York University station
York University is a subway station on Line 1 Yonge–University of the Toronto subway. It is located near Ian Macdonald and York Boulevards; the station opened on December 17, 2017. The official groundbreaking ceremony for the Toronto–York Spadina Subway Extension was held on November 27, 2009; the project was expected to be completed by the spring of 2015 but was pushed to the autumn of 2016, it was announced on September 5, 2017, that the station would open on December 17, 2017. The first stage of construction for the station began in May 2011. On October 11, 2011, one of the geostructural drilling rigs on site collapsed and killed Kyle Knox, an operator working for a contractor on the project, Anchor Shoring; the incident injured five other workers. More than 1,400 Toronto Transit Commission buses served the campus every weekday at the York University Bus Loop, in addition to hundreds more from other services including GO Transit, York Region Transit / Viva, Brampton Transit's Züm, Greyhound.
The arrival of the subway resulted in a reduced number of buses entering campus as the 196 York University Rocket bus route was eliminated and other routes such as the 195 Jane Rocket and 199B Finch Rocket were altered to service Pioneer Village station and Finch West station instead, leaving only the 41 Keele and 106 Sentinel routes servicing the university's grounds directly. Züm buses still service the campus directly; the station lies at the east end the Harry W. Arthurs Common on the west side of Ian MacDonald Boulevard; the university's main buildings lie to the west. The station was built underground; the line approaches from Finch West station along Keele Street bends towards the northwest to meet the station. Engineering Consultants Arup and Architecture firm Foster+Partners designed the station, which has a boomerang shape with entrances at the north and south ends of the structure; the north entrance contains stairs and escalators down to the concourse level and more stairs to the fare gates.
Besides stairs, the south entrance provides a barrier-free route consisting of an elevator to the concourse level plus a ramp to the fare gates. Natural light flows through the concourse down to the platform level; the station has a metal cool roof to reflect heat from sun rays. Jason Bruges Studio provided the station artwork titled "Piston Effect" consisting of a series of glass panels on the west walls at concourse and above the northbound trainway. Behind the panels are liquid crystal displays that detect the passage of a train and produce a lighting display in various tones of black and white; the fare-paid area features a Gateway Newstands kiosk. As with all stations from Lawrence West north to Vaughan Metropolitan Centre, legacy TTC fare media are accepted at this station pending elimination, but they cannot be purchased by passengers, who otherwise need to pay exact change for cash fares. Presto cards can be purchased and loaded with funds for single rides or a digital TTC monthly pass for unlimited travel, using various automated machines at the station.
As of January 2019, some stores in the nearby York Lanes shopping centre sell. Direct bus connections to the subway have been moved to Pioneer Village station to reduce bus congestion on campus, there is no attached bus terminal at the station. Transfers are required to connect to surface routes on-street: In 2018, all YRT bus services were moved to Pioneer Village station, in 2019, GO Transit relocated its services to Highway 407 station. A memorandum of understanding between the TTC and YRT stated: "Upon commencement of revenue services operations of the, York Region agrees not to operate or permit the operation of public transit services directly onto the York University campus." However, this assumed the elimination of the double fare for those riding a YRT bus to Vaughan Metropolitan Centre, Highway 407, or Pioneer Village stations and continuing by subway to York University. The plan was to use a third party technology system to reimburse one of the two fares. However, despite the continuing lack of fare integration, YRT stopped serving the campus after September 1, 2018, forcing passengers to walk from the Pioneer Village Terminal or pay a TTC fare to take the subway one stop to reach it.
