Toronto Reference Library
The Toronto Reference Library is located at 789 Yonge Street, one block north of Bloor Street, in Toronto, Canada. The Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library, the name was changed in 1998 when it was incorporated into the Toronto Public Library system; the library operated separately before the amalgamation of the City of Toronto and surrounding boroughs in 1998. It is one of the three largest libraries in the city along with the Robarts Library at the University of Toronto and Scott Library at York University; the 38,691 m² five-storey building, designed by architect Raymond Moriyama, opened in 1977 and is the biggest public reference library in Canada. A curving atrium in the middle of the large library creates sight lines across floors, provides natural ventilation and introduces natural light from its sophisticated skylights; the design of this library was influenced by the hanging garden of Babylon and therefore plants were located around the edge of each floor facing the atrium. However, due to financial constraints, the plants were removed.
The brick façade of the building creates harmony with the surrounding buildings as well as providing thermal benefits. The library's collection is non-circulating, although some materials can be borrowed; the library had 1,653,665 catalogued items in 2010, including: 1.5 Million volumes 2.5 Million other materials 475 metres of manuscript materialsThe TD Gallery is the library's exhibit gallery, features exhibits of art, documents and other items from the collections. Like all libraries in the Toronto Public Library system, the reference library offers free wireless Internet, as well as computers that can be used free of charge. Many of these public computers are located on the main floor, but they are available on all floors including the basement; the Digital Innovation Hub, provides access to more advanced software and staff assistance for a small fee. Information and reference services Access to full text databases Community information Art exhibit space Newcomer Information services Piano practice room Reader's advisory services Programs for children and adults Delivery to homebound individuals Interlibrary loan Book discussion groups Free downloadable audiobooks 3D printingThe library's hours of operation are weekdays 9:00am – 8:30pm, Saturday 9:00am – 5:00pm, Sunday 1:30pm – 5:00pm.
Among the special collections at the Toronto Reference Library are: The Arthur Conan Doyle Collection, devoted to the life and works of the creator of Sherlock Holmes, is housed in a room built to look like Holmes's study at 221B Baker St. The Baldwin Room, a collection of books, periodicals, manuscripts and printed ephemera, maps and historical pictures relating to Upper Canada and to early Toronto; this collection is named for Robert Baldwin, a leading political reformer in Upper Canada and pre-Confederation Premier. However it includes a Canadian historical picture collection illustrating the history of Canada donated to the library in 1910 by John Ross Robertson and publisher of the Toronto Telegram and a major philanthropist of Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children, which now contains thousands of historical paintings, prints and postcards; the Genealogy and Local History Collection, whose strength is Canadian content but which includes numerous resources for Great Britain and the United States.
The Map Collection of current and historical maps, atlases and cartography resources is international in scope. Some of the resources it includes are: maps of Toronto from 1788 to the present, Toronto fire insurance plans and Goad maps and atlases, as well as current and retrospective topographic and photo maps of the Toronto area; the Art Room containing rare books, photographs and manuscripts, including important costume design and sheet music collections. The library has an extensive performing arts collection, including papers and information on many Canadian artists, such as Al Waxman and The Dumbells; some of the materials in this collection are available online. The Bram & Bluma Appel Salon at the Toronto Reference Library is an event space located on the second floor of the Library, it opened to the public on September 23, 2009. The Salon hosts free cultural programming organized by the library; when not in use for library programs, the Salon is available to be rented for private functions.
The Toronto Reference Library's renovation project was completed in 2012 at a cost of $34 million. The project included: Glass Entrance Cube, Yonge Street Façade Expansion and a Revitalized Exhibition Gallery Space Special Collections Rotunda Enhanced Research and Study Areas New and innovative technology Basement sponsored by the Toronto Star containing a collection of recent editions of various newspapers from across Canada and around the world Balzac's Café by the main entrance Page and Panel - The Toronto Comic Arts Festival Store on the ground floor a pop-up store in 2014 became permanent as of 2015Page and Panel not only sells merchandise pertaining to comic books, but merchandise pertaining to manga and Japanese video games from Nintendo franchises such as Mario, Legend of Zelda and Pokémon as well. In 2017, the Toronto Reference Library was used as the filming location for The Weeknd's music video for his song "Secrets." Toronto Reference Library Homepage Linda Besner. "Risotto and virtual reality: how Canada created the world's best libraries".
