014 Winter Olympics, but lost in the final rounds of voting to Vancouver and Sochi respectively. Munich launched a bid to host these Games. Prior to Beijing's successful 2022 Winter Olympics bid, Munich would have become the first city to host both the Winter and the Summer Games, having hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics, but received only 25 votes.
Annecy launched their own bid, which failed to secure public support from the local citizens. Their bid ended up receiving seven votes. Pyeongchang was elected as the host city at the 123rd IOC Session in Durban in 2011, earning the necessary majority of at least 48 votes in just one round of voting, more votes than its competitors combined. With this, Pyeongchang became the third Asian city to host the Winter Games. On 5 August 2011, the International Olympic Committee announced the formation of the Pyeongchang 2018 Coordination Commission. On 4 October 2011, it was announced that the Organizing Committee for the 2018 Winter Olympics would be headed by Kim Jin-sun; the Pyeongchang Organizing Committee for the 2018 Olympic & Paralympic Winter Games was launched at its inaugural assembly on 19 October 2011. The first tasks of the organizing committee were putting together a master plan for the Games as well as forming a design for the venues; the IOC Coordination Commission for the 2018 Winter Olympics made their first visit to Pyeongchang in March 2012.
By construction was underway on the Olympic Village. In June 2012, construction began on a high-speed rail line; the International Paralympic Committee met for an orientation with the Pyeongchang 2018 organizing committee in July 2012. Then-IOC President Jacques Rogge visited Pyeongchang for the first time in February 2013; the Pyeongchang Organizing Committee for the 2018 Olympic & Paralympic Winter Games created Pyeongchang WINNERS in 2014 by recruiting university students living in South Korea to spread awareness of the Olympic Games through social networking services and news articles. The design for the Games' medals was unveiled on 21 September 2017. Created by Lee Suk-woo, the design features a pattern of diagonal ridges on both sides, with the Olympic rings on the front, the obverse showing the 2018 Olympics' emblem, the event name and the discipline; the edge of each medal is marked with extrusions of hangul alphabets, while the ribbons are made from a traditional South Korean textile.
The torch relay started on 24 October 2017 in Greece and ended at the start of the Olympics on 9 February 2018. On 1 November 2017 the relay entered Korea; the relay lasted 101 days. There were 7,500 torch bearers. There were 2,018 support runners to guard the torch and act as messengers; the torch and its bearers traveled by a diverse means of transportation, including by turtle ship in Hansando Island, sailboat on the Baengmagang River in Buyeo, marine cable car in Yeosu, zip-wire over Bamseom Island, steam train in the Gokseong Train Village, marine rail bike along the east coast in Samcheok, by yacht in Busan Metropolitan City. There were robot torch relays in Jeju and Daejeon. Most of the outdoor snow events were held in the county of Pyeongchang, while the downhill and super-G events in the Alpine skiing were held in the neighboring county of Jeongseon; the indoor ice events were held in the nearby city of Gangneung. The Alpensia Sports Park in Daegwallyeong-myeon, was the focus of the 2018 Winter Olympics.
It was home to the Olympic Village and most of the outdoor sports venues. Alpensia Ski Jumping Centre – ski jumping, Nordic co
Sun Myung Moon
Sun Myung Moon was a Korean religious leader known for his business ventures and support for political causes. A messiah claimant, he was the founder of the Unification movement, of its noted "Blessing" or mass wedding ceremony, the author of its unique theology the Divine Principle, he was an opponent of communism and an advocate for Korean reunification, for which he was recognized by the governments of both North and South Korea. Businesses he promoted included News World Communications, an international news media corporation known for its American subsidiary The Washington Times, Tongil Group, a South Korean business group, as well as various related organizations. Moon was born in; when he was a child, his family converted to Christianity. In 1947 he was convicted by the North Korean government of spying for South Korea and given a five-year sentence to the Hŭngnam labor camp. In 1954, he founded the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity in Seoul, South Korea based on conservative, family-oriented teachings from new interpretations of the Bible.
In 1971, he moved to the United States and became well known after giving a series of public speeches on his beliefs. In the 1982 case United States v. Sun Myung Moon he was found guilty of willfully filing false federal income tax returns and sentenced to 18 months in federal prison, his case generated protests from clergy and civil libertarians, who said that the trial was biased against him. Moon was criticized for making high demands of his followers, his wedding ceremonies drew criticism after they involved members of other churches, including Roman Catholic archbishop Emmanuel Milingo. He was criticized for his relationships with political and religious figures, including U. S. Presidents Richard Nixon, George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, North Korean President Kim Il Sung, Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. Sun Myung Moon was born Moon Yong Myeong on 25 February 1920, in modern-day North P'yŏng'an Province, North Korea, at a time when Korea was under Japanese rule.
