Casco Bay is an inlet of the Gulf of Maine on the southern coast of Maine, New England, United States. Its easternmost approach is Cape Small and its westernmost approach is Two Lights in Cape Elizabeth; the city of Portland sits along its southern edge and the Port of Portland lies within. There are two theories on the origin of the name "Casco Bay". Aucocisco is the Abenaki name for the bay, which means'place of herons'; the Portuguese explorer Estêvão Gomes, mapped the Maine coast in 1525 and named the bay "Bahía de Cascos". The first settlement in Casco Bay was that of Capt. Christopher Levett, an English explorer, who built a house on House Island in 1623–24; the settlement failed. The first permanent settlement of the bay was named Casco; the United States Coastal Pilot lists 136 islands, leading to the bay's islands being called the Calendar Islands based on the popular myth there are 365 of them. Robert M. York, the former Maine state historian said there are "little more than two hundred islands".
At the time of European contact in the sixteenth century, people speaking an Eastern dialect of the Wabanaki language inhabited present-day Casco Bay. A number of Treaties were negotiated and signed between the British colonies and members of the Wabanaki Confederacy in Casco Bay, including the Treaty of Casco, the Treaty of Casco, Treaty of Casco Bay; the latter Treaty was the result of a Conference between the British and the Abenaki in August, 1727, at which the parties agreed to uphold the terms of the 1725 Treaty of Peace and Friendship which ended Dummer's War, to cooperate with each other in keeping the peace. Chief Loron Sagouarram, who had signed the Treaty of 1725, addressed the gathering in 1727, providing his understanding of the Treaty relationship. Casco Bay is home to abandoned military fortifications dating from the War of 1812 through World War II. See Forts of Casco Bay below. Since Casco Bay was the nearest American anchorage to the Atlantic Lend-Lease convoy routes to Britain prior to US entry into World War II, Admiral King ordered a large pool of destroyers to be stationed there for convoy escort duty in August 1941.
The State Historic Site of Eagle Island was the summer home of Arctic explorer Robert Peary. Walter Cronkite stated. In 2008, up-and-coming composers Peter J. McLaughlin and Akiva G. Zamcheck wrote a piece in four movements paying homage to the wreck of the Don in Casco Bay in 1941; the piece received critical acclaim from fellow Maine composers. The "Don" was lost 29 June 1941 near Ragged Island. Portland has a substantial fleet of deep-sea fishing vessels which offload their catch at the Portland Fish Exchange. Numerous towns and islands serve as ports for lobster boats. Recreational fishing boats can be chartered. Marinas include Chebeague Island Boat Yard on Great Chebeague Island. During the 1980s and 1990s, Bath Iron Works operated a dry dock in Portland Harbor to repair US Navy vessels, but that operation was discontinued. Predominant fish in the bay include mackerel, striped bass, bluefish. Shellfish include lobsters, mussels and snails. Harbor seals congregate on certain exposed ledges, whales on occasion swim into the bay, in a few instances into Portland Harbor.
Seagulls and varying species of ducks are the most common birds. Casco Bay contains bay mud bottoms and banks in some locations, providing important substrates for biota; the major islands in the bay are served by the Casco Bay Lines ferry service at the Maine State Pier in Portland. Peaks Island is served by a car ferry and, during the summer, sees 16 ferries a day; the other islands see no car transport. Great and Little Diamond islands and Long Island are served by the Diamond Pass run, popular with tourists in the summer months. Other services offered by Casco Bay Lines include a daily mailboat run, a cruise to Bailey Island, a sunset run. Other services such as water taxis are popular alternatives to the ferry, but are limited to six passengers per boat. From south to north: Cape Elizabeth South Portland Portland Falmouth Cumberland Yarmouth Freeport Brunswick Harpswell West Bath Phippsburg Major islands Minor islands Casco Bay is home to 7 lighthouses: Cape Elizabeth Lights Portland Head Light Ram Island Ledge Light Spring Point Ledge Light Portland Breakwater Light Halfway Rock Light Pocahontas Light, the smallest lighthouse registered with the United States Coast Guard, it stands only 6 feet tall Forts in Casco Bay: The newspaper for Portland, the largest city in Casco Bay, is the Portland Press Herald
Lincoln County, Maine
Lincoln County is a county located in the U. S. state of Maine. As of the 2010 census, the population was 34,457, its seat is Wiscasset. The county was founded in 1760 from a portion of York County and named after the English city Lincoln, the birthplace of Massachusetts Bay Provincial Governor Thomas Pownall. At its founding, Lincoln County accounted for three-fifths of the state's land, stretched east to Nova Scotia. Thirteen counties were cut out of this land including Sagadahoc County to the west; the county flag is a traditional New England flag, adopted in 1977. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 700 square miles, of which 456 square miles is land and 244 square miles is water, it is the third-smallest county in Maine by area. Kennebec County, Maine — north Waldo County, Maine — northeast Knox County, Maine — east Sagadahoc County, Maine — west As of the 2000 census, there were 14,158 households, 9,542 families residing in the county; the population density was 74 people per square mile.
