Namangan is a city in eastern Uzbekistan. It is the administrative and cultural center of Namangan Region. Namangan is located in the northern edge of the Fergana Valley, less than 30 km from the Kyrgyzstan border; the city is served by Namangan Airport. Namangan has been an important trade center in the Fergana Valley since the 17th century. A large number of factories were built in the city during Soviet times. During World War II, industrial production in Namangan increased fivefold compared with that of 1926-1927. Namangan is a center for light industry in food; the registered population of the city was 475,700 in 2014. Uzbeks are the largest ethnic group; the city takes its name from the local salt mines. Babur mentioned the village of Namangan in his memoirs Baburnama. In his book A brief History of the Khanate of Kokand, the Russian ethnographer Vladimir Petrovich Nalivkin wrote that Namangan is mentioned in legal documents dating back to 1643. Namangan, like many other cities in the Fergana valley, was populated by Sogdian people, although it became a Persian speaking city.
An influx of Turkic-speaking people into the region, starting in late medieval times, led to turkification. While Namangan still had a Tajik majority until the middle of the 19th century, identification of its residents with Turkic rather than Iranian cultures has increased. By the late 20th century, most residents of Namangan speak Uzbek, albeit with a significant Tajik-speaking minority. Politically, Namangan became a part of the Uyghur Empire of the Karakhanid State and was known to have been a settlement in the 15th century; the residents of the ancient city of Akhsikat, damaged by an earthquake, moved to the then-village of Namangan in 1610. Namangan became a city afterward. On the eve of the Russian invasion in 1867, the town had been a part of the Khanate of Kokand since the middle of the 18th century. Namangan was hit by a destructive earthquake in 1926 which killed 34 people, injured 72, destroyed 4,850 houses. Since Uzbekistan's independence in 1991, Namangan has gained a reputation for Islamic revivalism, with many mosques and schools funded by organizations from Middle Eastern countries, including the extremist Wahhabi sect from Saudi Arabia that produced jihadist terrorists like Juma Namangani who fought and died in support of the Afghan Taliban and the Al Qaeda.
This has translated into political opposition against the secular government of Uzbekistan. Some women have discarded traditional colorful scarves for large white veils or the black paranja. Namangan is located 450 metres above sea level; the Qoradaryo and Naryn Rivers join together to form the Syr Darya just outside the southern edge of the city. By road Namangan is 290 kilometres east of Tashkent, 68.5 kilometres west of Andijan, 40.4 kilometres east of Chust. Namangan has a cold semi-arid climate with hot summers; the average July temperature is 26.3 °C. The mean temperature in January is −2.3 °C. Namangan is Uzbekistan's third-largest city by population; the population of Namangan was 475,700 in 2014. Uzbeks and Tajiks are the largest ethnic groups. Namangan has been an important trade center in the Fergana Valley since the 17th century. After annexation by the Russians in 1867, cotton production and food processing became the dominant economic activity, as it did in many other places in the country.
A large number of factories were built in the city during Soviet times. During World War II, industrial production in Namangan increased fivefold compared with that of 1926-1927. After the war both light and heavy industries increased significantly. Namangan is a center for light industry in food. There are over 400 small and medium enterprises in the city. There are three higher education institutions in Namangan city — Namangan State University, Namangan Engineering Pedagogical Institute, Namangan Engineering Technological Institute. Namangan State University is the largest and highest ranked of the three; the city is home to ten colleges, two vocational schools, four academic lyceums, 51 general education schools. The Mulla Kyrgyz Madrasa was built in 1912 by a local cotton magnate; the Mosque of Ota Valikhan Tura, built in 1918, is one of the largest in Central Asia, now home to a local branch of the Wahabi sect. Olmos city is has beem accepted to among of landmarks of Namangan city; the Namangan Natural History Museum houses local archaeological finds.