He was the younger of two sons in a farming family of eight children. Moon's family followed Confucianist beliefs until he was around 10 years old, when they converted to Christianity and joined the Presbyterian Church. In 1941, Moon began studying electrical engineering at Waseda University in Japan. During this time he cooperated with Communist Party members in the Korean independence movement against Imperial Japan. In 1943, he returned to Seoul and married Sun Kil Choi on 28 April 1945. On 2 April 1946 Sung Jin Moon was born. In the 1940s, Moon attended a church in Sangdo dong, led by the messianic minister Baek Moon Kim, who claimed that he had been given by Jesus the mission to spread the message of a "new Israel" throughout the world. Around this time Moon changed his given name to Sun Myung. Following World War II, Korea was divided along the 38th parallel into two trusteeships: the United States and the Soviet Union. Pyongyang was the center of Christian activity in Korea until 1945. From the late forties 166 priests and other religious figures were killed or disappeared in concentration camps, including Francis Hong Yong-ho, bishop of Pyongyang and all monks of Tokwon abbey.
In 1947 Moon was convicted by the North Korean government of spying for South Korea and given a five-year sentence to the Hŭngnam labor camp. In 1950, during the Korean War United Nations troops had raided Hŭngnam and the guards fled. Moon traveled to Busan, South Korea. Moon emerged from his years in the labor camp as a staunch anti-communist, his teachings viewed the Cold War between democracy and communism as the final conflict between God and Satan, with divided Korea as its primary front line. In 1954, Moon formally founded the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity in Seoul, he drew young acolytes who helped to build the foundations of church affiliated business and cultural organizations. At his new church, he preached a conservative, family-oriented value system and his interpretation of the Bible. On 8 January 1957, Choi divorced. Moon has said that when he was fifteen years old Jesus anointed him to carry out his unfinished work by becoming parent to all of humanity.
The Divine Principle or Exposition of the Divine Principle is the main theological textbook of the Unification movement. It was co-written by Moon and early disciple Hyo Won Eu and first published in 1966. A translation entitled Divine Principle was published in English in 1973; the book lays out the core of Unification theology, is held to have the status of scripture by believers. Following the format of systematic theology, it includes God's purpose in creating human beings, the fall of man, restoration – the process through history by which God is working to remove the ill effects of the fall and restore humanity back to the relationship and position that God intended. God is viewed as the creator, whose nature combines both masculinity and femininity, is the source of all truth and goodness. Human beings and the universe reflect God's personality and purpose. "Give-and-take action" and "subject and object position" are "key interpretive concepts", the self is designed to be God's object.
The purpose of human existence is to return joy to God. The "four-position foundation" is "another important and interpretive concept", a
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games and does not utilize a standardized playing area, coping with the varied terrains encountered on different courses is a key part of the game; the game at the usual level is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes, though recreational courses can be smaller having 9 holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, a putting green containing the actual hole or cup 4 1⁄4 inches in diameter. There are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, rough and various hazards but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Golf is played for the lowest number of strokes by an individual, known as stroke play, or the lowest score on the most individual holes in a complete round by an individual or team, known as match play. Stroke play is the most seen format at all levels, but most at the elite level.
The modern game of golf originated in 15th century Scotland. The 18-hole round was created at the Old Course at St Andrews in 1764. Golf's first major, the world's oldest tournament in existence, is The Open Championship known as the British Open, first played in 1860 in Ayrshire, Scotland; this is one of the four major championships in men's professional golf, the other three being played in the United States: The Masters, the U. S. Open, the PGA Championship. While the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the game's ancient origins are unclear and much debated; some historians trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, in which participants used a bent stick to hit a stuffed leather ball. One theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, evolved into the modern game. Others cite chuiwan as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and fourteenth centuries. A Ming Dynasty scroll dating back to 1368 entitled "The Autumn Banquet" shows a member of the Chinese Imperial court swinging what appears to be a golf club at a small ball with the aim of sinking it into a hole.
The game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages. Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as chambot in France; the Persian game chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven was played annually in Loenen, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier; the modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James II's banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery. James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503–1504: "For golf clubbes and balles to the King that he playit with". To many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes. Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records.
The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, played at Leith, Scotland. The world's oldest golf tournament in existence, golf's first major, is The Open Championship, first played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf Club, in Ayrshire, with Scottish golfers winning the earliest majors. Two Scotsmen from Dunfermline, John Reid and Robert Lockhart, first demonstrated golf in the U. S. by setting up a hole in an orchard in 1888, with Reid setting up America's first golf club the same year, Saint Andrew's Golf Club in Yonkers, New York. A golf course consists of either 9 or 18 holes, each with a teeing ground, set off by two markers showing the bounds of the legal tee area, fairway and other hazards, the putting green surrounded by the fringe with the pin and cup; the levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green. While many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right.
