Kingswood, Kingston upon Hull
Kingswood referred to as Kingswood Parks, is a modern housing estate on the northern fringe of Kingston upon Hull, England. Through much of its history much of the area has been marsh – some drainage was made during the medieval period – a canal, the Forthdyk was cut in the 13th century; the Engine Drain was cut c. 1675, with windmills aiding drainage of the area. In the 1770s construction of the Holderness Drain incorporated part of the Foredike into its route, further improved drainage in the wider area. After drainage to the 20th century the land use was agricultural; the estate was developed from the 1990s onwards on low lying agricultural land lying east of the River Hull, adjacent to the Bransholme Estate to the south-east, separated by the A1033 and Wawne Road. In addition to the housing the area includes a large shopping area, Kingswood retail park, including an Asda superstore and several other warehouse type shopping outlets, plus leisure facilities including a cinema, indoor bowling, several fast food restaurants.
The Kingswood's area boundaries are the River Hull to the west, the Wawne Road to the east, the Wawne Drain and Foredyke Stream to the South. The western side of the new development, is sometimes referred to as Kingswood Parks; the route of the Engine Drain passes through the estate north-south, has created a clear boundary between parts of the housing development. Green spaces include an undeveloped area of former farmland, located along the north side of the Wawne Drain; as well as the Wawne Drain and Foredyke Stream drain at the southern boundary, which are paralleled by the John Newton way/Bude Road on the eastern half, there are several large scale man made features at the edges of the estate: the easternmost end of the A1033, named Raich Carter Way, connects to west Hull and Beverley via the Ennerdale Link Bridges. Most of the area is under 5 metres above sea level, though to the east the land rises to up to or over 10 metres; the Kingswood area is vulnerable to floods under certain conditions: overtopping of the River Hull.
In the long term the area may be affected by sea level rise. All parts of Kingswood excluding those parts in the east at higher ground are in a Flood Zone risk 3a.iii area. In 2011 Kingswood's population was 5,314. From the prehistoric period to the medieval ages the land in Holderness east of the River Hull was predominately marshland, excluding local rises in the land were villages were established; the southern part was subject to inundation from the sea as a result of tides, was brackish. Whilst most of the area was within the flood plain, the eastern parts rise to a peak in the north-eastern of up to 10 metres above sea level – the higher areas are glacial till. No evidence has been found of human activity in the area during the prehistoric period, though finds from the period have been found nearby at Sutton, Wawne and in west Hull. Extensive pottery and other finds from the Romano-British period, as well as evidence of ditches have been found close nearby on the west bank of the River Hull, evidencing a settlement.
In the medieval period flood defences allowing the improvement of land were first made in the wider area – these included banks preventing flooding, dikes to drain the marshes. The drain known as the Forthdyk was first cut in the early 13th century; the drain's primary function is thought to have been as a waterway, though it drained Wagne, Sutton and Swine. It was 16 by 6 feet wide with two bridges, built to allow boats to travel along its length. In order to maintain the Foredike as a waterway a second parallel dike was cut, Sutton-dyk. At the river end of these waterways there was a mill pond used as a fish pond. Archaeological and documentary evidence indicates human activity in the medieval period was focused in the south-west corner of the area, near the medieval mill. In c. 1675 the Engine Drain was cut for drainage, emptying into the River Hull somewhere near the original Foredike outlet. In 1764 land to the east of the River Hull was permitted to be further improved by drainage by an Act of Parliament.
The work carried out included the cutting of the original path of the Holderness Drain, as well as 17 miles embankment of the east bank of the River Hull to prevent flooding. Much of the work had been completed by 1772 at a cost of £24,000. Further work wa
Agden Reservoir is a water storage reservoir, situated at grid reference SK260925, 6.5 miles west of the centre of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It is owned by Yorkshire Water, part of the Kelda Group; the reservoir covers an area of 25 hectares and has a capacity of 559 million gallons of water, the dam wall has a width of 350 metres with a height of 30 metres. The reservoir is one of four which were built in the second half of the 19th century to collect water from the moorlands around the village of Low Bradfield, west of Sheffield, the other three being Damflask, Dale Dike and Strines reservoirs. Agden was completed in 1869 and is fed by Hobson Moss Dike and Emlin Dike which flow off the Broomhead and Bradfield moors respectively; the reservoir is surrounded by coniferous woodland, Sheffield City Council who own much of the woodland have started a policy of replanting and thinning to encourage broadleaved varieties of trees which give a better habitat for wildlife and look more attractive.
The reservoir is ringed by a popular walk which starts in the village of Low Bradfield and takes in Agden Bog, a protected wetland area managed by the Wildlife Trust for Sheffield and Rotherham. The reservoir used to have a keeper's cottage at the western side of the dam wall, however this is now a private dwelling. There are the remains of several old buildings around the reservoir, Agden House was a farmhouse on the western side, demolished in the 1970s, Rocher Head Farm was demolished in the early-1960s while Frost House was pulled down in the 1950s. Media related to Agden Reservoir at Wikimedia Commons
Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. A substantial portion of the Peak District National Park lies within Derbyshire, containing the southern extremity of the Pennine range of hills which extend into the north of the county; the county contains part of the National Forest, borders on Greater Manchester to the northwest, West Yorkshire to the north, South Yorkshire to the northeast, Nottinghamshire to the east, Leicestershire to the southeast, Staffordshire to the west and southwest and Cheshire to the west. Kinder Scout, at 636 metres, is the highest point in the county, whilst Trent Meadows, where the River Trent leaves Derbyshire, is its lowest point at 27 metres.:1 The River Derwent is the county's longest river at 66 miles, runs north to south through the county. In 2003 the Ordnance Survey placed Church Flatts Farm at Coton in the Elms as the furthest point from the sea in Great Britain; the city of Derby is a unitary authority area, but remains part of the ceremonial county of Derbyshire.
The non-metropolitan county contains 30 towns with between 100,000 inhabitants. There is a large amount of sparsely populated agricultural upland: 75% of the population live in 25% of the area; the area, now Derbyshire was first visited briefly, by humans 200,000 years ago during the Aveley interglacial as evidenced by a Middle Paleolithic Acheulean hand axe found near Hopton. Further occupation came with the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age when Mesolithic hunter gatherers roamed the hilly tundra. Evidence of these nomadic tribes has been found in limestone caves located on the Nottinghamshire border. Deposits left in the caves date the occupancy at around 12,000 to 7,000 BCE. Burial mounds of Neolithic settlers are situated throughout the county; these chambered tombs were designed for collective burial and are located in the central Derbyshire region. There are tombs at Minninglow and Five Wells that date back to between 2000 and 2500 BCE. Three miles west of Youlgreave lies the Neolithic henge monument of Arbor Low, dated to 2500 BCE.
It is not until the Bronze Age that real signs of agriculture and settlement are found in the county. In the moors of the Peak District signs of clearance, arable fields and hut circles were discovered after archaeological investigation; however this area and another settlement at Swarkestone are all. During the Roman invasion the invaders were attracted to Derbyshire because of the lead ore in the limestone hills of the area, they settled throughout the county with forts built near Glossop. They settled around Buxton, famed for its warm springs, set up a fort near modern-day Derby in an area now known as Little Chester. Several kings of Mercia are buried in the Repton area. Following the Norman Conquest, much of the county was subject to the forest laws. To the northwest was the Forest of High Peak under the custodianship of William Peverel and his descendants; the rest of the county was bestowed upon a part of it becoming Duffield Frith. In time the whole area was given to the Duchy of Lancaster.
Meanwhile, the Forest of East Derbyshire covered the whole county to the east of the River Derwent from the reign of Henry II to that of Edward I. Most of Derbyshire consists of rolling hills and uplands, with the southern Pennines extending from the north of Derby throughout the Peak District and into the north of the county, reaching a high point at Kinder Scout; the south and east of the county are lower around the valley of the River Trent, the Coal Measures, the areas of clay and sandstones between the Peak District and the south west of the county. The main rivers in the county are the River Derwent and the River Dove which both join the River Trent in the south; the River Derwent rises in the moorland of Bleaklow and flows throughout the Peak District and county for the majority of its course, while the River Dove rises in Axe Edge Moor and forms a boundary between Derbyshire and Staffordshire for most of its length. The varied landscapes within Derbyshire have been formed as a consequence of the underlying geology, but by the way the land has been managed and shaped by human activity.
The county contains 11 discrete landscape types, known as National Character Areas, which have been described in detail by Natural England and further refined and described by Derbyshire County Council and the Peak District National Park. The 11 National Character Areas found within Derbyshire are: Dark Peak White Peak South West Peak Derbyshire Peak Fringe & Lower Derwent Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire & Yorkshire Coalfield Southern Magnesian Limestone Needwood & South Derbyshire Claylands Trent Valley Washlands Melbourne Parklands Leicestershire & South Derbyshire Coalfield Mease/Sence Lowlands From a geological perspective, Derbyshire's solid geology can be split into two different halves; the oldest rocks occur in the northern, more upland half of the county, are of Carboniferous age, comprising limestones, gritstones and shales. In its north-east corner to the east of Bolsover there are Magnesian Limestone rocks of Permian age. In contrast, the southern and more lowland half of Derbyshire contains much softer rocks mudstones and sandstones of Permo-Triassic age, which create gentler, more rolling landscapes with few rock outcrops.
Across both regions can be found drift deposits of Quaternary age – terrace and river gravel deposits and boulder clays. Landslip features are found on unstable layers of sandstones and shales, with Mam Tor and Alport Castles being the most well-known. Cemented screes and tufa deposits occur rarely in the limestone dales and
Grimwith Reservoir is located in the Yorkshire Dales in North Yorkshire, England. It was built by the Bradford Corporation as one of eleven reservoirs in the Yorkshire Dales to supply fresh water to Bradford, it is the largest reservoir owned by Yorkshire Water in terms of water storage. Grimwith is accessed from the B6265 road 1.5 miles east of Hebden and 8 miles west of Pateley Bridge. With a surface area of 1.47 square kilometres and holding 21,772,000 cubic metres of water it is Yorkshire Water's largest reservoir. The original reservoir was built in 1864 by the Bradford Corporation, the Local Authority for the city of Bradford 300 metres above sea level in Wharfedale; this involved the abandonment of the hamlets of Grimwith and Gate Up, which would be flooded as part of the reservoir. Grimwith was intended to be a compensation reservoir, rather than be used for storage, of the eleven reservoirs built by the Bradford Corporation, Grimwith was the most distant at 20 miles from Bradford town centre.
Following an agreement made in 1970 the size of the reservoir was increased by seven times and the water level was raised by 20 metres, with work starting in 1976 and being completed in 1983. The reservoir outlet is the site of a renewable energy project that saw the installation of a small turbine that generates 1400 MWh of electricity per annum; the reservoir is an important area for birds and is home to wildfowl such as Eurasian wigeon, greylag geese and Canada geese. Other birds that can be seen at various times in the area include ringed plover, northern lapwing, common redshank, Eurasian curlew, reed bunting, lesser redpoll and sedge warbler; the reservoir is a popular destination for leisure activities such as sailing and visitors to Stump Cross Caverns. A 4.5-mile wheelchair-accessible footpath / track circumnavigates the reservoir. At the eastern end of the reservoir is a grade II listed barn; the Cruck Barn used to be further west, but was reconstructed on its present site above the waterline to preserve it.
This type of barn is rare for the Yorkshire Dales. Its origins was rebuilt in 1982 when the reservoir was extended. Yorkshire Water - Grimwith Reservoir Walking route Yorkshire Dales Sailing Club
The M62 is a 107-mile-long west–east trans-Pennine motorway in Northern England, connecting Liverpool and Hull via Manchester and Leeds. The road is part of the unsigned Euroroutes E20 and E22; the motorway, first proposed in the 1930s, conceived as two separate routes, was opened in stages between 1971 and 1976, with construction beginning at Pole Moor and finishing at that time in Tarbock on the outskirts of Liverpool. The motorway absorbed the northern end of the Stretford-Eccles bypass, built between 1957 and 1960. Adjusted for inflation to 2007, its construction cost £765 million; the motorway has an average daily traffic flow of 144,000 vehicles in West Yorkshire, has several areas prone to gridlock, in particular, between Leeds and Huddersfield and the M60 section around Eccles. The M62 coach bombing of 1974 and the Great Heck rail crash of 2001 are the largest incidents to have occurred on the M62. Stott Hall Farm, situated between the carriageways on the Pennine section has become one of the best-known sights on the motorway.
The M62 has no junctions numbered 1, 2 or 3, or an numbered 4, because it was intended to start in Liverpool proper, not in its outskirts. Between Liverpool and Manchester, east of Leeds, the terrain along which the road passes is flat. Between Manchester and Leeds it traverses the Pennines and its foothills, rising to 1,221 feet above sea level east of junction 22 in Calderdale, not far from the boundary between Greater Manchester and West Yorkshire; the motorway's origins are found in the 1930s, when the need for a route between Lancashire and Yorkshire had been agreed after discussion by their county highway authorities. At the same time, it was envisaged that a route between Liverpool and Hull was needed to connect the ports to industrial Yorkshire. After the Second World War, the Minister of Transport appointed engineers to inspect road standards between the A580 road in Swinton and the A1 road near Selby; the 1949 Road Plan for South Lancashire identified the need to upgrade the A580 to dual carriageway with grade separation and provide bypasses at Huyton and Cadishead.
In 1952, the route for a trans-Pennine motorway, the Lancashire–Yorkshire Motorway, was laid down, with Ferrybridge at the eastern terminus rather than Selby. By the 1960s, the proposed A580 upgrade to dual carriageway was considered inadequate, there was an urgent need to link Liverpool to the motorway network; the route of the Lancashire-Yorkshire motorway was considered inadequate as it failed to cater for several industrial towns in Yorkshire. When James Drake visited the United States in 1962, his experience of the Interstate Highway System led him to conclude that the Merseyside Expressway, planned to run between Liverpool and the M6, would need to be extended to the Stretford-Eccles Bypass and beyond, to create a continuous motorway between Liverpool and Ferrybridge; the plans were unpopular and not supported by the Ministry of Transport, but the scheme was added to the Road Plan in 1963. It was the intention to build an urban motorway in Liverpool; the M62 was intended to terminate at Liverpool's Inner Motorway, not built.
The proposed route would have followed the railway into Liverpool as far as Edge Hill, with junctions at Rathbone Road and Durning Road where it would drop to two lanes before terminating at the Islington Radial. Difficulties arose building the Liverpool urban motorway resulting in delays, with the section between Tarbock and Liverpool the last to be completed in 1976. In total, two viaducts, ten bridges and seven underpasses were constructed to secure the structural integrity of the surrounding residential areas; the motorway was constructed only as far as the Queens Drive inner ring road, junction 4. The section west of Manchester was intended to be a separate motorway, the M52 to link Liverpool and Salford, but a continuous motorway between Leeds and Liverpool was deemed more feasible, Construction between Liverpool and Manchester started in 1971, with the construction of a link between the M57 and M6 motorways. A contract to link the M6 with Manchester was underway, which required land drainage and the removal of unsuitable earth.
This section was completed in August 1974, creating a continuous link between Ferrybridge and Tarbock. Two motorways were planned, the M52 from Liverpool to Salford and the M62 to link Pole Moor with the Stretford–Eccles Bypass; the first part of the M62 to be built was the Stretford–Eccles Bypass, now the section between Junctions 7 to 13 of the M60. Construction started in 1957, the motorway opened in 1960, it was built as a 2-lane motorway only. It was re-numbered M63; the section between the interchange with the Stretford-Eccles Bypass and Salford is now occupied by the M602 motorway. The Eccles–Pole Moor section opened in 1971. Between Eccles and Pole Moor, 67 motorway crossings were required, including seven viaducts and eight junctions. Much of the Worsley Braided Interchange was built on undeveloped mossland where deep peat deposits had been covered with waste. Between Worsley and Milnrow, some underlying coal seams were still worked when the motorway was constructed and allowances had to be made to counteract possible future subsidence.
The motorway crosses the Irwell Valley and the Pendleton Fault on a 200-foot single-span bridge 65 feet above the river. Surveying for the Pennine section began in November 1961 and its route was determined in July 1963. Construction between Windy Hill and Pole Moor w
North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county and largest ceremonial county in England. It is located in the region of Yorkshire and the Humber but in the region of North East England; the estimated population of North Yorkshire was 602,300 in mid 2016. Created by the Local Government Act 1972, it covers an area of 8,654 square kilometres, making it the largest county in England; the majority of the Yorkshire Dales and the North York Moors lie within North Yorkshire's boundaries, around 40% of the county is covered by National Parks. The largest towns are Middlesbrough, York and Scarborough; the area under the control of the county council, or shire county, is divided into a number of local government districts: Craven, Harrogate, Ryedale and Selby. The Department for Communities and Local Government considered reorganising North Yorkshire County Council's administrative structure by abolishing the seven district councils and the county council to create a North Yorkshire unitary authority; the changes were planned to be implemented no than 1 April 2009.
This was rejected on 25 July 2007 so District Council structure will remain. The largest settlement in the administrative county is the second largest is Scarborough. Within the ceremonial county, the largest is the Middlesbrough built-up area. York is the most populous district in the ceremonial county. York and Redcar and Cleveland are unitary authority boroughs which form part of the ceremonial county for various functions such as the Lord Lieutenant of North Yorkshire, but do not come under county council control. Uniquely for a district in England, Stockton-on-Tees is split between North Yorkshire and County Durham for this purpose. Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees, Redcar and Cleveland boroughs form part of the North East England region; the ceremonial county area, including the unitary authorities, borders East Riding of Yorkshire to the east/south east, South Yorkshire to the south, West Yorkshire to the west/south west, Lancashire to the west, Cumbria to the north west and County Durham to the north, with the North Sea to the east.
The geology of North Yorkshire is reflected in its landscape. Within the county are the North York Moors and most of the Yorkshire Dales. Between the North York Moors in the east and the Pennine Hills in the west lie the Vales of Mowbray and York; the Tees Lowlands lie to the north of the North York Moors and the Vale of Pickering lies to the south. Its eastern border is the North sea coast; the highest point is Whernside, on the Cumbrian border, at 736 metres. The two major rivers in the county are the River Ure; the Swale and the Ure form the River Ouse which flows into the Humber Estuary. The River Tees forms part of the border between North Yorkshire and County Durham and flows from upper Teesdale through Middlesbrough and Stockton and to the coast. North Yorkshire contains a small section of green belt in the south of the county, just north of Ilkley and Otley along the North and West Yorkshire borders, it extends to the east to cover small communities such as Huby, Kirkby Overblow, Follifoot before covering the gap between the towns of Harrogate and Knaresborough, helping to keep those towns separate.
The belt meets with the Yorkshire Dales National Park at its southernmost extent, forms a border with the Nidderdale AONB. It extends into the western area of Selby district, reaching as far as Balne; the belt was first drawn up from the 1950s. The city of York has an independent surrounding belt area affording protections to several outlying settlements such as Haxby and Dunnington, it too extends into the surrounding districts. North Yorkshire was formed on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, covers most of the lands of the historic North Riding, as well as the northern half of the West Riding, the northern and eastern fringes of the East Riding of Yorkshire and the former county borough of York. York became a unitary authority independent of North Yorkshire on 1 April 1996, at the same time Middlesbrough and Cleveland and areas of Stockton-on-Tees south of the river became part of North Yorkshire for ceremonial purposes, having been part of Cleveland from 1974 to 1996.
The non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire is administered by North Yorkshire County Council, a cabinet-style council. The full council of 72 elects a council leader, who in turn appoints up to 9 more councillors to form the executive cabinet; the cabinet is responsible for making decisions in the non-metropolitan county. The county council have their offices in the County Hall in Northallerton. Certain areas within the ceremonial county are administered independently of the county council and have their own unitary authority councils: the City of York Council and Cleveland Borough Council, Middlesbrough Borough Council, Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council; the county has above average house prices. Unemployment is below average for the UK and claimants of Job Seekers Allowance is very low compared to the rest of the UK at 2.7%. Agriculture is an important industry, as are power generation; the county has prosperous high technology and tourism sectors. Tourism is a significant contribut