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York Chocolate

The York Chocolate was an uncommon American breed of show cat, with a long, fluffy coat and a tapered tail and most of them were or chocolate-brown or the dilute form of brown, known as lavender. The breed was named after New York state, where it was established in 1983; this breed was created by color-selecting domestic long-haired cats of mixed ancestry. The breed was not recognized by cat registries, it was not recognized by the major organizations such as The International Cat Association, the Cat Fanciers' Association or Fédération Internationale Féline. By 2015 there was only one listed breeder of York Chocolates. By 2016 no registry carried its breed standard, there were no breeder websites and the breed is considered extinct. Although similar looking random-bred cats can be found today, without pedigree papers these are not York Chocolate cats; as “Il Gatto Cioccolato” it found favour in Italy and the International York Chocolate Federation was founded there in 2003. The site can now only be found on the Internet Archive.

The IYCF claimed affiliation with the German Feline Federation Europe /Bavarian Cat Fanciers' Association, which published a standard in 2004. It claimed affiliation with the Russian World Felinological Federation, although the latter does not recognize the York Chocolate as breed; the breed was created by Janet Chiefari in 1983. The father was a black longhaired cat and the mother was a longhaired black and white cat, their Siamese ancestors created the brown coloring in one kitten: Brownie. Brownie had a litter that subsequent summer with a black longhaired tom. There were two kittens in the litter: a white and chocolate female. Upon noticing similarities in coat and body types, Chiefari began her own breeding program; the breed is recognized, under the shorter name York, by the founded World Cat Federation based in Germany, with some differences from published standards, most of which seem to be lost. The breed is not recognized by any major, long-established international cat fancier organizations, such as The International Cat Association, the Cat Fanciers' Association or Fédération Internationale Féline, nor US national groups such as the American Cat Fanciers Association.

In March 1990, the Cat Fanciers' Federation of the New England area of the US recognized York Chocolates as an "experimental" cat breed, gave it championship status within the group in March 1992, but publishes no breed standard or any other information about the breed today. It was granted champion status by the Canadian Cat Association in March 1995, as well, but while the CCA published a breed standard in 1995, as of March 2013, the organization no longer advertises it, it includes outdated wording. A small breed club, the International York Chocolate Federation was founded in Italy, but seems to have been dormant since 2004, it claims affiliation with Feline Federation Europe, which since 2004 publishes a York Chocolate standard and the World Felinological Federation, a Russian group, which does not recognize this breed. The York Chocolate was a friendly, even-tempered breed, content as a lap cat, they loved to be cuddled. The cats were described as intelligent and curious following their owner around.

They were good hunters. They are sometimes shy. YorkChocolate.org, a website devoted to the breed York Chocolate with early pedigree and history

World Development Indicators

World Development Indicators is the World Bank’s premier compilation of international statistics on global development. Drawing from recognized sources and including national and global estimates, the WDI provides access to 1,600 indicators for 217 economies, with some time series extending back more than 50 years; the database helps users find information related to development, both historical. The topics covered in the WDI range from poverty and demographics to GDP, the environment; the World Development Indicators website provides access to data as well as information about data coverage and methodologies, allows users to discover what type of indicators are available, how they are collected, how they can be visualized to analyze development trends. A share of the indicators in WDI come from World Bank Group surveys and data collection efforts, but the majority are based on data collected and published by other sources, including other international organizations such as UN specialized agencies, national statistical offices, organizations with a specific research or monitoring focus, the private sector, academic studies.

