Gracetown, Western Australia
Gracetown is a small town in Western Australia. It is located 269 kilometres south of the Perth central business district, 21.5 kilometres north-west of the township of Margaret River in the Augusta-Margaret River Shire Council area on the coast at Cowaramup Bay. The area was used as a holiday area and in 1957 it was proposed that the area should be developed as a camping and caravan park. Instead the government decided; the area was surveyed in 1961 and the bulk of the townsite was planned. Sale of lots within the townsite occurred in the same year the town was gazetted, it was named in honour of local Western Australian heroine Grace Bussell. The Cape to Cape Track runs across the beach to the west of the town and is one of the few towns located along the track. There is a general store located in the town that provides a variety of limited services. There are many holiday homes within the town; the town is well known for its many surfing spots. North Point is a powerful break. South Point is popular because it works well when the breeze is onshore and Huzzas, in the middle of the bay, is a less powerful wave, popular whenever it breaks.
The main beach area, located in the bay, is an accessible swimming beach suitable for families with small children. Close to Gracetown are several other excellent surfing locations; the Cowaramup Bombora surf break, location of 2011 and 2015 Oakley Big Wave award-winning rides, is 2 km offshore west of Gracetown. In 1996 five adults and four children were killed in a cliff collapse while watching a surfing carnival on the local beach close to town; the victims were sheltering underneath a rock overhang at the base of the limestone cliff during a rain storm when the cliff collapsed without warning. A rehabilitation project was commenced on the cliff tops overlooking the site where the tragedy occurred, following funding by the state government, in 1997. Stairways, a lookout shelters and fencing were built and vegetation replanted to stabilise the cliffs over Cowaramup Bay. In 2004 a surfer, Bradley Smith, was attacked and killed by a great white shark at a beach close to town; the town was again struck by tragedy in 2010 when Nick Edwards, a 31-year-old man died after being attacked by another great white shark at South Point, a beach close to town.
The man was attacked while surfing and was found unconscious after being washed up on rocks near the beach with a huge gash on his leg. Passers by tried to resuscitate the man who did not regain consciousness and was pronounced dead on arrival at Margaret River hospital. In November 2013 a 35-year-old surfer died after a shark attack. Surfing locations in South West Western Australia Augusta-Margaret River Shire Council
Shire of Bridgetown-Greenbushes
The Shire of Bridgetown-Greenbushes is a local government area in the South West region of Western Australia, about 80 kilometres southeast of Bunbury and about 260 kilometres south of the state capital, Perth. The Shire covers an area of 1,340 square kilometres, its seat of government is the town of Bridgetown; the Nelson Road Board was gazetted in 1887, while the Greenbushes Road Board was gazetted in 1900. On 1 July 1961, they both became shires following changes to the Local Government Act. On 26 March 1970 the two shires were merged; the shire is divided into four wards. South Ward North Ward Bridgetown Greenbushes Hester Yornup Official website
Bridgetown, Western Australia
Bridgetown is a town in the South West region of Western Australia 270 kilometres south of Perth on the Blackwood River at the intersection of South Western Highway with Brockman Highway to Nannup and Augusta. The area was known as Geegelup, believed to mean "place of gilgies" in the Noongar Aboriginal language, referring to the fresh water crustaceans that inhabit the area; however discovered research made available through the Bridgetown Tourist Centre suggests the actual meaning of Geegelup may be "place of spears". In 1857, Edward Godfrey Hester and John Blechynden settled in the area. In 1861, convicts built the road from Donnybrook into the area. Bridgetown's name was first proposed by surveyor Thomas Carey in 1868, for two reasons - "as it is at a bridge and the Bridgetown was the first ship to put in at Bunbury for the wool from these districts", was approved and gazetted on 9 June 1868. From until about 1885, many buildings including the primary school, post office and two hotels were constructed, many of which are still standing today.