There were 20,849 housing units at an average density of 46 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 98.46% White, 0.17% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.10% from other races, 0.61% from two or more races. 0.46% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 25.3% were of English, 15.4% United States or American, 11.2% Irish, 9.0% German and 7.3% French ancestry. Most of those claiming to be of "American" ancestry are of English descent, but have family, in the country for so long, in many cases since the early seventeenth century that they choose to identify as "American". 97.7% spoke English and 1.0% French as their first language. There were 14,158 households out of which 28.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.10% were married couples living together, 7.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.60% were non-families. 26.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.82. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.70% under the age of 18, 5.50% from 18 to 24, 25.60% from 25 to 44, 28.10% from 45 to 64, 18.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 95.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,686, the median income for a family was $45,427. Males had a median income of $31,209 versus $23,161 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,760. About 6.60% of families and 10.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.80% of those under age 18 and 9.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 34,457 people, 15,149 households, 9,749 families residing in the county; the population density was 75.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 23,493 housing units at an average density of 51.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 97.6% white, 0.5% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.1% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 30.4% were English, 17.7% were Irish, 13.4% were German, 8.6% were Scottish, 8.5% were American. Of the 15,149 households, 24.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.6% were non-families, 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.72. The median age was 48.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,678 and the median income for a family was $58,028. Males had a median income of $40,816 versus $31,473 for females; the per capita income for the county was $28,003. About 7.7% of families and 10.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.2% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over.
Boothbay Harbor Damariscotta Newcastle Waldoboro Wiscasset Bayville New Harbor National Register of Historic Places listings in Lincoln County, Maine Official Website of Lincoln County Maine Genealogy: Lincoln County, Maine Lincoln County Television, a Public and Government access television station serving 10 towns in Lincoln County Wiscasset Newspaper, serving the Lincoln County Seat and its Route 1 neighbors since 1970 Boothbay Register, serving Boothbay, Boothbay Harbor and Southport since 1876
Capt. Christopher Levett was an English writer and naval captain, born at York, England, he explored the coast of New England and secured a grant from the King to settle present-day Portland, the first European to do so. Levett left behind a group of settlers at his Maine plantation in Casco Bay, but they were never heard from again, their fate is unknown. As a member of the Plymouth Council for New England, Levett was named the Governor of Plymouth in 1623 and a close adviser to Capt. Robert Gorges in his attempt to found an early English colony at Weymouth, which failed. Levett was named an early governor of Virginia in 1628, according to Parliamentary records at Whitehall. Levett was the son of Elizabeth and Percival Levett, a York merchant and innkeeper, was admitted a freeman of York as a merchant himself. Levett was admitted to the Company of Merchant Adventurers in the City of York, along with his brother Percival. There is evidence that the English attempts to colonise North America caught Levett's interest while a York merchant.