The World Bank’s Open Data site provides access to the WDI database free of charge to all users. Users can browse the data by Country, Indicators and via the Data Catalog; the WDI database can be accessed directly via DataBank, a query tool where users can select series and time periods, do bulk downloads in Excel or CSV, or via API. In addition, data can be programmatically accessed using Stata, R, Python modules. World Development Indicators takes a comprehensive view of the world and includes many of the official SDG indicators as well as other data that are relevant to SDGs. For example, in addition to official indicators on the income/consumption growth of the bottom 40 percent of the population relative to the average as per SDG target 10.1, the WDI presents indicators like the Gini index or income shares by decile or quintile that are relevant for SDG goal 10 on inequality. SDG related indicators can be explored in the SDG dashboard, which uses WDI data. World Development Indicators World Bank Open Data DataBank WDI and the Sustainable Development Goals The Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2018 Google - public data

Samuel D. Shannon

Samuel Davis Shannon was an American soldier and politician who served as the 7th Secretary of the Wyoming Territory as a Democrat. Samuel Davis Shannon was born on May 3, 1833 in South Carolina and during the Civil War married Elizabeth Peton Giles. In December 1860 in joined the Confederate Army and was given the rank of captain and during the American Civil War he served on the staff of Major General Richard H. Anderson. Following the Civil War he became a journalist, but moved to Denver, Colorado due to poor health and to Cheyenne, Wyoming. On April 9, 1887 he was appointed by President Grover Cleveland as Secretary of the Wyoming Territory and served until July 1, 1889. Following his tenure he returned to the eastern United States and was placed into a Soldier's Home in Pikesville, Maryland where he died from Bright's disease on September 9, 1896

Extra special group

In group theory, a branch of abstract algebra, extraspecial groups are analogues of the Heisenberg group over finite fields whose size is a prime. For each prime p and positive integer n there are two extraspecial groups of order p1+2n. Extraspecial groups occur in centralizers of involutions; the ordinary character theory of extraspecial groups is well understood. Recall that a finite group is called a p-group if its order is a power of a prime p. A p-group G is called extraspecial if its center Z is cyclic of order p, the quotient G/Z is a non-trivial elementary abelian p-group. Extraspecial groups of order p1+2n are denoted by the symbol p1+2n. For example, 21+24 stands for an extraspecial group of order 225; every extraspecial p-group has order p1+2n for some positive integer n, conversely for each such number there are two extraspecial groups up to isomorphism. A central product of two extraspecial p-groups is extraspecial, every extraspecial group can be written as a central product of extraspecial groups of order p3.

This reduces the classification of extraspecial groups to that of extraspecial groups of order p3. The classification is presented differently in the two cases p odd and p = 2, but a uniform presentation is possible. There are two extraspecial groups of order p3, which for p odd are given by The group of triangular 3x3 matrices over the field with p elements, with 1's on the diagonal; this group has exponent p for p odd. The semidirect product of a cyclic group of order p2 by a cyclic group of order p acting non-trivially on it; this group has exponent p2. If n is a positive integer there are two extraspecial groups of order p1+2n, which for p odd are given by The central product of n extraspecial groups of order p3, all of exponent p; this extraspecial group has exponent p. The central product of n extraspecial groups of order p3, at least one of exponent p2; this extraspecial group has exponent p2. The two extraspecial groups of order p1+2n are most distinguished by the fact that one has all elements of order at most p and the other has elements of order p2.

There are two extraspecial groups of order 8 = 23, which are given by The dihedral group D8 of order 8, which can be given by either of the two constructions in the section above for p = 2. This group has 2 elements of order 4; the quaternion group Q8 of order 8, which has 6 elements of order 4. If n is a positive integer there are two extraspecial groups of order 21+2n, which are given by The central product of n extraspecial groups of order 8, an odd number of which are quaternion groups; the corresponding quadratic form has Arf invariant 1. The central product of n extraspecial groups of order 8, an number of which are quaternion groups; the corresponding quadratic form has Arf invariant 0. The two extraspecial groups G of order 21+2n are most distinguished as follows. If Z is the center G/Z is a vector space over the field with 2 elements, it has a quadratic form q, where q is 1 if the lift of an element has order 4 in G, 0 otherwise. The Arf invariant of this quadratic form can be used to distinguish the two extraspecial groups.