In 1885, the Bridgetown Agricultural Society was formed and local farmers produced sheep, dairy products, timber and nuts. The gold rush from 1892 onwards brought prosperity to the town and saw a considerable increase in settlement. In 1907, a number of significant buildings including the police station were erected; until the 1980s, the land surrounding Bridgetown was exclusively used for broadacre agriculture and improved pasture. From the late 1970s, the area became attractive to tourists as a tranquil and picturesque country town an accessible distance from Perth; some people, attracted by the aesthetic qualities and rural lifestyle on offer, sought to move to the town permanently, this resulted in a strong demand for residential and hobby farm allotments, at a time when there was, coincidentally, a global downturn in agricultural markets. Many farmers sold up, much of the most aesthetically pleasing land was subdivided and sold to urban refugees; the demographic change had a profound impact on the town's industry, replacing demand for farm services with demand for services in the tourism and recreation sectors.
However the dramatic increase in infrastructure such as housing and power lines, has detracted from the rural aesthetic that attracted the urban refugees in the first place, therefore has the potential to lead to the rejection of the locality by the next wave of urban refugees. In 2009 a bushfire destroyed at least three properties in the area. Bridgetown is the seat of the Shire of Bridgetown-Greenbushes and the centre of a productive agricultural district. Many buildings in the town centre are over a century old; the town has a Jigsaw Gallery and Museum, which claims to host the only jigsaw collection of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere, a primary school and high school, district hospital, shire offices, agricultural showground, shopping facilities, accommodation for travellers and numerous picnic spots along the Blackwood River. The rural residential area of Kangaroo Gully to the town's east has grown since the 1990s; each year, Bridgetown hosts many events including these: May: Festival of Country Gardens June to August: Bridgetown in the winter festival.
Shops are adorned with many events and workshops. October: Blackwood Marathon October: Blackwood Valley Wine Show November: Bridgetown Garden Festival November: Blues at Bridgetown music festival November: agricultural show November: Festival of Country Gardens Bridgetown experiences a cool Mediterranean climate Emily Barker, singer-songwriter Jon Doust and comedian Robyn McSweeney, politician Tom O'Dwyer, cricketer David Reid, politician Deborah Robertson and poet Fred Riebeling, politician Len Pascoe, cricketer Shire of Bridgetown-Greenbushes Bridgetown-Greenbushes Visitor Centre Blues at Bridgetown Blackwood Marathon Festival of Country Gardens Blackwood River Valley Bridgetown's climate statistics Bridgetown's daily weather statistics https://web.archive.org/web/20080718194116/http://www.btownfilms.com/ Bridgetown Film Festival January
Greenbushes, Western Australia
Greenbushes is a timber and mining town located in the South West region of Western Australia. The 2016 population was 362. Greenbushes was founded as a mining town in 1888 following a surveyor's discovery of tin in 1886. Greenbushes was named after the bright green bushes that contrasted against the grey eucalyptus trees; the railway from Donnybrook to Bridgetown opened in 1898, with Greenbushes station located six kilometres north of the main townsite. The area surrounding the train station was renamed North Greenbushes to reduce confusion; the town experienced a period of economic boom until the international price of tin slumped in 1893, which caused the Greenbushes industry to collapse. By 1913 one quarter of Greenbushes' inhabitants were working in the timber industry, established shortly after the first mine. Greenbushes' two major industries are mining, producing tantalite concentrates, lithium minerals, tin metal and kaolin. Agriculture, viticulture and art galleries are part of Greenbushes' industry.