Rev. Alexander Whitaker, an early Anglican minister and English immigrant to the Virginia Colony made note in his will of 1610 that he owed a debt of some £5 to "Christopher Levite, a linen draper of the city of York." Levett's contact with Whitaker and other Englishmen stoked his zeal to become an explorer. Levett grew restless, instead turned his sights towards a career as an explorer, he served as His Majesty's Woodward of Somersetshire to King James I, wrote a tract on timber harvesting that became the standard for selection of trees for the Royal Navy. Operating from his adopted home in Sherborne, Dorset, in the shadow of Sir Walter Raleigh and other adventurers, Levett became interested in the colonisation of New England. Levett became associated with Sir Ferdinando Gorges and was appointed to the Council for New England, he was granted 6,000 acres of land by King James I of England for a settlement in present-day Maine, which Levett proposed to call "York" after his birth city. On 5 May 1623, records for the Council on New England say, "Christopher Levett to be a principal patentee.
The next month, on 26 June 1623, the records note "the King judges well of the undertaking in New England, more of a design of Christopher Levett, one of the Council for settling that plantation, to build a city and call it York." The King proclaimed that Anglican churches across England should take up collections to add Levett in his settlement attempts. Levett was helped with his settlement ambitions, according to some historians, thanks to a deepening friendship with George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, the favoured courtier who acted as advocate for the young Yorkshireman. Levett's alliance to a powerful patron accounted for Levett's move to Sherborne and his appointment in the Royal forest in Somersetshire, putting him closer to Gorges and other early adventurers. On 26 June 1623, Secretary of State Lord Conway wrote to Lord Scrope, President of the Council of the North, urging him to assist Levett in his plan to settle a plantation in New England with a company of Yorkshiremen and found "a Citty and call it by the name of Yorke."
Noted the historian Charles Herbert Levermore: "So the first New York, planned for America was to be located in Portland harbor."Oblivious to the high-flying spiritual message of early Puritan founders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Sir Ferdinando Gorges, his partner John Mason and other merchant adventurers zeroed in on profit. From what we know of Levett, he seems more nuanced: his dealings with Native Americans seem solicitous given the era, his first wife was the daughter of a prominent Puritan rector. Either out of an explorer's zeal or a businessman's gimlet eye, Levett forged ahead. To further his plans, the Naval captain embarked from England on a trip to explore the coast of New England, paying particular attention to present-day Maine and New Hampshire; when he returned to England, he wrote a book called "A Voyage into New England, Begun in 1623, Ended in 1624, Performed by Christopher Levett, His Majesty's Woodward of Somersetshire, One of the Council of New England." It was Levett's hope to stir settlement in the New World, he hoped as the principal patentee of present-day Portland, Maine, to benefit financially from the arrangement.
On the surface, Capt. Levett seemed ideally placed to push such settlement. "When A Description of New England was published in London in 1616," write Charles and Samuella Shain of Capt. John Smith's book, "it was only a question of time before another enterprising spirit would arrive who would realize Captain John Smith's plans for founding a permanent settlement on the Maine coast.... Better placed and therefore politically than John Smith, Levett was richer."Levett had his eye on New England's thriving fisheries, which English merchants had exploited for years. The naval captain reported to Gorges that with the region's best fishing in the winter months, settling a permanent colony would enable the merchant adventurers to double their profits, by enabling the ships to fish yearround, but despite his better connections, the tide of history was not in his favour. His salesmanship fell short. Public interest as new settlements in Virginia and elsewhere took center stage. King Charles I's growing problems ate away at interest in colonisation.
The King's appeal for money in Yorkshire parishes to support the Levett scheme never yielded much. The gathering storm of Roundhead rebellion put Levett's benefactors under strain. In the meantime Levett was assigned to more pressing matters in England. On 5 Oc
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
South Portland, Maine
South Portland is a city in Cumberland County, United States, is the fourth-largest city in the state, incorporated in 1898. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 25,002. Known for its working waterfront, South Portland is situated on Portland Harbor and overlooks the skyline of Portland and the islands of Casco Bay. Due to South Portland's close proximity to air, marine and highway transportation options, the city has become a center for retail and industry in the region. Despite the name, South Portland was never part of the city of Portland, but rather part of Cape Elizabeth, it broke off in 1895. However, both Cape Elizabeth and Portland were once part of Falmouth. Cape Elizabeth including what became South Portland, broke away from Falmouth in 1765. South Portland is a principal city of the Portland – South Portland – Biddeford metropolitan area. South Portland was first settled in 1630, it grew to become a small residential community with many farms; the village was raided by natives in Father Rale's War.