On January 7, 2019, GO Transit ended service to the station, with buses connecting to the more distant Highway 407 station. However, there is a $1.50 fare discount for GO riders with Presto cards transferring to travel between the two stations. One Züm route serves the station from the now mostly-vacant regional bus loading area on Ian Macdonald Boulevard, about 200 metres north of the station entrance, it is now the sole non-TTC route serving the station and campus: York University York University Busway Media related to York University at Wikimedia Commons TTC site for Toronto–York Spadina Subway Extension Map indicating alignment of extension and location of stations
Finch West station
Finch West is a subway station on the Line 1 Yonge–University of the Toronto subway. It is located under Keele Street, north of Finch Avenue West, opened on December 17, 2017; the station is parallel to Keele Street just north of Finch Avenue West. Nearby landmarks include Fountainhead Park. Industrial areas lie to the east, James Cardinal McGuigan Catholic High School to the west and York University is to the northwest, served by the next station north on the line; the main entrance is located on the east side of Keele Street with the secondary entrance on the west side. The main structure has a striped, bar-code cladding to decorate its exterior along with colourful tiling and windows. An elevated substation facility is on the second floor of the main building and overhangs the main entrance as a canopy; the main entrance is highlighted by a glowing panel attached to the canopy. There is a green roof over the elevated substation box; the 6-bay bus terminal has an enclosed concourse. Bicycle parking at the station includes 100 secure plus 13 short-term spaces.
North of the station is a parking lot for 350 cars plus a pick-up-and-drop-off facility. A consortium of consultants including SGA/IBI, Lea Consulting, HH Angus and Associates, Pivotal Projects, Janet Rosenberg and Associates, Will Alsop of Alsop Architects designed Finch West station. Artist Bruce McLean worked with the design team to integrate sculptural concrete forms with the supporting columns within the entrance buildings, on double-height platform columns and under the bus canopy. In March 2006, The Globe and Mail reported that real estate development companies belonging to the family of Ontario Finance Minister Greg Sorbara owned the properties just south of the intersection of Finch Avenue West and Keele Street, according to land registry documents and corporate records; the article said that these companies would benefit from higher real estate values due to the subway extension. Sorbara was the Liberal Member of Provincial Parliament for Vaughan, was a major advocate for the Toronto–York Spadina Subway Extension, which includes Finch West station.
On November 27, 2009, the official ground breaking ceremony was held for the Toronto–York Spadina Subway Extension, major tunnelling operations started in June 2011. In mid-2015, the former Toronto Fire Station 141 on the east side of Keele and south side of hydro corridor was demolished to make way for the bus platform area. A new fire station replaced this building on the opposite side of Keele Street; the line curves off the Keele Street alignment a short distance to the north and south of the station, veering northwest to York University station and swings broadly at a 90° angle southeast to Downsview Park station. To reverse trains, there is both a crossover at the south end of the station and a storage track to the north. Nearby landmarks include James Cardinal McGuigan Catholic High School; the 36 Finch West bus route splits here to help maintain reliable service in light of the Finch West LRT construction west of this station. The 36 Finch West and 939B Finch Express enter via Tangiers Road.
When the subway is closed, buses do not bypass Tangiers Road. Buses serving Keele Street do not enter the station but stop on-street, a transfer is required for connection; the following routes serve the station: As with all stations from Lawrence West north to Vaughan Metropolitan Centre, legacy TTC fare media are accepted at this station, but they cannot be purchased by passengers, who otherwise need to pay exact change for cash fares. Presto cards can be purchased and loaded with funds for single rides or a digital monthly TTC pass for unlimited travel, using various automated machines at the station. Line 6 Finch West, expected to open in 2023, will have its eastern terminus at Finch West station. An LRT station has been roughed-in but is sealed off by a temporary wall until the LRT line opens; the future LRT station will be located with an east–west orientation under Finch Avenue West passing above the crossover box structure for Line 1 trains. The station will have side platforms. Media related to Finch West station at Wikimedia Commons Toronto-York Spadina Subway Extension TTC says Finch West Station will open on time despite construction delays on YouTube published by CityNews Toronto on October 27, 2017
Pioneer Village station
Pioneer Village is a subway station on the Line 1 Yonge–University of the Toronto subway. It is located under the intersection of Northwest Gate and Steeles Avenue, at the city boundaries of Toronto and Vaughan, Canada. A Toronto Transit Commission bus terminal is connected to the southern portion of the station, there is a regional bus terminal, the Pioneer Village Terminal, for connecting to York Region Transit buses on the north side of Steeles Avenue. Pioneer Village, Highway 407 and Vaughan Metropolitan Centre stations are the first Toronto subway stations located outside the Toronto city limits since its last amalgamation in 1998; the station was expected to be named Steeles West, but was renamed Black Creek Pioneer Village on September 28, 2012, after the heritage museum of the same name. On July 24, 2013, the unbuilt station was renamed shortening it to Pioneer Village; the station lies on a northwest-southeast axis, with the line approaching the station from York University station northwestward, directly under the university's main buildings.