The Greenbushes mine, located to the south of the town, has produced lithium concentrate since 1985. Shire of Bridgetown-Greenbushes website
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation is Australia's national broadcaster founded in 1929. It is principally funded by direct grants from the Australian government, but is expressly independent of government and partisan politics; the ABC plays a leading role in journalistic independence and is fundamental in the history of broadcasting in Australia. Modelled on the BBC in the United Kingdom, it was financed by consumer licence fees on broadcasting receivers. Licence fees were abolished in 1973 and replaced principally by direct government grants, as well as revenue from commercial activities related to its core broadcasting mission; the ABC now provides television, radio and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional Australia and overseas through ABC Australia and Radio Australia. The ABC headquarters is in an inner-city suburb of Sydney, New South Wales. Founded in 1929 as the Australian Broadcasting Company, the ABC was a Government licensed consortium of private entertainment and content providers, authorised under supervision to broadcast on the airwaves using a two-tiered system.
The "A" system derived its funds from the licence fees levied on the purchasers of the radio receivers, with an emphasis on building the radio wave infrastructure into regional and remote areas, whilst the "B" system relied on privateers and their capacity to establish viable enterprises using the new technology. Following the general downward economic trends of the era, as entrepreneurial ventures in National infrastructure struggled with viability, the "Company" was subsequently acquired to become a state-owned corporation on 1 July 1932 and renamed as Australian Broadcasting Commission, re-aligning more to the British, BBC model; the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 changed the name of the organisation to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, effective 1 July 1983. Although funded and owned by the government, the ABC remains editorially independent as ensured through the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983; the ABC is sometimes informally referred to as "Aunty" in imitation of the British Broadcasting Corporation's nickname.
The first public radio station in Australia opened in Sydney on 23 November 1923 under the call sign 2SB with other stations in Melbourne, Adelaide and Hobart following. A licensing scheme, administered by the Postmaster-General's Department, was soon established allowing certain stations government funding, albeit with restrictions placed on their advertising content. Following a 1927 royal commission inquiry into radio licensing issues, the government established the National Broadcasting Service which subsequently took over a number of the larger funded stations, it nationalised the Australian Broadcasting Company, created by entertainment interests to supply programs to various radio stations. On 1 July 1932, the Australian Broadcasting Commission was established, taking over the operations of the National Broadcasting Service and establishing offices in each of Australia's capital cities. Over the next four years the stations were reformed into a cohesive broadcasting organisation through regular program relays, coordinated by a centralised bureaucracy.
The Australian broadcast radio spectrum was constituted of the commercial sector. News broadcasts were restricted, due to pressure from Sir Keith Murdoch, who controlled many Australian newspapers. However, journalists such as Frank Dixon and John Hinde began to subvert the agreements in the late 1930s. In 1939, Warren Denning was appointed to Canberra as the first ABC political correspondent, after Murdoch had refused to allow his newspapers to cover a speech by Joseph Lyons. In 1942 The Australian Broadcasting Act was passed, giving the ABC the power to decide when, in what circumstances, political speeches should be broadcast. Directions from the Minister about whether or not to broadcast any matter now had to be made in writing, any exercise of the power had to be mentioned in the Commission's Annual Report, it was used only once, in 1963. In the same year, "Kindergarten of the Air" began on ABC Radio in Perth, was broadcast nationally. In 1944 18-year-old Patricia Delaney, of Sydney, was the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's only girl cadet announcer, the youngest member of announcing staff.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 1920-1949 The ABC commenced television broadcasting in 1956, followed the earlier radio practice of naming the station after the first letter of the base state. ABN-2 Sydney was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November 1956, with the first broadcast presented by Michael Charlton, James Dibble reading the first television news bulletin. ABV-2 followed two weeks on 18 November 1956. Stations in other capital cities followed: ABQ-2, ABS-2, ABW-2, ABT-2. ABC-3 Canberra opened in 1961, ABD-6 started broadcasting in 1971, both named after the base city. Although radio programs could be distributed nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not in place until the early 1960s; this meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each capital city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually and sent to each state. Other television programs at the time included the popular Six O'Clock Rock hosted by Johnny O'Keefe, Mr. Squiggle, as well as operas and plays.
In 1973 New South Wales Rugby League boss Kevin Humphreys negotiated rugby league's first television deal with the ABC. In 1975, colour television was