The Hadja Amin Kabri Architectural Complex has an ornate terra-cotta façade dating from the 18th or 19th century. About 25 kilometres west of Namangan are the Akhsikat ruins, a 1st-century settlement on the Syr-Darya River. Capital of the Fergana Valley, it was destroyed by the Mongols, rebuilt by the Timurids, abandoned in 1620 after an earthquake. Namangan is served by Namangan Airport, located 12 km from the city center; the city is served by a railway station, built in 1912. Trolleybuses and buses operated in Namangan from 1973 until 2010, they have been replaced by public vans. Mashrab — an influential Sufi poet. Boborahim Mashrab was born in 1657, he went to Qashqar and increased his knowledge u
Delighted by You
Delighted by You is a 1958 black-and-white Uzbek musical/comedy produced by Yoʻldosh Aʼzamov. Maftuningman is the first Uzbek comedy and is considered to be one of the greatest Uzbek films of all time. Maftuningman depicts many interesting aspects of Uzbek life in Soviet kolkhozes; the movie tells the story of two filmmakers seeking talented people for acting in a musical entitled Maftuningman. One of the filmmakers travels to different parts of the Uzbek SSR in search of potential actors. Wherever he goes he meets exceptionally talented people and hears about other gifted people in different parts of the country; the actors for the movie were in fact chosen in this way from different parts of Uzbekistan. All of the songs featured in Maftuningman became popular and remain so today. Many Uzbeks know the songs from the movie by heart; the songs "Doʻppi tikdim", "Goʻzal Toshkеnt", "Maftun boʻldim", "Sartarosh" are all-time favorites of Uzbeks
Uzbekistan also the Republic of Uzbekistan, is a landlocked country in Central Asia. The sovereign state is a secular, unitary constitutional republic, comprising 12 provinces, one autonomous republic, a capital city. Uzbekistan is bordered by five landlocked countries: Kazakhstan to the north. Along with Liechtenstein, it is one of the world's only two doubly landlocked countries. What is now Uzbekistan was in ancient times part of the Iranian-speaking region of Transoxiana and Turan; the first recorded settlers were Eastern Iranian nomads, known as Scythians, who founded kingdoms in Khwarezm, Sogdia and Margiana. The area was incorporated into the Persian Empire and, after a period of Macedonian Greek rule, was ruled by the Persian Parthian Empire and by the Sasanian Empire, until the Muslim conquest of Persia in the 7th century; the Muslim conquest in the 7th century converted the majority of the population, including the local ruling classes, into adherents of Islam. During this period, cities such as Samarkand and Bukhara began to grow rich from the Silk Road.
The local Khwarezmian dynasty, Central Asia as a whole, were decimated by the Mongol invasion in the 13th century. After the Mongol Conquests, the area became dominated by Turkic peoples; the city of Shahrisabz was the birthplace of the Turco-Mongol warlord Timur known as one of Genghis Khan's grandchildren, who in the 14th century established the Timurid Empire and was proclaimed the Supreme Emir of Turan with his capital in Samarkand. The area was conquered by Uzbek Shaybanids in the 16th century, moving the centre of power from Samarkand to Bukhara; the region was split into three states: Khanate of Khiva, Khanate of Kokand, Emirate of Bukhara. It was incorporated into the Russian Empire during the 19th century, with Tashkent becoming the political center of Russian Turkestan. In 1924, after national delimitation, the constituent republic of the Soviet Union known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was created. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, it declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991.
Uzbekistan has a diverse cultural heritage due to strategic location. Its first major official language is Uzbek, a Turkic language written in the Latin alphabet and spoken natively by 85% of the population. Russian has widespread use as a governmental language. Uzbeks constitute 81% of the population, followed by Russians, Tajiks and others. Muslims constitute 79% of the population while 5% of the population follow Russian Orthodox Christianity, 16% of the population follow other religions or are non-religious. A majority of Uzbeks are non-denominational Muslims. Uzbekistan is a member of the CIS, OSCE, UN, the SCO. While a democratic republic, by 2008 non-governmental human rights organizations defined Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights". Following the death of Islam Karimov in 2016, the second president, Shavkat Mirziyoyev, started a new course, described as a A Quiet Revolution and Revolution from Above, he stated he intended to abolish cotton slavery, systematic use of child labour, exit visas, to introduce a tax reform, create four new free economic zones, as well as amnestied some political prisoners.
The relations with neighboring countries of Tajikistan and Afghanistan drastically improved. However, the Amnesty International report on human rights in the country for 2017/2018 described continued repressive measures, including forced labour in cotton harvesting, restrictions on movements of'freed' prisoners; the Uzbek economy is in a gradual transition to the market economy, with foreign trade policy being based on import substitution. In September 2017, the country's currency became convertible in the market rates. Uzbekistan is a major exporter of cotton; the country operates the largest open-pit gold mine in the world. With the gigantic power-generation facilities of the Soviet era and an ample supply of natural gas, Uzbekistan has become the largest electricity producer in Central Asia. Renewable energy constitutes more than 23% of the country's energy sector, with hydroelectricity and solar energy having 21.4% and 2% respectively. Uzbekistan has an area of 447,400 square kilometres, it is the 56th largest country in the 42nd by population.