Equivalently, one can distinguish the groups by counting the number of elements of order 4. A uniform presentation of the extraspecial groups of order p1+2n can be given as follows. Define the two groups: M = ⟨ a, b, c: a p = b p = 1, c p = 1, b a = a b c, c a = a c, c b = b c ⟩ N = ⟨ a, b, c: a p = b p = c, c p = 1, b a = a b c, c a = a c, c b = b c ⟩ M and N are non-isomorphic extraspecial groups of order p3 with center of order p generated by c; the two non-isomorphic extraspecial groups of order p1+2n are the central products of either n copies of M or n−1 copies of M and 1 copy of N. This is a special case of a classification of p-groups with cyclic centers and simple derived subgroups given in. If G is an extraspecial group of order p1+2n its irreducible complex representations are given as follows: There are p2n irreducible representations of dimension 1; the center Z acts trivially, the representations just correspond to the representations of the abelian group G/Z. There are p − 1 irreducible representations of dimension pn.

There is one of these for each non-trivial character χ of the center, on which the center acts as multiplication by χ. The character values are given by pnχ on Z, 0 for elements not in Z. If a nonabelian p-group G has less than p2 − p nonlinear irreducible characters of minimal degree, it is extraspecial, it is quite common for the centralizer of an involution in a finite simple group to contain a normal extraspecial subgroup. For example, the centralizer of an involution of type 2B in the monster group has structure

Mary Starke Harper

Mary Starke Harper was an African American nurse who worked in bedside nursing, nurse research and health policy. She spent several years working for the Department of Veterans Affairs, she performed clinical research on the geriatric psychiatric minority health. In 1972, Harper created the NIMH Minority Fellowship Program, she served on four presidential administration advisory panels with regards to mental health and health care reform. She died in 2006 as author of over 180 publications. Mary Starke Harper was born in Fort Mitchell, Alabama on September 6, 1919 and moved to Phenix City, she was the oldest of seven other siblings in her family. As a child, she enjoyed reading and raising mice to sell to nearby laboratories and hospitals. Though her parents wanted her to settle down as a housewife, she decided to attend pursue a business administration degree at Tuskegee Institute, her father died when she was in college and after his passing she switched her major to nursing. She became George Washington Carver’s private nurse before he died in 1943.

Mary Starke Harper attended Tuskegee Institute and earned a diploma in nursing in 1941. She applied to several bachelor’s programs in the late 1940s; the University of Alabama rejected Harper’s application on the basis of her race and she decided to attend the University of Minnesota instead, a school which at the time had never had a black woman graduate from their program. In 1950, she graduated from the University of Minnesota with a bachelor’s degree in education. In 1952, she earned her master’s degree with honors in nursing education and educational psychology. In 1963, Harper graduated from St. Louis University with a doctorate in medical sociology and clinical psychology; when Harper 19-years-old and enrolled at Tuskegee Institute earning her diploma in nursing, she volunteered at the “Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male.” As a young nurse, she did not know the extent of the study or that several of her patients were denied treatment. In 2003 60 years Harper recounted, “I was angry that they had me, a black person, doing something bad to black men.”

She claimed her involvement in the study sparked her interest in the treatment of minority populations. This experience prompted her to become an advocate for minority health care for both geriatric and psychiatric populations, she assumed a teaching role and trained minority patients about informed consent and the importance of asking questions about research before agreeing to participate. After earning her nursing license, Harper began working as a registered nurse at the Tuskegee Veterans Administration Hospital, she spent over thirty years working with the Department of Veterans Affairs over her career. She moved every few years to a new hospital under the Veterans Affairs headquarters. In total, Harper moved nine times. In 1952, Harper became the nursing director at the VA in Tuskegee. Through these years as a bedside nurse, she cared for patients with chronic, debilitating mental illnesses, she developed hospital wide initiatives to engage family members in patient care and normalize patient admission stays by allowing street clothing, diet adjustments and altered medication regimens.

Harper worked at VA hospitals in Michigan, New York and Missouri conducting clinical research and educating staff about treatment program improvements. In 1943, Mary Starke Harper married Willie F. Harper at the age of 24, they had one daughter, Billye Louise Harper, in 1944. As Harper moved to different cities as a result of her research, she prioritized her family, she had two requirements for the moves: that her husband be offered a job comparable to the one he would be leaving and that the time frame coincided with the end of her daughter's school year. Her husband, died in 1963 and her daughter, Billye died in 1969 at the age of 25. Harper's sister passed away and from 1972 to 1998, Harper moved to Washington, DC to raise her sister's three sons and care for her elderly mother. Harper began her clinical research career learning about the elderly population, she was a member of several professional organizations including the American Psychological Association and the Society of Clinical Geropsychology.