The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2018-09-2
Old Toronto is the retronym of the area contained within the original boundaries of Toronto, Canada, from 1834 to 1998. It was first incorporated as a city in 1834, after being known as the town of York, became part of York County. In 1954, it became the administrative headquarters for the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto; the city expanded in size by annexation of surrounding municipalities, reaching its final boundaries in 1967. In 1998, it was amalgamated with the other cities of Metropolitan Toronto; this was not a traditional annexation of the surrounding municipalities, but rather a new municipal entity, the successor of the original city. "Old Toronto" referred to Toronto's boundaries before the Great Toronto Fire of 1904, when much of city's development was to the east of Yonge Street. Since the amalgamation, the former city is variously referred to as the "former city of Toronto" or "Old Toronto." It is sometimes referred to as "downtown" or as "the core." Old Toronto has a population density of 8,210 people per square kilometre, which would rank it as the densest in Canada among cities with a population over 250,000 if it were still a separate city.
The former town of York was incorporated on March 6, 1834, reverting to the name Toronto to distinguish it from New York City, as well as about a dozen other localities named "York" in the province, to dissociate itself from the negative connotation of "dirty Little York", a common nickname for the town by its residents. The population was recorded in June 1834 at 9,252. In 1834, Toronto was incorporated with the boundaries of Bathurst Street to the west, 400 yards north of Lot Street to the north, Parliament Street to the east. Outside this formal boundary were the "liberties", land pre-destined to be used for new wards; these boundaries were today's Dufferin Street to the west, Bloor Street to the north, the Don River to the east, with a section along the lakeshore east of the Don and south of today's Queen Street to the approximate location of today's Maclean Street. The liberties formally became part of the city in 1859 and the wards were remapped. William Lyon Mackenzie, a Reformer, was Toronto's first mayor, a position he only held for one year, losing to Tory Robert Baldwin Sullivan in 1835.
Sullivan was replaced by Dr. Thomas David Morrison in 1836. Another Tory, George Gurnett, was elected in 1837; that year, Toronto was the site of the key events of the Upper Canada Rebellion. Mackenzie would lead an assault on Montgomery's Tavern, beginning the Upper Canada Rebellion; the attacks were ineffectual, as British regulars, the Canadian militia in Toronto went out to the rebel camp at Montgomery's Tavern and dispersed the rebels. Mackenzie and other Reformers escaped to the United States, while some rebel leaders, such as Samuel Lount and Peter Matthews, were hanged. Toronto would elect a succession of Tory or Conservative mayors, it was not until the 1850s that a Reform member would be mayor again. Shortly after the rebellion, Toronto was ravaged by its first great fire in 1849; the fire was one of two great fires to occur in the city, with the other occurring in 1904. In their efforts to control the city and its citizens, the Tories were willing to turn to extra-governmental tools of social control, such as the Orange Order in Canada.
As historian Gregory Kealey concluded, "Following the delegitimation of Reform after the Rebellions were suppressed, the Corporation developed into an impenetrable bastion of Orange-Tory strength." By 1844, six of Toronto's ten aldermen were Orangemen, over the rest of the 19th century, twenty of twenty-three mayors would be as well. A parliamentary committee reporting on the 1841 Orange Riot in Toronto concluded that the powers granted the Corporation made it ripe for Orange abuse. Orange influence dominated the emerging police force, giving it a "monopoly of legal violence, the power to choose when to enforce the law." Orange Order violence at elections and other political meetings was a staple of the period. Between 1839 and 1866, the Orange Order was involved in 29 riots in Toronto, of which 16 had direct political inspiration. At its height in 1942, 16 of the 23 members of city council were members of the Orange Order; every mayor of Toronto in the first half of the 20th century was an Orangeman.
This continued until the 1954 election when the Jewish Nathan Phillips defeated radical Orange leader Leslie Howard Saunders. The boundaries of Toronto remained unchanged into the 1880s. Toronto expanded into the west by annexing the Town of Brockton in 1884, the Town of Parkdale in 1889, properties west to Swansea by 1893. In the 1880s, Toronto expanded to the north, annexing Yorkville in 1883, The Annex in 1887, Seaton Village in 1888. In the 1900s, Toronto expanded again to the north, annexing Rosedale in 1905, Deer Park in 1908, the City of West Toronto and Wychwood Park in 1909, Dovercourt Park and Earlscourt in 1910, Moore Park and North Toronto in 1912. To the east, Toronto annexed Riverdale in 1884, a strip east of Greenwood in 1890, Town of East Toronto in 1908, an extension east to Victoria Park Avenue in 1909, the Midway in 1909. By 1908, the named wards were abolished, replaced by a simple numbering scheme of War
Scarborough Civic Centre
The Scarborough Civic Centre is a civic centre located in the Scarborough district of Toronto, Canada. It was designed by architect Raymond Moriyama during the development of Scarborough City Centre and opened as the city hall of the former borough of Scarborough by mayor Albert Campbell and Queen Elizabeth II in 1973; the building served as office for the Scarborough Board of Education. Following the amalgamation of Toronto, Scarborough lost its city status and the civic centre became a secondary hub for the City of Toronto, it is home to the Scarborough Community Council and offices of the Toronto District School Board. The civic centre is adjacent to Albert Campbell Square, it is south of Scarborough Centre the Scarborough Town Centre shopping mall. The building is unique for the juxtaposition of two triangular shaped, multiple split level towers, which surround an open central area in the interior. Outside the Civic Centre on the north side is Albert Campbell Square, named after Albert Campbell, Scarborough's first mayor, with a waterfall and reflecting pool, used as a skating rink in winter.
Sculptures are found on the southwest side of the building. The Hand of God, dedicated to Albert Campbell, depicts a man held up by a hand and is mounted on a mast. Frank Faubert Forest, a wooded area south of the Civic Centre is named for Scarborough's last mayor, Frank Faubert. Inside the main hall is a rising series of polished metal unfolding tetrahedrons resembling birds rising toward the ceiling from the main-floor-level pond, designed by Toronto artist James Sutherland in 1972. In 2015, the Toronto Public Library opened the Scarborough Civic Centre branch, its 100th library branch. East York Civic Centre Etobicoke Civic Centre York Civic Centre North York Civic Centre Metro Hall Toronto City Hall Scarborough Civic Centre
Old City Hall (Toronto)
The Old City Hall is a Romanesque civic building and court house in Toronto, Canada. It was the home of the Toronto City Council from 1899 to 1966 and remains one of the city's most prominent structures; the building is located at the corner of Queen and Bay Streets, across Bay Street from Nathan Phillips Square and the present City Hall in the Downtown Toronto. The heritage landmark has a distinctive clock tower which heads the length of Bay Street from Front Street to Queen Street as a terminating vista. Old City Hall was designated a National Historic Site in 1984. Toronto's Old City Hall was one of the largest buildings in Toronto and the largest civic building in North America upon completion in 1899, it was the burgeoning city's third city hall. It housed Toronto's municipal government and courts for York County and Toronto, taking over from the Adelaide Street Court House. York County offices were located in Old City Hall from 1900 to 1953. With the establishment of Metropolitan Toronto, the county seat moved to Ontario.
Designed by prominent Toronto architect Edward James Lennox, the building took more than a decade to build and cost more than $2.5 million. Work on the building began in 1889 and was built on the site of old York buildings including the Lennox hotel, it was constructed of sandstone from the Credit River valley, grey stone from the Orangeville, Ontario area, brown stone from New Brunswick. Angry councillors, due to cost overruns and construction delays, refused E. J. Lennox a plaque proclaiming him as architect for the completed building in 1899. Not to be denied, Lennox had stonemasons "sign" his name in corbels beneath the upper floor eaves around the entire building: "EJ LENNOX ARCHITECT AD 1898". Lennox designed an annex, called Manning Chambers after former mayor Alexander Manning, at the northwest corner of Bay and Queen Street. Completed in 1900, the five-storey building was demolished to make way for the current Toronto City Hall. Planners proposed a public plaza at the south entrance of the city hall called Victoria Square.
The space was to be an urban square with diagonal walkways meeting at a central statue of Queen Victoria, its proposed namesake. The plan was never executed and a smaller space was allocated in front of the building by Queen Street; the City Beautiful movement influenced Toronto planning as well in the early 20th century, a plan was formulated for a grand thoroughfare from Queen Street at City Hall to Front Street that would have been called Federal Avenue. It, was never built, though the City Beautiful movement did influence the urban design principles of nearby University Avenue. At the foot of the steps on Queen Street is the Cenotaph, erected in 1925 to honour Torontonians who died in World War I fighting for Canada, also in honour of Torontonians who died in the Second World War, the Korean War, Canadian peacekeeping operations during Remembrance Day ceremonies every November 11. Four gargoyles were part of the Clock Tower during the 1899 construction, but were removed due to the effects of the weather on the sandstone carvings in 1938.
In 2002, bronze casts of the gargoyles were reinstalled. The replicas are not duplicates; the gargoyles are similar to those on the Peace Tower in Ottawa. Two grotesques and antique lampposts at the base of the grand staircase inside were removed in 1947 and sold, they were reinstalled in the 1980s. Despite its size, Old City Hall proved inadequate for Toronto's growing municipal government within a couple of decades of completion. Under Mayor Nathan Phillips, Toronto City Council launched an international design competition for a new city hall and public square across Bay Street and completed a striking Modernist city hall and public square in 1965. Soon after in the 1960s, plans were made to start construction of the Toronto Eaton Centre; the original plans called for Old City Hall to be demolished and replaced by a retail complex, a number of skyscrapers around a large plaza, leaving only the cenotaph in the front. Public outcry forced authorities to abandon these plans, the Eaton Centre was constructed around the landmark civic building and the Church of the Holy Trinity.
Old City Hall became a dedicated courthouse. The building is leased by the provincial government and is used as a court house for the Ontario Court of Justice; the City of Toronto has served notice on the province that its current lease at Old City Hall will not be renewed past December 31, 2016. The city spent $77 million on renovations completed in 2005 to restore the exterior and the 103.6 metre-high clock tower. Over the next two years, the city spent an additional $7.2-million on interior repairs completed in 2012. There was speculation. On September 21, 2015, the City of Toronto released an internal study that recommended leasing parts of the Old City Hall to retail tenants. However, in early October, the city said it would allow courts to remain until December 31, 2021, while a new courthouse is constructed. In lieu of converting the structure into retail space, the Government Management Committee voted to study housing a city museum in the historic structure. Old City Hall can be described as a massive square quad with a courtyard in the middle.
Situated at the front elevation, its clock tower was placed off centre to provide a terminating vista for Bay Street. In spite of this seeming asymmetry, the balance of the design is still existent throughout. Though the clock tower was off centre, balance was achieved through the repetition of the sub
Henry Langley (architect)
Henry Langley was a Canadian architect based in Toronto. He was active from 1854 to 1907. Among the first architects born and trained in Canada, he was a founding members of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts in 1880 and was instrumental in establishing the Ontario Association of Architects in 1889. A conservative in architectural design, he is known for designing numerous churches in the Toronto area, although he designed many secular buildings as well including residential and public buildings. Langley designed 70 churches throughout Ontario, he was the first chair of the Department of Architecture at the University of Toronto, where he taught during the 1880s and 1890s. Langley's parents, William Langley and Esther Anderson, emigrated to Canada from Ireland in 1832. Born in Toronto, Langley received his general education from the Toronto Academy where part of his training included studying the principles of drawing. In early 1854 he became apprenticed to Scottish architect William Hay, a specialist in gothic architecture.
During his seven-year apprenticeship, he worked with Hay on some of the oldest buildings and structures in Toronto, including St. Basil's Church, two of the original buildings at the University of St. Michael's College, Yorkville Town Hall and the Oaklands at De La Salle College among other structures. After Hay's departure from Toronto in 1861, Langley was invited in 1862 by Hay's partner, Thomas Gundry, to become his new partner, he accepted and became the firm's primary designer with Gundry shouldering most of the business side of the company. His most important project during these years was the Government House. In 1869 Gundry died, after. However, he was assisted during those years by two talented apprentices who became well known architects in Toronto: Frank Darling and his nephew Edmund Burke. With the success of the firm, Langley brought in Burke and his brother, the builder Edward Langley, as partners in 1873; the company was in high demand and increased its staff over the next several years.
His brother left a decade and Burke departed in 1894. His son, architect Charles Edward Langley, worked with him during the last 14 years of his life. Charles was the first person to graduate from the Department of Architecture at the University of Toronto on 3 May 1892. Langley is interred at the Toronto Necropolis, he notably designed that cemetery's chapel. St. Peter’s Anglican Church, 1864–65 Alexander Street Baptist Church, 1866, Demolished St. Patrick’s Roman Catholic Church, 1869–70, now Our Lady of Mount Carmel Catholic Church McGill Square Church, 1870–72, now Metropolitan United Church Parliament Street Methodist Church, 1871, Demolished Toronto Necropolis Chapel, 1872 Henry Langley, Edward Langley & Edmund Burke Jarvis Street Baptist Church, 1874–75 The Cathedral Church of St. James, spire, 1874 Sherbourne Street Methodist Church, 1876, now St. Luke’s United Church St. Andrew’s Presbyterian Church, 1877–78, now Grace Toronto Church Elm Street Methodist Church, 1877, Demolished Little Trinity Anglican Church, addition, 1878 St.
Mark’s Anglican Church, 1881 Henry Langley & Edmund Burke Beverley Street Baptist Church, 1886, now Chinese Baptist Church Trinity Methodist Church, 1887–89, now Trinity St. Paul’s United Church College Street Baptist Church, 1888, now Portuguese Seventh-Day Adventist Church Dunn Avenue Methodist Church, 1889, Demolished Walmer Road Baptist Church, 1889–92 Jarvis Street Baptist Church, 1875 Henry Langley & Charles Edward Langley Memorial Baptist Church, 1897 Architects of Our City, Henry Langley, at Heritage Oshawa Biography of Henry Langley, at Dictionary of Canadian Biography
East York Civic Centre
The East York Civic Centre was the municipal office of the former borough of East York, now part of Toronto, Canada as the result of municipal amalgamation. The two-storey civic buildings, located on the western side of Coxwell Avenue, were completed in 1990, are occupied by a number of municipal departments and services. Prior to 1990 it was the site of the East York Municipal Offices; the Township of East York Municipal Building was located nearby at 443 Sammon Avenue. Since 1998, the offices have not been used as council chambers; the East York Community Council sits at Toronto City Hall. From 2002 to 2005, the council chambers were used to hold public hearings in the Toronto Computer Leasing Inquiry, it now houses various committee offices and city services department for residents of East York. A farmer's market takes place at the Civic Centre from May to November. A cenotaph is located on the Civic Centre's Memorial Gardens, a simple park surrounding the building; the True Davidson Chambers is named for former mayor True Davidson.
The chambers is rectangular room with a semi-circular desk seating 11 members and small second floor visitor's gallery. North York Civic Centre Etobicoke Civic Centre Scarborough Civic Centre York Civic Centre Metro Hall Toronto City Hall
North York Civic Centre
The North York Civic Centre is a building in Toronto, Canada that once served as the city hall for the former City of North York. Designed by Adamson Associates Architects, the building is located on Yonge Street north of Sheppard Avenue, features Mel Lastman Square along the Yonge Street frontage; the construction of the building was intended to act as a catalyst for the development of the "North York City Centre", a downtown area for the suburban North York. The building received The Governor General's Medal for Architecture in 1982. With municipal amalgamation, North York is now part of the City of Toronto, the building no longer serves as a city hall. Today, the building is home to the North York Community Council and a number of local municipal departments and services. Opposite the Civic Centre is the North York Central branch of the Toronto Public Library; the Civic Centre is served by the Toronto Transit Commission's North York Centre subway station. Temporary home for council meetings at Brown School and Golden Lion Hotel 1922 1st North York Township Office 5145 Yonge Street 1923-1956.