Among the CIS countries, it is the 2nd largest by population. Uzbekistan lies between latitudes 37° and 46° N, longitudes 56° and 74° E, it stretches 1,425 kilometres from west to east and 930 kilometres from north to south. Bordering Kazakhstan and the Aralkum Desert to the north and northwest and Afghanistan to the southwest, Tajikistan to the southeast, Kyrgyzstan to the northeast, Uzbekistan is one of the largest Central Asian states and the only Central Asian state to border all the other four. Uzbekistan shares a short border with Afghanistan to the south. Uzbekistan is a landlocked country, it is one of two doubly landlocked countries in the world (that is, a country completel
People's Artist of the USSR
People's Artist of the USSR sometimes translated as National Artist of the USSR, was an honorary title granted to artists of the Soviet Union. The term is confusingly used to translate two Russian language titles: Народный артист СССР, awarded in performing arts and Народный художник СССР, granted in some visual arts; each Soviet Republic, as well as the Autonomous Republics, had a similar award held by every receiver of the higher title of People's Artist of the USSR. As this title was granted by the government, honorees were afforded certain privileges and would receive commissions from the Minister of Culture of the Soviet Union. Accordingly and authors who expressed criticism of the Communist Party were granted such recognition, if not outright censored; the title was bestowed for exceptional achievements in the performing arts in the Soviet Union. Its recipients included many of the most-acclaimed composers, singers and theatre directors and actors of every Soviet republic. In all, there were 1010 recipients of the award.
The title was introduced in 1936, replacing the earlier title of "People's Artist of the Republic". The first recipients of the title were Konstantin Stanislavski, Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, Ivan Moskvin, Antonina Nezhdanova, Boris Shchukin, Kulyash Baiseitova and some other actors; the last persons to be honoured with the title were Oleg Yankovsky. The title was bestowed on theatre actors, ballet dancers, opera singers only, it came to be bestowed upon film actors, violinist, pop singers and circus performers such as Natalya Durova and Oleg Popov. A person was named the People's Artist of the USSR after 40 years of age. Exceptions were made for dancers, e.g. Nadezhda Pavlova, a ballet artist, received the title at the age of 28, Malika Kalantarova, a famous Bukharian Jewish folk dancer from Tajikistan, received the title at the age of 34; the youngest female persons to receive this title were Kazakh opera singers Kulyash Baiseitova and Halima Nasyrova. The youngest male person was pop singer Muslim Magomayev.
Among the actors, the youngest recipient was Sergey Bondarchuk. The youngest actress to receive the title was Yuri Andropov's daughter-in-law, Lyudmila Chursina, at age 40. Sofia Rotaru, for example, was named Merited Artist of the Ukrainian SSR in 1973, People's Artist of the Ukrainian SSR in 1976, People's Artist of the Moldavian SSR in 1983, an attained cumulation of People's Artist titles, People's Artist of the Soviet Union in 1988, the first female pop-singer to be honored with this award and the only one with three People's Artists; as of 2018, the earliest living recipient is Ukrainian opera singer Bela Rudenko. The title of People's Painter of the Soviet Union was awarded for exceptional achievements in certain visual arts: painting, sculpture and photography; the lesser title of Meritorious Painter of the Soviet Union was awarded for achievement in these fields. People's Architect of the Soviet Union: Народный архитектор СССР People's Teacher of the Soviet Union: Народный учитель СССР People's Doctor of the Soviet Union: Народный врач СССР Category:People's Artists of the USSR - list of recipients Category:People's Artists of the USSR - list of recipients Hero of Socialist Labour - the highest civilian decoration in the Soviet Union List of People's Artists of Azerbaijan Meritorious Artist People's Artist People's Artist of Russia Russian Academy of Art
Tashkent is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populated city in ex-Soviet Central Asia with a population in 2018 of 2,485,900. It is located in the north-east of the country close to the Kazakhstan border. Tashkent was influenced by the Sogdian and Turkic cultures in its early history, before Islam in the 8th century AD. After its destruction by Genghis Khan in 1219, the city was profited from the Silk Road. From 18th to 19th century, the city became an independent city-state, before being re-conquered by the Khanate of Kokand. In 1865, it fell to the Russian Empire, became the capital of Russian Turkestan. In Soviet times, Tashkent witnessed major growth and demographic changes due to forced deportations from throughout the Soviet Union. Today, as the capital of an independent Uzbekistan, Tashkent retains a multi-ethnic population, with ethnic Uzbeks as the majority. In 2009, the city celebrated its 2,200 years of written history. See also: Timeline of Tashkent and History of TashkentDuring its long history, Tashkent has had various changes in names and political and religious affiliations.