In 1982, she attended the World Assembly on Aging in Vienna and presented her research on long-term care for the elderly. She found that elderly patients had mental illnesses that went undiagnosed; these patients were at risk for being improperly treated in institutional homes. Harper noted that overmedication and drug interactions posed significant problems for this population. In 2003, she shifted the focus of her research to caregiver burden. Though family members provided 90% of long-term care for elderly patients, Harper realized there was no organized system in place to support those families; as an African American nurse, Harper was a pioneer researcher investigating health disparities within racial and ethnic minorities and exposing the failures of the health system. Tuskegee University developed an endowed chair in geropsychiatric nursing in Harper's name. Additionally, in 2001, hospital administration in Tuscaloosa, Alabama named the Mary Starke Harper Geriatric Psychiatric Center in her honor.

This hospital contained 126 beds to care for the mentally ill elderly population. After working as a clinical nurse, Harper joined the National Institute of Mental Health in 1972. Over the following years, she earned a senior position. With the NIMH, Harper established research and development centers throughout the country dedicated to mental health research and improvement, she organized the NIH Minority Fellowship Program in 1972. Harper claimed her primary reason for impleme

Thomas Walsh (Vicar Apostolic of the London District)

Bishop Thomas Walsh was a Roman Catholic clergyman and Vicar Apostolic who served the Midlands area of the United Kingdom. Thomas Walsh was born in London on the son of Charles and Mary Brittle Walsh, he attended the grammar school at St. Albans. Through his uncle, a priest of the London District, he obtained admission to the College of St. Omer. In 1793, the French Revolution and the United Kingdom's declaration of war on France ended the Saint Omer college; the English faculty and students were imprisoned at Dourlens. In 1795, Gregory Stapleton, President of the College, obtained from the directory an order for the release of the sixty-four students, they were conveyed to England in an American vessel, landed at Dover on 2 March 1795. Walsh continued his studies at Old Hall Green. Stapleton was appointed vicar apostolic of the Midland district on 29 May 1800, took up residence at Longbirch, near Wolverhampton, he brought Walsh a deacon, to serve as secretary. Walsh was ordained priest on 19 September 1801, continued under Stapleton's successor, Bishop John Milner, as chaplain and missioner at Longbirch until October, 1804, when he was sent to Sedgley Park School as chaplain.

In 1808 he went to St Mary's College, Oscott as vice-president and he served as president from 1818 to 1826. At the age of 46, he was made Coadjutor Vicar Apostolic of the Midland District by Pope Leo XII, with the title of bishop of Cambysopylis, assisting Bishop John Milner, he succeeded to the Vicariate on the death of Bishop Milner in 1826. Walsh is most remembered for his commissioning of two cathedrals, the Cathedral of Saint Chad and Nottingham Cathedral, his association with the distinguished architect Augustus Welby Pugin; the Midland District was renamed the Central District on 3 July 1840, but lost jurisdiction of the counties of Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk and Rutland to the newly formed the Apostolic Vicariate of the Eastern District. In 1848, he was named, despite his reluctance, Vicar Apostolic of the London District, with the intention of him being the first Archbishop of Westminster when the hierarchy was to be restored in 1850, but he was too old and infirm to take any active part in its affairs, he left its administration in the hands of his coadjutor, Bishop Nicholas Wiseman.

Walsh died in Golden Square, London on 18 February 1849. He is buried in the Metropolitan Cathedral of St Chad. A large Gothic-revival memorial to him with a recumbent effigy, designed by Pugin and carved by George Myers, was erected in the North aisle of the Cathedral in 1851, after being exhibited in the Mediaeval Court of the Great Exhibition in Crystal Palace, Hyde Park, London. Bishop Walsh Catholic School in Sutton Coldfield, Birmingham is named after him; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Thomas Walsh". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton