Gwendolyn Margaret MacEwen was a Canadian poet and novelist. A "sophisticated, wide-ranging and thoughtful writer," she published more than 20 books in her life. "A sense of magic and mystery from her own interests in the Gnostics, Ancient Egypt and magic itself, from her wonderment at life and death, makes her writing unique.... She's still regarded by most as one of the best Canadian poets." MacEwen was born in Ontario. Her mother, spent much of her life as a patient in mental health institutions, her father, suffered from alcoholism. Gwendolyn MacEwen grew up in the High Park area of the city, attended Western Technical-Commercial School. MacEwan's first poem was published in The Canadian Forum when she was only 17, she left school at 18 to pursue a writing career. By 18 she had written her first novel, Julian the Magician."She was small and slight, with a round pale face, huge blue eyes rimmed in kohl, long dark straight hair."Her first book of poetry, The Drunken Clock, was published in 1961 in Toronto.
Then the centre of a literary revival in Canada, encouraged by the editor Robert Weaver and influential teacher Northrop Frye. MacEwen was thus in touch with Margaret Atwood, Dennis Lee, etc.. She married 19 years her senior, in 1962, although they divorced two years later, she published in a variety of genres. She wrote numerous radio docudramas for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, including a "much-admired radio drama", Terror and Erebus, in 1965 which featured music by Terry Rusling. With her second husband, Greek musician Niko Tsingos, MacEwen opened a Toronto coffeehouse, The Trojan Horse, in 1972, she and Tsingos translated some of the poetry of contemporary Greek writer Yiannis Ritsos. She taught herself to read Hebrew, Arabic and French, translated writers from each of those languages. In 1978 her translation of Euripides' drama The Trojan Women was first performed in Toronto, she served as writer in residence at the University of Western Ontario in 1985, the University of Toronto in 1986 and 1987.
MacEwen died at the age of 46, of health problems related to alcoholism. She is buried in Toronto's Mount Pleasant Cemetery. "A sophisticated, wide-ranging and thoughtful writer," says The Canadian Encyclopedia, MacEwen "displayed a commanding interest in magic and history as well as an elaborate and penetrating dexterity in her versecraft."Her two novels – Julian the Magician, dealing with the ambiguous relationship between the hermetic philosophies of the early Renaissance and Christianity. MacEwen won the Governor General's Award in 1969 for her poetry collection The Shadow Maker, she was awarded a second Governor General's Award posthumously in 1987 for Afterworlds. Other awards and prizes MacEwen won include the CBC New Canadian Writing Contest for poetry in 1965. J. M. Smith Poetry Award in 1973, her writing has been translated into many languages including Chinese, French and Italian. Rosemary Sullivan published a biography of MacEwen, Shadow Maker: The Life of Gwendolyn MacEwen, in 1995, which itself won the Governor General's Award, for non-fiction in 1995.
Fictional tributes to MacEwen have been published by Margaret Atwood, Lorne S. Jones. A one-woman play by Linda Griffiths, Alien Creature: A Visitation from Gwendolyn MacEwen, won the Dora Mavor Moore Award and the Chalmers Award in 2000; the former Walmer Road Park, in The Annex neighbourhood of Toronto, was renamed Gwendolyn MacEwen Park in her honor in 1994. On 9 September 2006, a bronze bust of MacEwen by her friend, sculptor John McCombe Reynolds, was unveiled in the park; the park had been a grassy traffic circle in the middle of Walmer Road at Lowther Avenue, but a $300,000 makeover in 2010, expanded the park and narrowed the surrounding roads. The unique redesigned greenspace reopened 21 July 2010, writer Claudia Dey read one of MacEwen's poems. Media related to Gwendolyn MacEwen Park at Wikimedia Commons Selah. Toronto: Aleph Press, 1961; the Drunken Clock. Toronto: Aleph Press, 1961; the Rising Fire. Toronto: Contact Press, 1963. Terror and Erebus A Breakfast for Barbarians. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1966.
The Shadow-Maker. Toronto: Macmillan, 1969; the Armies of the Moon. Toronto: Macmillan, 1972. ISBN 978-0-7705-0868-5 Magic Animals: Selected Poems Old and New. Toronto: Macmillan, 1974. ISBN 978-0-7705-1214-9 Trojan Women, 1981; the Fire-Eaters. Ottawa: Oberon Press, 1982. ISBN 978-0-88750-179-1 The T. E. Lawrence Poems. Oakville: Mosaic Press, 1982. Earth-Light: Selected Poetry 1963-1982. Toronto: General Publishing, 1982. ISBN 978-0-7736-1117-7 The Man with Three Violins 1986 HMS Press ISBN 0-919957-83-8 Afterworlds. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1987. ISBN 978-0-7710-5428-0 Atwood and Barry Callaghan, eds; the Poetry of Gwendolyn MacEwen: The Early Years. Toronto: Exile Editions, 1993. ISBN 978-1-55096-543-8 Atwood and Barry Callaghan, eds; the Poetry of Gwendolyn MacEwen: The Later Years. Toronto: Exile Editions, 1993. ISBN 978-1-55096-547-6 Gwendolyn MacEwen; the Selected Gwendolyn MacEwen. Exile Editions, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-55096-111-9. Julian the Magician. Insomniac Press. 2004. ISBN 978-1-894663-57-1. King of Egypt, King of Dreams.
A hippie is a member of the counterculture of the 1960s a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world. The word hippie came from hipster and used to describe beatniks who moved into New York City's Greenwich Village and San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district; the term hippie first found popularity in San Francisco with Herb Caen, a journalist for the San Francisco Chronicle. The origins of the terms hip and hep are uncertain. By the 1940s, both had meant "sophisticated; the Beats adopted the term hip, early hippies inherited the language and countercultural values of the Beat Generation. Hippies created their own communities, listened to psychedelic music, embraced the sexual revolution, many used drugs such as marijuana, LSD, psilocybin mushrooms to explore altered states of consciousness. In 1967, the Human Be-In in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, Monterey Pop Festival popularized hippie culture, leading to the Summer of Love on the West Coast of the United States, the 1969 Woodstock Festival on the East Coast.
Hippies in Mexico, known as jipitecas, formed La Onda and gathered at Avándaro, while in New Zealand, nomadic housetruckers practiced alternative lifestyles and promoted sustainable energy at Nambassa. In the United Kingdom in 1970, many gathered at the gigantic Isle of Wight Festival with a crowd of around 400,000 people. In years, mobile "peace convoys" of New Age travelers made summer pilgrimages to free music festivals at Stonehenge and elsewhere. In Australia, hippies gathered at Nimbin for the 1973 Aquarius Festival and the annual Cannabis Law Reform Rally or MardiGrass. "Piedra Roja Festival", a major hippie event in Chile, was held in 1970. Hippie and psychedelic culture influenced 1960s and early 1970s young culture in Iron Curtain countries in Eastern Europe. Hippie fashion and values had a major effect on culture, influencing popular music, film and the arts. Since the 1960s, mainstream society has assimilated many aspects of hippie culture; the religious and cultural diversity the hippies espoused has gained widespread acceptance, their pop versions of Eastern philosophy and Asian spiritual concepts have reached a larger audience.
Lexicographer Jesse Sheidlower, the principal American editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, argues that the terms hipster and hippie derive from the word hip, whose origins are unknown. The word hip in the sense of "aware, in the know" is first attested in a 1902 cartoon by Tad Dorgan, first appeared in prose in a 1904 novel by George Vere Hobart, Jim Hickey: A Story of the One-Night Stands, where an African-American character uses the slang phrase "Are you hip?" The term hipster was coined by Harry Gibson in 1944. By the 1940s, the terms hip and hepcat were popular in Harlem jazz slang, although hep came to denote an inferior status to hip. In Greenwich Village in the early 1960s, New York City, young counterculture advocates were named hips because they were considered "in the know" or "cool", as opposed to being square. In the April 27, 1961 issue of The Village Voice, "An open letter to JFK & Fidel Castro", Norman Mailer utilizes the term hippies, in questioning JFK's behavior. In a 1961 essay, Kenneth Rexroth used both the terms hipster and hippies to refer to young people participating in black American or Beatnik nightlife.
According to Malcolm X's 1964 autobiography, the word hippie in 1940s Harlem had been used to describe a specific type of white man who "acted more Negro than Negroes". Andrew Loog Oldham refers to "all the Chicago hippies," in reference to black blues/R&B musicians, in his rear sleeve notes to the 1965 LP The Rolling Stones, Now! The word hippie was used in reference to Philadelphia in at least two popular songs in 1963: South Street by The Orlons, You Can't Sit Down by The Dovells. In both songs, the term is applied to residents of Philadelphia's South Street. Although the word hippies made other isolated appearances in print during the early 1960s, the first use of the term on the West Coast appeared in the article "A New Paradise for Beatniks" by San Francisco journalist Michael Fallon. In that article, Fallon wrote about the Blue Unicorn Cafe, using the term hippie to refer to the new generation of beatniks who had moved from North Beach into the Haight-Ashbury district. New York Times editor and usage writer Theodore M. Bernstein said the paper changed the spelling from hippy to hippie to avoid the ambiguous description of clothing as hippy fashions.
A July 1968 Time magazine study on hippie philosophy credited the foundation of the hippie movement with historical precedent as far back as the sadhu of India, the spiritual seekers who had renounced the world by taking "Sannyas". The counterculture of the Ancient Greeks, espoused by philosophers like Diogenes of Sinope and the cynics were early forms of hippie culture, it named as notable influences the religious and spiritual teachings of Henry David Thoreau, Hillel the Elder, Buddha, St. Francis of Assisi, J. R. R. Tolkien; the first signs of modern "proto-hippies" emerged in fin de siècle Europe. Late 1890s to early 1900s, a German youth movement arose as a countercultural reaction to the organized social and cultural clubs that centered around "German folk music". Known as Der Wandervogel, the hippie movement opposed the formality of traditional German clubs, instead emphasizing folk music and singing, creative dress, outdoor
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Bloor Street is a major east–west residential and commercial thoroughfare in Toronto, Canada. Bloor Street runs from the Prince Edward Viaduct, which spans the Don River Valley, westward into Mississauga where it ends at Central Parkway. East of the viaduct, Danforth Avenue continues along the same right-of-way; the street 25 kilometres long, contains a significant cross-sample of Toronto's ethnic communities. It is home to Toronto's famous shopping street, the Mink Mile. A portion of Line 2 of the Bloor-Danforth subway line runs along Bloor from Kipling Avenue to the Don Valley Parkway, continues east along Danforth Avenue. Surveyed as the first concession road north of the baseline, it was known by many names, including the Tollgate Road St. Paul's Road. From 1844 until 1854 it was known as Sydenham Road after Baron Sydenham, Governor General of Canada 1839–1841; the street was given its current name in honour of Joseph Bloor, a local brewer and land speculator who founded the Village of Yorkville in 1830 on the north side of this street and, one of the street's original residents.
Sections of Bloor Street near High Park was still undeveloped in the early part of the 20th Century. Sections along High Park required infill to eliminate the natural deep valleys in the area. On the eastern terminus Bloor ended at Sherbourne Avenue at Rosedale Valley and where once the Sherbourne Blockhouse stood. A small footpath from Howard Street was the only means to reach the eastern end of the valley to continue along Danforth Avenue until the Prince Edward Viaduct was completed in 1918; the idea of installing bicycle lanes on Bloor had been debated since at least the early 1970s. On 4 May 2016, city council voted 38-3 to implement physically separated bike lanes along a 2.6-km stretch of the street. Mayor John Tory stated, in support of the project, that if council sought to make Toronto a "21st century city", it must improve at providing "alternate ways to move people around the city." Bloor street begins at the eastern edge of the Prince Edward Viaduct, which passes over the ravine holding the Don River.
The street continues through to the Rosedale Ravine, marking the southern border of the affluent community of Rosedale. West of Parliament Street, the street passes just to the north of the large St. James Town housing project, which stretches west to Sherbourne Street. On the northern side of this section of Bloor are the forested slopes of the Rosedale Ravine. Between Sherbourne and Church Streets the street is lined by large office towers home to insurance companies; this area has long been the centre of the insurance industry in Canada. West of Church the street is an important shopping district. In downtown around the intersection with Bay Street, Bloor is one of the most exclusive stretches of real estate in Canada. Rents on the upscale Bloor Street have doubled in 4 years, ranking as the 22nd most expensive retail location in the world in 2006, up two spots from 2005. Nationally, Vancouver's upscale Robson Street tied with Bloor Street West as the most expensive street in Canada, with an annual average rental price of $208 per square foot.
Under the intersection of Yonge and Bloor Streets is the Bloor–Yonge subway station, the busiest in the city, serving 368,800 people a day. Above ground, the intersection encompasses commercial condominiums. In the downtown, Bloor Street serves as the northern edge of the University of Toronto campus, is host to several historic sites, including the Bata Shoe Museum, the Royal Conservatory of Music, the southern edge of Yorkville, in an area now known as the Bloor Street Culture Corridor. West of the university, which ends at Spadina Avenue, Bloor Street runs through a diverse series of neighbourhoods such as The Annex, Dufferin Grove, Roncesvalles, High Park and Runnymede, it retains its commercial character, serves as the main shopping area for most of these communities. Numerous sections of the street have named'business improvement areas' such as Bloorcourt Village, Bloordale Village and Bloor West Village. In Toronto's west end, Bloor Street crisscrosses Dundas Street twice, between Lansdowne Avenue and Parkside Drive and again in the Six Points area as these streets follow the old trails.
Markland Wood is the westernmost residential community in the city of Toronto. Through Mississauga, Bloor Street links the residential communities of Applewood Hills and Applewood Heights, terminating at Central Parkway, about one kilometre east of Hurontario Street. A second section of Bloor once continued a short distance west of Hurontario, but was incorporated into Central Parkway which runs both north and west from the street's western terminus as the only completed part of an aborted ring road project around Mississauga City Centre; until 1998, Bloor Street was designated as Ontario Highway 5 from Kipling Avenue east to the Don River. Like many urban stretches of provincial roadway, it was formally decommissioned as a Connecting Link on January 1. Beginning in 2019 the City of Toronto is reconfiguring the intersection at Kipling Avenue that will create an at-grade intersection with Dundas Street overpass removed thus requiring traffic west to divert via Dunbloor Road; the stretch of Bloor between Yonge Street and Avenue Road, in Yorkville, is called Mink Mile, it is the most prestigious shopping street in Toronto
York, Upper Canada
York was a town and second capital of the district of Upper Canada. It is the predecessor to the old city of Toronto, it was established in 1793 by Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe as a "temporary" location for the capital of Upper Canada, while he made plans to build a capital near today's London, Ontario. Simcoe renamed the location York after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, George III's second son. Simcoe gave up his plan to build a capital at London, York became the permanent capital of Upper Canada on February 1, 1796; that year Simcoe was temporarily replaced by Peter Russell. The original townsite was a compact ten blocks near the mouth of the Don River and a garrison was built at the channel to Toronto Harbour. Government buildings and a law court were established. Yonge Street was built. To the east, Kingston Road was built to the mouth of the Trent River. In 1797, the town site was expanded to the west to allow for public buildings and expansion. One of the new area's public functions, a public market, was started in 1803.
It continues today as St. Lawrence Market; the garrison was attacked during the War of 1812. As the British Army retreated, it blew up the garrison, leading to the death of numerous American soldiers and the American general commanding the attack; the victorious Americans burned down the government buildings. The Americans chose not to occupy the town and the British returned without conflict. A retribution attack was made on the American capital of Washington. After the war was over, the town continued to grow, expanding to the west, leaving the original town site, a less desirable location, somewhat undeveloped. A new parliament building was erected, near the original location, but this burned down and a new building was built in the new lands to the west. A permanent fort, Fort York, was built on the site of the garrison. Dundas Street was built to connect York to towns to the west. In the 1820s, the town experienced a surge of immigrants, expanding from 1,000 residents to over 9,000 by the time the town was incorporated as the City of Toronto in 1834.
During its existence, the town did not have its own government. By 1830, this led to an ongoing political conflict, which would lead to the 1837 Upper Canada Rebellion; when Europeans first arrived at the site of York, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquoian Seneca tribe, who by had displaced the Wyandot tribes that had occupied the region for centuries before c. 1600. By 1701, the Iroquoian villages, established along the north shore of Lake Ontario during the sixteenth century had been abandoned; the Algonkian Mississaugas moved into the York region, created alliances with the former Iroquoian residents, established their own settlements. The name Toronto is derived from indigenous sources. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name; the word "toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a French lexicon of the Huron language in 1632, it appeared on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers.
In Mohawk, the word tkaronto, meant "place where trees stand in the water". It refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron and preceding inhabitants had planted tree saplings to corral fish; the shoreline was sandy and parts sloping down to Lake Ontario. The original shoreline followed. Everything now south of Front Street is the result of land fill; the Toronto Islands were still connected to the mainland. It was wooded, with marshes in what is now Ashbridge's Bay and the natural mouth of the Don. Other than Lake Ontario, other waterways into old town included the Don and several other small creeks, such as Garrison Creek and Taddle Creek. Between 1710 and 1750, French traders established two trading posts on the Humber River, Magasin Royale, Fort Toronto; the success of Fort Toronto led the French to build Fort Rouillé on the current Exhibition grounds in 1750. It only lasted until 1759, abandoned after the fall of Fort Niagara, when the French retreated to Montreal.
The British arrived the next year with an army to secure the location. The British claimed all of New France after the 1763 Treaty of Paris, extended the Province of Quebec to present-day Ontario. After the American Revolutionary War, the region saw an influx of British settlers as United Empire Loyalists arrived in numbers north of Lake Ontario, as the British offered free land to many; as plans were being made to create the new province of Upper Canada, British North America Governor-General Lord Dorchester selected the area north of Toronto Bay for a new capital. Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississaugas of New Credit, thereby securing more than a 250,000 acres of land; the purchase was disputed in 1788, a further agreement was made in 1805, but a final settlement of the purchase would only come 200 years in 2010, for a total of CA$145 million. In 1791, Upper Canada was established, with Newark its first capital; the first Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe arrived in 1792 and first visited the Toronto Purchase site in May 1793.
Impressed by the site and harbour, he moved the capital to Toronto, on a "temporary" basis, while he worked on plans
Avenue Road is a major north-south street in Toronto, Ontario. The road is a continuation of University Avenue, linked to it via Queen's Park and Queen's Park Crescent East and West to form a single through route; until January 1, 1998, these roads were designated Highway 11A. Avenue Road is the western limit of the former town of Yorkville beginning at Bloor Street and ending just north of Highway 401. At its southern terminus, it runs between two of Toronto's major hotels, the Park Hyatt and the Four Seasons Hotel. On the northeast corner of the intersection with Bloor is the Church of the Redeemer. For much of its length the road is residential, with a mix of small businesses, as well as a few large schools and churches. A notable site along this "lower section" is the Hare Krishna Temple the Avenue Road Church, opposite Dupont Street and across the street from the Anglican Church of The Messiah. Just north of St. Clair Avenue, Avenue Road is interrupted by Upper Canada College, ending at Lonsdale Road and resuming again at Kilbarry Road.
The primary traffic route runs east of the school, following widened sections of Lonsdale Road and Oriole Parkway and returning to Avenue Road via Oxton Avenue.. North of Eglinton Avenue, the former St. James-Bond Church once stood; this building, which used to house two prime downtown congregations – St. James Square, Bond Street – was built in the late 1920s, closed in June 2005, it has since been demolished. Near Lawrence Avenue is Havergal College, a large private girls' school. Although in the former city of North York, much of the area considers the school part of North Toronto. Avenue Road ends at Bombay Avenue, just after crossing Highway 401. Avenue Road continued from what is now the interchange by angling northeast via the Hogg's Hollow Bridge to end at Yonge Street. A few miles north of Toronto's Avenue Road, there is a separate Avenue Road in Richmond Hill, running due north of the Toronto one; the thoroughfare's name sounds tautological or self-contradictory from a North American perspective, where avenue is one of the most common generic designations for street names.
However, Avenue Road is a common street name elsewhere in the English-speaking world, notably London, where at least 40 streets bear this name. In British English, an avenue is a row of trees, hence Avenue Road denotes a street lined with trees, thus one's reaction to the name may be seen as a shibboleth evincing attachment to British or American culture. A common urban legend about the origin of the name goes. Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe was surveying the old town of York and came to a spot on Bloor Street and pointed north, he said, "Let's'ave a new road!" Public transit along Avenue Road is provided by the Toronto Transit Commission, on three different bus routes. The two main full-service routes are the 5 Avenue Road, the 61 Avenue Road North, which provide service south and north of Eglinton Avenue respectively; the former originates from Eglinton station and takes commuters into downtown, the latter originates from a bus loop at the northern end and feeds into Eglinton station.
There is an express route, 142 Avenue Road Express, which runs the length of the road, for a direct ride into downtown and the Financial District. It requires a double fare. Avenue Road at Google Maps
Roberta Joan "Joni" Mitchell, CC is a Canadian singer-songwriter. Drawing from folk, pop and jazz, Mitchell's songs reflect social and environmental ideals as well as her feelings about romance, confusion and joy, she has received many accolades, including nine Grammy Awards. Rolling Stone called her "one of the greatest songwriters ever", AllMusic has stated, "When the dust settles, Joni Mitchell may stand as the most important and influential female recording artist of the late 20th century". Mitchell began singing in small nightclubs in her hometown of Saskatoon and throughout western Canada, before busking in the streets and nightclubs of Toronto, Ontario. In 1965, she began touring; some of her original songs were covered by other folk singers, allowing her to sign with Reprise Records and record her debut album, Song to a Seagull, in 1968. Settling in Southern California, with popular songs like "Big Yellow Taxi" and "Woodstock", helped define an era and a generation, her 1971 album Blue is cited as one of the best albums of all time.
In 2000, The New York Times chose Blue as one of the 25 albums that represented "turning points and pinnacles in 20th-century popular music". In 2017, NPR ranked Blue Number 1 on a list of Greatest Albums Made By Women. Mitchell's fifth album, For the Roses, was released in 1972, she switched labels and began exploring more jazz-influenced melodic ideas, by way of lush pop textures, on 1974's Court and Spark, which featured the radio hits "Help Me" and "Free Man in Paris" and became her best-selling album. Around 1975, Mitchell's vocal range began to shift from mezzo-soprano to more of a wide-ranging contralto, her distinctive piano and open-tuned guitar compositions grew more harmonically and rhythmically complex as she explored jazz, melding it with influences of rock and roll, R&B, classical music and non-western beats. In the late 1970s, she began working with noted jazz musicians, among them Jaco Pastorius, Wayne Shorter, Herbie Hancock, Pat Metheny, as well as Charles Mingus, who asked her to collaborate on his final recordings.
She turned again toward pop, embraced electronic music, engaged in political protest. In 2002, she was awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 44th Annual Grammy Awards. Mitchell is the sole producer credited on most including all her work in the 1970s. A blunt critic of the music industry, she quit touring and released her 17th, last, album of original songs in 2007. With roots in visual art, Mitchell has designed most of her own album covers, she describes herself as a "painter derailed by circumstance". Mitchell was born Roberta Joan Anderson on November 7, 1943, in Fort Macleod, Canada, the daughter of Myrtle Marguerite and William Andrew Anderson, her mother's ancestors were Irish. Her mother was a teacher while her father was a Royal Canadian Air Force flight lieutenant who instructed new pilots at RCAF Station Fort Macleod, she moved with her parents to various bases in western Canada. After the war she settled with her family in Saskatchewan, she sang about her small-town upbringing in several of her songs, including "Song for Sharon".
At school Mitchell struggled. During this time she studied classical piano. At age nine, Mitchell contracted polio in an epidemic, was hospitalised for weeks. Following this incident she focused on her creative talent, considered a singing or dancing career for the first time. By nine, she was a smoker. At 11, she moved with her family to the city of Saskatoon, she responded badly to formal education. One unconventional teacher did manage to make an impact on her, stimulating her to write poetry, her first album includes a dedication to him. In Grade 12, she dropped out and hung out downtown with a rowdy set until deciding that she was getting too close to the criminal world. At this time, country music began to eclipse rock, Mitchell wanted to play the guitar; as her mother disapproved of its hillbilly associations, she settled for the ukulele. She taught herself guitar from a Pete Seeger songbook; the polio had weakened her left hand, so she devised alternative tunings to compensate. Mitchell started singing with her friends at bonfires around Waskesiu Lake, northwest of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan.
Her first paid performance was on October 31, 1962, at a Saskatoon club that featured folk and jazz performers. At 18, she widened her repertoire to include her own favorite performers like Édith Piaf and Miles Davis. Though she never performed jazz herself in those days and her friends sought out gigs by jazz musicians. Mitchell said, "My jazz background began with one of the early Lambert and Ross albums." That album, The Hottest New Group in Jazz, was hard to find in Canada, she says. "So I bought it at a bootleg price. I considered. I learned every song off of it, I don't think there is another album anywhere—including my own—on which I know every note and word of every song."But art was still her chief passion at this stage, when she finished high school at