The northern portion of the station lies in the City of Vaughan and the southern portion in the City of Toronto. There are three station entrances, two being structures that are situated on both the north and south sides of Steeles Avenue. One of two south entrances connects to the fare-paid TTC bus terminal. With 12 bays; the other is incorporated into the bus terminal itself and is accessed via a signalized crosswalk across the bus driveways from the university's sports facilities. The third—the north entrance in Vaughan—is adjacent to the York Region Transit bus terminal as well as an on-street passenger pick-up and drop-off area. A large commuter lot with a 1,881-vehicle capacity is situated in the hydro corridor to the north of the YRT terminal. Unusually, both street entrances lead to separate mezzanine levels, despite both serving as primary points of access, it is necessary for non-subway riders transferring between TTC and YRT buses to go down to and walk the length of the platform to connect between the two bus terminals.
The station has three levels: the entrances at street level, the two mezzanines just below them, the train platform at bottom. Enough space has been left between the surface and the platform to allow for the construction of an underground station for a future light rail transit line; the Spadina Group Associates designed the station, which features entrance structures on the southeast and northwest sides at a street intersection. The layout makes; the southwest corner of the intersection includes an oculus for a light cone above the platform. Both entrance structures have green roofs. To the south of the station, there is a crossover to short turn trains. Artists Tim Edler and Jan Edler of Berlin-based Realities-United provided interactive artwork, titled LightSpell, consisting of a row of 40 light fixtures suspended from the ceiling over the platform; these units can display text as well as illuminate the platform. The intent of the artists was that waiting passengers would key in text using several touch screens for display on the lighting units.
Other waiting passengers could change the text. However, when the Toronto–York Spadina Subway Extension opened, the TTC decided not to activate this feature, despite agreeing to do so as shown by the installation of the commissioned piece, because of the potential for displaying offensive messages. Given that the 2009 revision of the TTC By-law No. 1 explicitly prohibits the use of such language, a question remains of how that by-law would apply to an artwork as it is not itself communicating "profane, insulting or obscene language or gestures". The TTC is negotiating a compromise solution with the artists, raising questions of how a compromise of this nature undermines the fundamentals of the artwork; the cost of the artwork was $500,000. On November 27, 2009, the official ground-breaking ceremony was held for the TYSSE project, which included the construction of Pioneer Village station. Tunnelling began in June 2011; the project was delayed for two years. The line and station opened on December 17, 2017.
Pioneer Village was planned to be a temporary terminus for the western arm of Line 1 Yonge–University, which would be extended to Vaughan Metropolitan Centre. However, the entire extension, with its six new stations, was completed as one project; as with all stations from Lawrence West north to Vaughan Metropolitan Centre, legacy TTC fare media are accepted at this station pending elimination, but they cannot be purchased by passengers, who otherwise need to pay exact change for cash fares. Presto cards can be purchased and loaded with funds for single rides or with TTC monthly passes for unlimited travel, using various automated machines at the station; the major buildings of York University's main Keele Campus lie to the southeast of location. Canlan Ice Sports and Aviva Centre are found to the southwest, the Toronto Track and Field Centre to the east and York Lions Stadium to the immediate south; the station's namesake, Black Creek Pioneer Village, lies less than one kilometre to the southwest.
The following routes serve this station. A York Region Transit bus terminal is located outside the station's fare-paid area on the north side of Steeles Avenue on the west side of Northwest Gate, it has an outdoor walkway linking it with the station. There are no free transfers between the subway; the following YRT routes serve the terminal: Pione
New Urbanism is an urban design movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by creating walkable neighborhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types. It arose in the United States in the early 1980s, has influenced many aspects of real estate development, urban planning, municipal land-use strategies. New Urbanism is influenced by urban design practices that were prominent until the rise of the automobile prior to World War II; these ideas can all be circled back to two concepts: building a sense of community and the development of ecological practices. The organizing body for New Urbanism is the Congress for the New Urbanism, founded in 1993, its foundational text is the Charter of the New Urbanism, which begins: We advocate the restructuring of public policy and development practices to support the following principles: neighborhoods should be diverse in use and population. New Urbanists support: regional planning for open space, they believe their strategies can reduce traffic congestion by encouraging the population to ride bikes, walk, or take the train.
They hope that this set up will increase the supply of affordable housing and rein in suburban sprawl. The Charter of the New Urbanism covers issues such as historic preservation, safe streets, green building, the re-development of brownfield land; the ten Principles of Intelligent Urbanism phrase guidelines for new urbanist approaches. Architecturally, new urbanist developments are accompanied by New Classical, postmodern, or vernacular styles, although, not always the case; until the mid 20th century, cities were organized into and developed around mixed-use walkable neighborhoods. For most of human history this meant a city, walkable, although with the development of mass transit the reach of the city extended outward along transit lines, allowing for the growth of new pedestrian communities such as streetcar suburbs, but with the advent of cheap automobiles and favorable government policies, attention began to shift away from cities and towards ways of growth more focused on the needs of the car.
After World War II urban planning centered around the use of municipal zoning ordinances to segregate residential from commercial and industrial development, focused on the construction of low-density single-family detached houses as the preferred housing format for the growing middle class. The physical separation of where people live from where they work and spend their recreational time, together with low housing density, which drastically reduced population density relative to historical norms, made automobiles indispensable for practical transportation and contributed to the emergence of a culture of automobile dependency; this new system of development, with its rigorous separation of uses, arose after World War II and became known as "conventional suburban development" or pejoratively as urban sprawl. The majority of U. S. citizens now live in suburban communities built in the last fifty years, automobile use per capita has soared. Although New Urbanism as an organized movement would only arise a number of activists and thinkers soon began to criticize the modernist planning techniques being put into practice.
Social philosopher and historian Lewis Mumford criticized the "anti-urban" development of post-war America. The Death and Life of Great American Cities, written by Jane Jacobs in the early 1960s, called for planners to reconsider the single-use housing projects, large car-dependent thoroughfares, segregated commercial centers that had become the "norm"; the French architect François Spoerry has developed in the 60's the concept of "soft architecture" that he applied to Port Grimaud, a new marina in south of France. The success of this project had a considerable influence and led to many new projects of soft architecture like Port Liberté in New Jersey or Le Plessis Robisson in France. Rooted in these early dissenters, the ideas behind New Urbanism began to solidify in the 1970s and 80s with the urban visions and theoretical models for the reconstruction of the "European" city proposed by architect Leon Krier, the pattern language theories of Christopher Alexander; the term "new urbanism" itself started being used in this context in the mid-1980s, but it wasn't until the early 1990s that it was written as a proper noun capitalized.
In 1991, the Local Government Commission, a private nonprofit group in Sacramento, invited architects Peter Calthorpe, Michael Corbett, Andrés Duany, Elizabeth Moule, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Stefanos Polyzoides, Daniel Solomon to develop a set of community principles for land use planning. Named the Ahwahnee Principles, the commission presented the principles to about one hundred government officials in the fall of 1991, at its first Yosemite Conference for Local Elected Officials. Calthorpe, Moule, Plater-Zyberk and Solomon founded the Chicago-based Congress for the New Urbanism in 1993; the CNU has grown to more than three thousand members, is the leading international organizati
Conseil scolaire Viamonde
The Conseil scolaire Viamonde manages the public secular French first language elementary and secondary schools in the Ontario Peninsula. The school board operates 14 secondary schools within that area. CSV is one of four members of the Association des conseillers des écoles publique de l'Ontario; the school board operates two offices, one in Toronto, one in Welland. The educational management office is located in the Maple Leaf neighbourhood of Toronto, whereas the business and financial management office is located in Welland. CSV does not operate public French first language separate schools in the Ontario Peninsula. Public French separate schools in the Greater Golden Horseshoe is operated by Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir, whereas Conseil scolaire catholique Providence operates the public French separate schools in Southwestern Ontario; the board was created 1 January 1998 when the Government of Ontario decided to amalgamate several secular French school boards in the Ontario Peninsula.