This is called a "dogleg", in reference to a dog's knee. The hole is called a "dogleg left" if the hole angles leftwards and "dogleg right" if it bends right. Sometimes, a hole's direction may bend twice. A regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes. Early Scottish golf courses were laid out on links land, soil-covered sand dunes directly inland from beaches; this gave rise to the term "golf links" applied to seaside courses and those built on sandy soil inland. The first 18-hole golf course in the United States was on a sheep farm in Downers Grove, Illinois, in 1892; the course is still there today. Every round of golf is based on playing a number of holes in a given order. A "round" consists of 18 holes that are played in the order determined by the course layout; each hole is played once in the round on a standard course of 18 holes. The game can be played by any number of people, although a typ
Alpensia Ski Jumping Stadium
Alpensia Ski Jumping Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium located at Alpensia Resort in Pyeongchang, South Korea. It hosted the ski jumping and the nordic combined events during the 2018 Winter Olympics, operates as an association football venue by using its landing area as the pitch; the stadium hosted the nordic combined events at the 2018 Winter Olympics. The stadium holds a maximum of 13,500 spectators, was built in 2008. 2018 Winter Olympics, Alpensia Ski Jumping Stadium Page
Song Hye-kyo is a South Korean actress. She gained Asia-wide popularity through her leading roles in television dramas Autumn in My Heart, All In, Full House, That Winter, the Wind Blows, Descendants of the Sun and Encounter, her film work includes The Grandmaster, My Brilliant Life and The Queens. In 2017, she ranked 7th in Forbes magazine's Korea Power Celebrity list, 6th in 2018; the success of Song's television dramas internationally established her as a top Hallyu star. When Song was born, she was sick and her parents and doctors thought that she would not survive. Upon her recovery, Song's parents registered her birth on February 26, 1982. Song's parents divorced when she was a young girl, she was raised by her mother, they moved from her birthplace in Daegu to the Gangnam District in Seoul, where she trained as a figure skater in elementary school, but quit when she was in the eighth grade. Though Song considered herself shy and introverted, she was described by her high school teacher as having a "cheerful character, she mixed well with her friends and was always in a bright mood."
Song Hye-kyo attended college at Sejong University. In 1996, the 14-year-old Song a third-year junior high school student, won first place in the SunKyung Smart Model Contest, she made her entertainment debut as a model for the school uniform company; this led to her being cast in a small role in First Love. She would continue to appear in a string of various dramas and sitcoms, notably Soonpoong Clinic, but it wasn't until the KBS drama Autumn in My Heart in 2000 with Song Seung-heon and Won Bin that she rose to fame in Korea and throughout Asia. The romantic melodrama series was a ratings success, pioneering a trend in Korean melodramatic series and launching a fever, referred to as the "Korean Wave" and leading to Song becoming a Hallyu star. In 2003, her popularity continued to climb when she played a leading role alongside Lee Byung-hun in the gambling drama All In, which drew solid viewership ratings nationwide throughout its run with a peak viewer rating of 47.7 percent. The following year, she co-starred with singer Rain in the hit romantic comedy series Full House.
The drama achieved pan-Asia success and established Song as one of the most well-known Korean actress in Asia. Early 2005, Song went to San Francisco to study English, traveled to Seattle. Song took time off to recharge herself after the successful Asia drama Full House. "I have had a good rest. It was a good opportunity to reflect on myself," said Song. Song returned to Korea on March 5, 2005; the same year, Song made her big-screen debut in My Girl and I, panned by audiences and critics alike. Vocal about her dissatisfaction with typecasting in the roles she was being offered, Song proved in the following year that she took on different roles, she returned to the big-screen in 2007, as the titular gisaeng in the film adaptation of Hwang Jin Yi. Because they found Song's image "too cute," Jun Ji-hyun and Soo Ae were the producers' original choices for the role, but Song went on a rigorous diet and surprised them with her will and desire to be Hwang Jini. A year she made her American debut in the Hollywood indie Make Yourself at Home, a psychological thriller about a girl, born to a shaman mother and tries to flee her fate by becoming an immigrant bride in the U.
S. Despite Song's attempts to challenge herself, both films underwhelmed at the box office, she made her TV comeback in late 2008 with The World That They Live In, a series set at a broadcast station in which Song and Hyun Bin played drama PDs who work together and fall in love. In 2010, she starred in Camellia, an omnibus pic made up of three short films directed by three Asian directors; each episode is set in the past and future of the city of Busan. In the film's final segment Love for Sale and Kang Dong-won played former lovers who forget their memories about each other which leads them to a fatal destiny. Considered one of Korea's most beautiful women, in early 2011 Song released the photobook Song Hye-kyo's Moment, shot by top photographers in Atlanta, New York City, Buenos Aires, Paris, the Netherlands and Brazil. Proceeds from the sales of the photo book was donated to a children's foundation. Song played a documentary filmmaker who finds the strength to forgive the 17-year-old boy who killed her fiancé but instead of redemption finds only greater tragedy in A Reason to Live, which after several delays was released in October 2011.
Song was a huge fan of director Lee Jeong-hyang and had sought her out, though she had difficulty getting into character, Song said she fell in love with the script and felt her acting had matured. She considers the film "a turning point" in her life. In 2011, she became the first Asian actress to sign a contract with French global agency Effigies, paving the way for her possible entry into the European market, she released. Song played a supporting role in The Grandmaster, Chinese director Wong Kar-wai's biographical film about Bruce Lee's kung fu master Ip Man, for which she learned Cantonese and martial arts, she admitted there had been "a bit of friction and misunderstanding" with Wong while filming, but that the difficulties helped her mature. Song reunited with the writer and director of Worlds Within in That Winter, the Wind Blows, a 2013 remake of 2002 Japanese drama Ai Nante Irane Yo, Natsu
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n