In 1858, the City of Portland purchased land near the Fore River for the Forest City Cemetery. On March 15, 1895, it was incorporated as a town after it broke away from Cape Elizabeth, based on a disagreement on a future source of public drinking water. Three years South Portland became a city, destined to receive its drinking water, like Portland, from Sebago Lake, while Cape Elizabeth used wells or other local sources. On South Portland's waterfront is Fort Preble, a military fort established in 1808 to protect Portland Harbor, it was in operation during several American conflicts, including the United States Civil War, World War I, World War II. Near Fort Preble is Spring Point Ledge Light, constructed by the federal government in 1897 to mark a dangerous rock ledge. In 1940, the Todd-Bath Iron Shipbuilding Corp was established to build cargo ships for Britain; when the United States became involved with World War II, the shipyard expanded to include the South Portland Shipbuilding Corp. that combined with the Todd-Bath yard to become the New England Shipbuilding Corporation.
These shipyards built 236 of the 440 foot long Liberty ships, more than 10 percent of all the Liberty ships constructed during the war years. At its peak, the shipyard employed some 30,000 people, including thousands of women, who took over the jobs vacated by men going into the service; the shipyard ceased operations after the war ended in 1945. Remnants of the shipyards are visible, there is a memorial to the shipyard and the workers at Bug Light Park; the park is home to Portland Breakwater Lighthouse referred to as "Bug Light." On July 11, 1944, at 4:45 PM, U. S. Army Lt. Phillip "Phee" Russell was attempting to land his Douglas A-26 Invader at the Portland-Westbrook Municipal Airport. For reasons that were never determined, Russell lost control of the plane and crashed into a trailer park in South Portland's Brick Hill neighborhood. 19 people were killed and 20 people were injured — the families of South Portland shipyard workers — making it the worst aviation accident in Maine history. A Long Creek Air Tragedy Memorial was erected to commemorate the crash and honor the victims, but not until 66 years later.
Over the last few decades, South Portland has become the retail capital of Maine. The Mill Creek shopping center, built in the 1950s, was the first such "strip mall" built in Maine: a line of stores under one long roof and a covered walkway. Mill Creek has changed and grown since, but the original layout still forms the core of the stores; the area in Mill Creek known as the Waterfront Market sits at the base of the Casco Bay Bridge and attracts shoppers from Scarborough, Cape Elizabeth and Portland. The need for a large mall in Maine emerged in the 1960s, as Portland's downtown district could not accommodate the growing retail market. A former pig farm in South Portland was chosen as the site for the project because it was close to I-95 and convenient from Portland. Beginning construction of the Maine Mall in the late 1960s marked the start of a major transition in the western part of South Portland: from a rural, agrarian landscape to the large retail center that exists today; the oldest neighborhood in South Portland, its former "retail corridor", is Ferry Village.
Prior to the Casco Bay Bridge, ferries transported people and goods back and forth across the harbor to Portland. The landscape and the makeup of residents in Ferry Village were forever changed upon the close of the WWII shipyards; the Village has bounced back and is now one of the more popular places in the city to live. Ferry Village has one of the most active and involved neighborhood associations in Southern Maine; the Ferry Village Neighborhood Conservation Association was formed in August 1985 to address the development boom in the 1980s, altering the character of the waterfront and many Greater Portland neighborhoods. FVNCA was instrumental in the formation of the South Portland Land Trust as well as the City-managed Land Bank which provides seed money for the acquisition of available open space. South Portland utilizes a council-manager form of government; the city council is made up of seven members elected by the citizens: one member from each of the five districts in the city, two at-large members.
Voters are allowed to vote for council candidates in all five districts, not just the district where they are registered to vote. Every December, the members of the council elect one of themselves as mayor, a ceremonial title; the mayor serves as chairman of the council. The city council is responsible fo
The Kennebec River is a 170-mile-long river within the U. S. state of Maine. It rises in Moosehead Lake in west-central Maine; the East and West Outlets join at Indian Pond and the river flows southward from Harris Station Dam, the largest hydroelectric dam in the state. It is joined at The Forks by the Dead River called the West Branch continues south past the cities of Madison, Skowhegan and the state capital Augusta. At Richmond, it flows into Merrymeeting Bay, a 16-mile-long freshwater tidal bay into which flow the Androscoggin River and five smaller rivers; the Kennebec runs past the shipbuilding center of Bath to the Gulf of Maine in the Atlantic Ocean. Ocean tides affect the river height as far north as Waterville. Tributaries of the Kennebec River include the Carrabassett River, Sandy River, Sebasticook River. Segments of the East Coast Greenway run along the Kennebec; the name "Kennebec" comes from the Eastern Abenaki /kínipekʷ/, meaning "large body of still water, large bay". The Abenaki village of Norridgewock was located on the Kennebec in the 1600s.
In 1605 Samuel de Champlain navigated the coast of what is now Maine, charting the land and rivers of what was called "La Nouvelle France", "L'Acadie" or "La Cadie" including the Kennebec as far up as Bath, as well as the St. Croix, Penobscot rivers The English Popham Colony was founded on the Kennebec in 1607; the settler built the Virginia of Sagadahoc, the first oceangoing vessel built in the New World by English-speaking shipwrights. Hundreds of wooden and steel vessels have since been launched on the Kennebec in Bath, the so-called "City of Ships", including the Wyoming, one of the largest wooden schooners built. Following the War of 1812, Bath and the rest of the country experienced a lengthy period of expansion of international trade and therefore of maritime fleets. Many of those ships were built in Bath. In 1854, at the peak of this boom period, at least nineteen major firms were building ships in Bath; the sole remaining shipyard is the Bath Iron Works, owned by General Dynamics, one of the few yards still building warships for the United States Navy.
The USCGC Kennebec was named after this river. An English trading post, was established on the Kennebec in 1628; the Kennebec River was an early trade corridor to interior Maine from the Atlantic coast. Ocean ships could navigate upstream to Augusta; the cities of Bath, Gardiner and Augusta, the towns of Woolwich and Randolph developed adjacent to that transportation corridor. The river upstream of Augusta became an important transportation corridor for log driving to bring wooden logs and pulpwood from interior forests to sawmills and paper mills built to use water power where the city of Waterville and the towns of Winslow, Norridgewock, Madison and Bingham developed; the Maine Central Railroad and U. S. Route 201 were constructed following the river through these towns and cities. England's 1710 conquest of Acadia brought mainland Nova Scotia under English control, but New France still claimed present-day New Brunswick and present-day Maine east of the Kennebec River. To secure its claim, New France established Catholic missions in the three largest native villages in the region: one on the Kennebec River.
Continued encroachments led to Kennebec Abenaki warriors taking up arms in what Yankee historians sometimes refer to as Father Rale's War. A Yankee militia raid on the Abenaki Indian mission village at Norridgewock in August 1724 dealt the Abenaki resistance a crippling blow; as many as 40 inhabitants were killed, including children, as well Sebastien Rasle. The 67-year old Jesuit priest was scalped, as were 26 of the Abenaki, slaughtered. Having plundered and torched the tribal village, the Yankee raiders destroyed the surrounding corn fields and obtained bounty for the scalps; some Abenaki survivors returned to the Upper Kennebec, but others were welcomed by their Penobscot allies or found permanent refuge in Abenaki mission villages in French Canada. 1,110 American Revolutionary War soldiers followed this route during Benedict Arnold's expedition to Quebec in 1775. During the War of 1812, near the Kennebec River, the Battle of Hampden was fought in Maine. In 1814, Frederic Tudor began to establish markets in the West Indies and the southern United States for ice.
In 1826, Rufus Page built the first large ice house near Gardiner to supply Tudor. The ice was harvested by others who were inactive due to the winter weather; the ice was cut by hand, floated to an ice house on the bank, stored until spring. Packed in sawdust, it was loaded aboard ships and sent south; the Kennebec River before the construction of Edwards Dam was important as a spawning ground for Atlantic fish. In 1837, the Edwards Dam was built across the Kennebec River, just shy of the limit of tidal influence. Made of timber and concrete, it extended 917 feet across 25 feet high, its reservoir stretched 17 miles upstream, covered 1,143 acres. In 1999, the dam was removed. On April 1, 1987, over 6 feet of melting snow and 4 to 6 inches of rain in the mountains forced the river to flood its banks. By April 2, 1987, the river had crested at 34.1 ft above the normal 13 ft flood stage, meaning the river rose 21 ft. At the flood's peak, the flow topped out at an estimated 194,000 cubic feet per second.
It caused about $100 million in damage, flooding 2,100 homes, destroying 215, and
Cornish is a town in York County, United States. The population was 1,403 at the 2010 census, it is Maine metropolitan statistical area. Cornish has a number of antique shops near historic Thompson Park. In 1665, a trading post was established by Francis Small in the vicinity of Cornish village, not far from the confluence of the Ossipee River with the Saco River. Here converged three major Abenaki Indian paths—the Sokokis Trail, the Ossipee Trail and the Pequawket Trail, making it a central location for conducting with Native Americans the lucrative fur trade. In 1668, Small purchased from Newichawannock Chief Captain Sunday the Ossipee Tract, encompassing the present-day towns of Cornish, Newfield, Limerick and Shapleigh; the price was two large Indian blankets, two gallons of rum, two pounds of gunpowder, four pounds of musket balls and twenty strings of Indian beads. Small sold a half interest in the tract to Major Nicholas Shapleigh of Eliot. In 1770, heirs discovered the unrecorded deed, hired attorney James Sullivan of Biddeford to pursue their claim.
They won, paid Sullivan for his services with the township he named Limerick. Small's descendants took possession of Newfield and Cornish, the latter first named Francisborough Francistown, after its original proprietor. Settled by Joseph Thompson in 1782, it was incorporated on February 27, 1794 as Cornish by settlers from the county of Cornwall, England; the soil was productive for farming, producing large crops of corn and other types of grain. In 1859, the population was 1,144; the Portland and Ogdensburg Railroad ran up the Saco River valley in the early 1870s, servicing Baldwin Station across the bridge from Cornish. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22.38 square miles, of which 22.18 square miles is land and 0.20 square miles is water. Cornish is drained by the Saco River; the town's highest point is 1,320 + feet above sea level. It is York County's highest point; the second highest point in the town and county is Hosac Mountain, 1,320 feet mistaken as the highest point in York County.
The town is crossed by state routes 5, 25 and 160. Cornish borders the towns of Hiram to the north, Baldwin to the northeast, Limington to the east, Limerick to the south, Parsonsfield to the west. A the 2010 census, there were 609 households and 405 families residing in the town; the population density was 63.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 692 housing units at an average density of 31.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.4% White, 0.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 0.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population. There were 609 households of which 27.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.7% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 33.5% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.75. The median age in the town was 44.5 years. 20.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 50.7% male and 49.3% female. At the 2000 census, there were 1,269 people, 521 households and 340 families residing in the town; the population density was 57.4 per square mile. There were 588 housing units at an average density of 26.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.35% White, 0.24% African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.08% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.55% of the population. There were 521 households of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.2% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.7% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.00.
24.8% of the population were under the age of 18, 4.5% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.0 males. The median household income was $38,125 and the median family income was $46,477. Males had a median income of $31,853 compared with $25,625 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,494. About 9.3% of families and 13.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.8% of those under age 18 and 18.4% of those age 65 or over. Cornish Elementary Cornish Historical Society & Museum Saco River Festival Association Caleb R. Ayer House George F. Clifford House Odd Fellows-Rebekah Hall LeRoy F. Pike Memorial Building Caleb R. Ayer, 19th century state senate president and Secretary of State Christopher Calnan, City of Sanford Firefighter, Selectman David Dunn, 18th governor of Maine Eddie Files, baseball pitcher David Hammons, US congressman Joseph Hammons, US congressman from New Hampshire Steve Letarte, former NASCAR Sprint Cup Series crew chief for Dale Earnhardt Jr. and current commentator for NASCAR on NBC.
Town of C