School boards that were amalgamated included: Shortly after the merger, the school board changed its name from French-language Public District School Board No. 58 to Conseil scolaire du district du Centre-Sud-Ouest. The school board continued to operate as Centre-Sud-Ouest until 15 November 2010, when its name was changed to Conseil scolaire Viamonde. In 2011 the school district announced its intention to buy unused Toronto District School Board buildings. After the government denied the funding, the Conseil scolaire Viamonde announced plans to sue the province. CSV presently operates 39 elementary schools and 14 secondary schools throughout Southwestern Ontario and most of the Greater Golden Horseshoe; the area in which the school board operates and provides schooling for covers 68,180 km2 of Ontario. List of school districts in Ontario List of high schools in Ontario a b c d "Rapport annuel 2004-2005". Rapports annuels. Archived from the original on 2006-04-18. Retrieved 2006-06-03. A b "Projets de construction en capital".
Le site du Conseil de district du Centre-Sud-Ouest. Archived from the original on 2006-04-28. Retrieved 2006-06-03. A "Conseil scolaire de district du Centre-Sud-Ouest". School Board Profiles. Retrieved 2006-06-04. Conseil scolaire Viamonde English Information
Keele Street is a north-south road in Toronto and King in Ontario, Canada. It stretches 47 km. South of Bloor Street, the roadway is today known as Parkside Drive, but was part of Keele Street, it was renamed in 1921 by the City of Toronto. Most of Keele runs directly along a former concession road allowance. Keele street was named for local businessman and farmer William Conway Keele who lived in what is West Toronto Junction or Lambton Mills area. Parkside Drive begins at Lake Shore Boulevard near Sunnyside Beach, site of the former Sunnyside Amusement Park, it runs north forming the eastern boundary to High Park until Bloor Street. To the east is the Roncesvalles neighbourhood. North of Bloor it becomes Keele, it runs through the residential High Park North neighbourhood and into the Junction, which contains a mix of residential and industrial areas around the railway tracks. It passes near the once important CPR West Toronto Yard. While Keele ran straight north, today there is a brief cut-off to deviate around the Canadian National and Canadian Pacific Railway corridors, near the former Canada Packers stock yards.
It resumes south of Eglinton Avenue, connects with Weston Road by Rogers Road. There is a minor jog via Trethewey Drive and Yore Road; the road servers major arteries for suburban neighbourhoods in York and North York such as Silverthorn and Maple Leaf. North of Highway 401 it passes by Downsview Airport and forms the border between the residential neighbourhoods to the west and the large Keele-Finch industrial area to the east. Keele forms the eastern border of York University. At Steeles Avenue, the road allowance between the former North York and Vaughan Townships was connected in the early 1960s. North of Steeles, in Vaughan, Keele continues to pass through industrial areas, it runs to the west of Canada's largest rail yard. North of Rutherford Road Keele Street is the main street for Maple, once a small town, but today a growing suburb. North of Maple, Keele Street passes through rural areas, but serves as a major street for Hope and King City. Major streets in Toronto which intersect with Keele: Bloor Street Dundas Street St. Clair Avenue Eglinton Avenue Lawrence Avenue Wilson Avenue Sheppard Avenue Finch Avenue Steeles Avenue A portion of Keele was once a major streetcar route.
The Toronto Suburban Railway ran streetcars along Keele from Dundas West to Weston Rd to connect to Lambton and Woodbridge. The Toronto Transit Commission took over the Toronto Suburban Railway routes in the 1920s, continued to run the northwestern streetcars on behalf of York Township; the streetcar lines were converted to buses in the late 1940s, since Keele has been served by buses. Today Keele is served by the 41 Keele bus route, which runs from Keele station to Pioneer Village station via York University. North of Steeles Avenue operates the York Region Transit 107 Keele along Keele Street, running from Pioneer Village station to Teston Road in Vaughan, it is served on weekdays by the 96 Keele-Yonge Route which runs north from Pioneer Village to King Road beforeturning right on King Road to go to Yonge Street which leads it to the Newmarket Terminal. Google Maps of Keele Street North section South of St. Clair Avenue
State schools are primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. While such schools are to be found in every country, there are significant variations in their structure and educational programs. State education encompasses primary and secondary education, as well as post-secondary educational institutions such as universities and technical schools that are funded and overseen by government rather than by private entities; the position before there were government-funded schools varied: in many instances there was an established educational system which served a significant, albeit elite, sector of the population. The introduction of government-organised schools was in some cases able to build upon this established system, both systems have continued to exist, sometimes in a parallel and complementary relationship and other times less harmoniously. State education is inclusive, both in its treatment of students and in that enfranchisement for the government of public education is as broad as for government generally.
It is organised and operated to be a deliberate model of the civil community in which it functions. Although provided to groups of students in classrooms in a central school, it may be provided in-home, employing visiting teachers, and/or supervising teachers, it can be provided in non-school, non-home settings, such as shopping mall space. State education is available to all. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to attend school up to a certain age, but the option of attending private school is open to many. In the case of private schooling, schools operate independently of the state and defray their costs by charging parents tuition fees; the funding for state schools, on the other hand, is provided by tax revenues, so that individuals who do not attend school help to ensure that society is educated. In poverty stricken societies, authorities are lax on compulsory school attendance because child labour is exploited, it is these same children whose income-securing labour cannot be forfeited to allow for school attendance.
The term "public education" when applied to state schools is not synonymous with the term "publicly funded education". Government may make a public policy decision that it wants to have some financial resources distributed in support of, it may want to have some control over, the provision of private education. Grants-in-aid of private schools and vouchers systems provide examples of publicly funded private education. Conversely, a state school may rely on private funding such as high fees or private donations and still be considered state by virtue of governmental ownership and control. State primary and secondary education involves the following: compulsory student attendance. In some countries, private associations or churches can operate schools according to their own principles, as long as they comply with certain state requirements; when these specific requirements are met in the area of the school curriculum, the schools will qualify to receive state funding. They are treated financially and for accreditation purposes as part of the state education system though they make decisions about hiring and school policy, which the state might not make itself.
Government schools are free to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents, whereas independent schools charge attendance fees. They can be divided into two categories: selective schools; the open schools accept all students from their government-defined catchment areas. Government schools educate 65% of Australian students, with 34% in Catholic and independent schools. Regardless of whether a school is part of the Government or independent systems, they are required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks of their state or territory; the curriculum framework however provides for some flexibility in the syllabus, so that subjects such as religious education can be taught. Most school students wear uniforms. Public or Government funded; these schools teach students from Year 1 to 10, with examinations for students in years 5, 8, 10. All public schools follow the National Board Curriculum. Many children girls, drop out of school after completing the 5th Year in remote areas. In larger cities such as Dhaka, this is uncommon.
Many good public schools conduct an entrance exam, although most public schools in the villages and small towns do not. Public schools are the only option for parents and children in rural areas, but there are large numbers of private schools in Dhaka and Chittagong. Many Bangladeshi private schools teach their students in English and follow curricula from overseas, but in public schools lessons are taught in Bengali. Per the Canadian constitution, public-school education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and, as such, there are many variations among the provinces. Junior kindergarten exists as an official program in only Ontario and Quebec while kindergarten is available in every province, but provincial funding and the level of ho