Tashkent was settled by ancient people as an oasis on the Chirchik River, near the foothills of the West Tian Shan Mountains. In ancient times, this area contained Beitian the summer "capital" of the Kangju confederacy; some scholars believe that a "Stone Tower" mentioned by Ptolemy and by other early accounts of travel on the Silk Road referred to this settlement. This tower is said to have marked the midway point between China. Other scholars, disagree with this identification, though it remains one of four most probable sites for the Stone Tower. In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the town and the province were known as Chach; the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi refers to the city as Chach. The principality of Chach had a square citadel built around the 5th to 3rd centuries BC, some 8 kilometres south of the Syr Darya River. By the 7th century AD, Chach had more than 30 towns and a network of over 50 canals, forming a trade center between the Sogdians and Turkic nomads; the Buddhist monk Xuanzang, who travelled from China to India through Central Asia, mentioned the name of the city as Zhěshí.
After the 16th century, the name evolved from Chachkand/Chashkand to Tashkand. The modern spelling of "Tashkent" reflects Russian 20th-century Soviet influence; the city was destroyed by Genghis Khan in 1219 and lost much of its population as a result of the Mongols' destruction of the Khwarezmid Empire in 1220. Under the Timurid and subsequent Shaybanid dynasties, the city's population and culture revived as a prominent strategic center of scholarship and trade along the Silk Road. In 1809, Tashkent was annexed to the Khanate of Kokand. At the time, Tashkent had a population of around 100,000 and was considered the richest city in Central Asia, it prospered through trade with Russia but chafed under Kokand’s high taxes. The Tashkent clergy favored the clergy of Bukhara over that of Kokand. However, before the Emir of Bukhara could capitalize on this discontent, the Russian army arrived. In May 1865, Mikhail Grigorevich Chernyayev, acting against the direct orders of the tsar and outnumbered at least 15-1, staged a daring night attack against a city with a wall 25 kilometres long with 11 gates and 30,000 defenders.
While a small contingent staged a diversionary attack, the main force penetrated the walls, led by a Russian Orthodox priest armed only with a crucifix. Although the defense was stiff, the Russians captured the city after two days of heavy fighting and the loss of only 25 dead as opposed to several thousand of the defenders. Chernyayev dubbed the "Lion of Tashkent" by city elders, staged a "hearts-and-minds" campaign to win the population over, he abolished taxes for a year, rode unarmed through the streets and bazaars meeting common people, appointed himself "Military Governor of Tashkent", recommending to Tsar Alexander II that the city is made an independent khanate under Russian protection. The Tsar liberally rewarded Chernyayev and his men with medals and bonuses, but regarded the impulsive general as a "loose cannon", soon replaced him with General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman. Far from being granted independence, Tashkent became the capital of the new territory of Russian Turkistan, with Kaufman as first Governor-General.
A cantonment and Russian settlement were built across the Ankhor Canal from the old city, Russian settlers and merchants poured in. Tashkent was a center of espionage in the Great Game rivalry between Russia and the United Kingdom over Central Asia. T
Oʻtgan kunlar (film)
Oʻtgan kunlar is a 1969 Uzbek film directed by Yoʻldosh Aʼzamov, based on the novel Oʻtgan kunlar. The film stars uz:Oʻlmas Alixoʻjayev and uz:Gulchehra Jamilova in the main roles as the lovers Otabek and Kumush, with Abbos Bakirov, Pirmuhamedov Rahim Nabi Rakhimov, Habib Narimanov, Hamza Umarov Javlon Khamraev, Razzaq Khamraev, Maryam Yakubov and Gulchehra Zufarov; the film is set in Tashkent, around the beginning of the 19th century, tells the story of the lives of the upper class society of the period. The film follows the story of lovers Otabek and Kumush against the background of civil strife between the rulers and people
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia