Isamu Takeshita was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy. He was a diplomat whose accomplishments included helping end the Russo-Japanese War favorably for Japan and obtaining former German possessions in the Pacific for Japan following World War I. In addition, he was a patron and practitioner of the Japanese martial arts judo and aikido. Born Yamamoto Jiro into a samurai class family in Kagoshima, Satsuma domain, he was adopted into the Takeshita family as a boy. Takeshita entered the 15th class of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy in 1892, he graduated third in a class of eighty students, he entered naval service as a midshipman in 1889. In 1898, he attended the Japanese Naval War College, founded that same year; because he was fluent in English, Takeshita was posted overseas at various times as a naval attaché. In October 1902, he was appointed Japan's naval attaché to the United States. In this role, Takeshita was an active participant in negotiations mediated by President Theodore Roosevelt that led to the Treaty of Portsmouth, ending the Russo-Japanese War.
During 1904, he helped Roosevelt obtain the services of judo teacher Yamashita Yoshitsugu, first for Roosevelt himself and for the United States Naval Academy. Takeshita's commands included the cruisers Suma, Izumo and the battleship Shikishima. Takeshita was a member of the Japanese diplomatic mission to the United States in 1917, the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the League of Nations. In these positions, he played a leading role in Japan's obtaining former German holdings in the Central and Western Pacific. For these efforts, he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun. Takeshita returned to Japan to accept a posting as commander-in-chief of the Combined Fleet on 1 December 1922, a position he held until January 1924, his subsequent billets included Commander of the Kure Naval District. He was placed on the retired list in November 1929. During late summer 1935, Takeshita made his fifth trip to the United States, his mission was to try to explain to American audiences that Japan's invasion of China in the Second Sino-Japanese War, was to stop the spread of Communism.
As for Japan's relationship with the United States, Takeshita stated that "No Japanese warship has crossed the Pacific except on a mission of peace," he said during a radio broadcast in San Francisco. "No Japanese soldier has come to these shores except on a similar mission."In February 1937, Takeshita was appointed head of the Japanese Boy Scouts, Sea Scouts, YMCA. This was part of the general militarization of Japanese sports and athletics taking place at that time; that year, he was approached about becoming the head of the Japanese Amateur Athletic Federation, but he declined this offer. In May 1939, Takeshita became the third president of the Japan Sumo Association, he held this post until November 1945. In April 1941, he became head of Japan's New Sword Society; this organization supported makers of modern Japanese swords that were handmade in the traditional fashion. Takeshita died in Tokyo in July 1949. Takeshita Street in Shibuya, Tokyo takes its name from the location of Isamu Takeshita’s residence.
Takeshita first heard of Morihei Ueshiba through his colleague at the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy, Admiral Seikyo Asano, studying Daito-ryu aiki jujutsu under Ueshiba at Ayabe. In 1925, Takeshita went to Ayabe to see Ueshiba and was so impressed that he recommended Ueshiba to Yamamoto Gonnohyoe, a retired admiral and former Prime Minister of Japan; this recommendation caused Yamamoto to invite Ueshiba to Tokyo to provide demonstrations to the Japanese military and political elite. Ueshiba's stay was however interrupted by sickness and he had to return to his hometown of Tanabe. In February 1927, Takeshita invited Ueshiba to Tokyo again, this time, Ueshiba settled there. Takeshita's influence was such that many military officers, government officials and members of the wealthy class began practicing Ueshiba's martial art. Takeshita was not only an admirer but an ardent practitioner of aikido, despite his age, he filled notebooks with descriptions of Ueshiba's techniques, these descriptions provide insights into the development of aikido.
In 1935, Takeshita gave a demonstration of Ueshiba's art at the first Nihon Kobudo Shinkokai demonstration. That same year, Takeshita gave public demonstrations of aikido in Seattle and Washington, D. C. In 1940, Takeshita was instrumental in providing a legal identity to Ueshiba's Kobukan organization by founding the Kobukai Foundation and becoming its first president. In 1941, Takeshita used his influence to arrange a demonstration of aikido by Ueshiba at the Imperial Palace; the demonstration took place in front of the Imperial family. Although ill, Ueshiba gave a spectacular exhibition, which impressed the nobility
Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū
Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū is one of the oldest extant Japanese martial arts, an exemplar of bujutsu. The Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū was founded by Iizasa Ienao, born 1387 in Iizasa village, living near Katori Shrine at the time; the ryū itself gives 1447 as the year it was founded, but some scholars claim circa 1480 is more accurate. Iizasa Ienao was a respected spearman and swordsman whose daimyō was deposed, encouraging him to relinquish control of his household to conduct purification rituals and study martial arts in isolation. Iizasa was born in the village of Iizasa in Shimōsa Province; when he was young, he moved to the vicinity of the famous Katori Shrine, a venerable Shinto institution northeast of Tokyo in modern-day Chiba Prefecture. The Katori Shrine enjoys a considerable martial reputation. After studying swordsmanship he went to Kyoto, according to most authorities, he was employed in his youth by the eighth Muromachi shōgun, Ashikaga Yoshimasa, a devotee of the martial arts.
Iizasa was known as Yamashiro no Kami in accordance with a practice of Muromachi times, whereby noted warriors took old court titles. On in his life, Iizasa became a Buddhist lay monk and was known as Chōi-sai, sai being a character that many noted swordsmen chose for their sword name; when Chōi-sai returned home, he offered prayers to the deities of both Katori Shrine and Kashima Shrine, the latter being a famous local shrine in nearby Ibaraki Prefecture, where shrine officials themselves reputedly practised a form of swordsmanship, called'Hitotsu no Tachi'. Today the Kashima Shrine training hall attracts Kendo practitioners from around the world, the chief object of interest for visitors is the shrine's sacred sword. Supplementing his considerable skills with assorted weaponry, Chōi-sai was an expert in Musō Jikiden ryū yawaragi, holding the position of seventh Headmaster in the history of that ryū. Legend says at the age of 60 Chōi-sai spent 1000 days in Katori Shrine practising martial techniques day and night, until the kami of the shrine, appeared to him in a dream and handed down the secrets of martial strategy in a scroll named Mokuroku Heiho no Shinsho.
He called his swordsmanship style derived from this miraculous dream the Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū, the "Heavenly True, Correctly Transmitted Style of the Way of the God of Katori". This legend is typical of martial arts Ryūha and other cultural forms as well. Ryūha founders attributed their mastery to magical teachings transmitted by Shinto or Buddhist deities, by long-dead historical figures like Minamoto no Yoshitsune, or by legendary supernatural creatures such as the tengu, Japanese goblins depicted with a long red nose. Iizasa's Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū, thus linked to the sacred tradition of both Katori and Kashima Shrines, was transmitted through his own family. Iizasa Yamashiro-no-Kami Ienao Choisai, died April 15, 1488 Iizasa Wakasa-no-Kami Morichika Iizasa Wakasa-no-Kami Morinobu Iizasa Yamashiro-no-Kami Moritsuna Iizasa Saemon-no-Jo Morihide Iizasa Oi-no-Kami Morishige Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morinobu Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morinaga Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morihisa Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morisada Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morishige Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Moritsugu Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morikiyo Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Nagateru Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Moriteru Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morishige, died July 11, 1853, at 78 years of age Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morifusa, died January 4, 1854, at 51 years of age Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Morisada, participated in the Mito Rebellion against the shogunate, died June 2, 1896, at 56 years of age Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Kinjiro, died in 1943 Iizasa Shuri-no-Suke Yasusada In 1896, the 18th soke died without a male heir.
Yamaguchi Eikan shihan governed the ryu until his death March 14, 1917. Until Iizasa Kinjiro married into the Iizasa household, the following eight shihan headed the ryu: Tamai Kisaburo Shiina Ichizo Ito Tanekichi Kuboki Sazaemon Isobe Kohei Motomiya Toranosuke Hayashi Yazaemon Kamagata Minosuke Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū is the source tradition of many Japanese martial arts. Several famous swordsmen who learned directly from Chōi-sai or his immediate followers became founders of their own schools, with either the same name or different names: Kashima Shintō-ryū, Kashima-ryū, Kashima shin-ryū, Arima-ryū, Ichiu-ryū, Shigen-ryū, others; as such in 1960 the school received the first "Intangible Cultural Asset" designation given to a martial art. It claims to have never aligned itself with any estate or faction, no matter what stipend was offered; this allowed the ryū to maintain its integrity. Tenshin Shōden Katori Shintō-ryū was popularised in the west by the extensive research and writings of late Donn F. Draeger.
The current, twentieth generation headmaster, is Yasusada Iizasa. He does not teach his family's system and has instead appointed as his current, main representative instructor Risuke Otake who has a personal dojo close to. Iizasa devised a unique method to ensure warriors could train without serious injury and yet maintain a resemblance to'riai' and combative reality; the weapon training of the r
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, values, reason and language. Such questions are posed as problems to be studied or resolved; the term was coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will? "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy and physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize.
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology and economics. Other investigations related to art, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of science. Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, natural science and politics. Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy is classified in the 2000s as a book of physics. In the first part of the first book of his Academics, Cicero introduced the division of philosophy into logic and ethics. Metaphysical philosophy was the study of existence, God, logic and other abstract objects; this division has changed.
Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences astronomy, chemistry and cosmology. Moral philosophy still includes value theory. Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. Colin McGinn and others claim. Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, while Talbot Brewer argued that "progress" is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity. In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality". A broad and impartial conception of philosophy finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality and life in all world civilizations. Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales and Pythagoras who practiced a "love of wisdom" and were termed physiologoi.
Socrates was a influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom. Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient, Medieval philosophy, Modern philosophy; the Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Plato, who founded the Platonic Academy and his student Aristotle, founding the Peripatetic school, who were both influential in Western tradition. Other traditions include Cynicism, Greek Skepticism and Epicureanism. Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics, the nature of the well-lived life, the possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason. With the rise of the Roman empire, Greek philosophy was increasingly discussed in Latin by Romans such as Cicero and Seneca. Medieval philosophy is the period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and was dominated by the ris
Yoseikan budō may be classified as a sōgō budō form, but is used here to indicate a martial art into which various martial ways have been integrated. It is most known for its connection to a pre-war style of aikido; the name of the art yō-sei-kan is derived from three Japanese characters, yō meaning'teaching', sei meaning "truth", kan meaning "place", which may be translated into English as "the place where the truth is taught" or alternately "place for practising what is right". The intent of the name was not to assert an exclusive possession of the truth regarding the martial arts but rather to describe how the comprehensive nature of the yoseikan training environment allows an individual to discover their own sense of "truth" by studying a wide range of differing martial techniques and principles. Yoseikan Budo originated in 1931 as the style created by its founder Minoru Mochizuki, a high ranking student and assistant to Kanō Jigorō, the founder of judo and Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of aikido, in the pre-World War II period.
In addition to the high ranks he held in these arts he was student of one of the oldest styles of traditional Japanese koryū budō, the Katori Shintō-ryō, studied with various karate teachers including Gichin Funakoshi, the man who brought karate from the Okinawan islands to mainland Japan. The old Yoseikan style included jujutsu, kobudo and a few karate techniques, such as: foot sweeps and trips, standing throws and groundwork. A curious characteristic of the old style is that it did not support much of the esoteric ways that evolved with post-World War II traditional Aikido and some of its offshoots. At one point Kisshomaru Ueshiba, the headmaster and son of the aikido founder, reputedly asked Mochizuki to refrain from using the name aikido to refer to the aiki portion of his system; the system although still employing the term aikido is known to use the term aiki budo to refer to this part of the art. Minoru Mochizuki's 1932 licence from Ueshiba was in Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu as Ueshiba had not yet renamed the art he was teaching.
Still Mochizuki continued to enjoy a warm relationship with Morihei Ueshiba in his years. Although philosophically most influenced by Ueshiba, Mochizuk's method of teaching and systematizing his art seems to show a larger debt to the teachings of Kanō Jigorō due to his own roots in judo, his method of developing kata and use of a scientific approach to explain the finer parts of his art seems to show the imprint of Kano's early teaching method. Indeed, it was Kano who sent Mochizuki, along with other judo teachers, to study aikido with Ueshiba for the purpose of bringing back the techniques for use in the Kodokan's self-defense program. Many of these aikido inspired techniques can be seen preserved in Kodokan Goshin Jutsu kata or forms of self-defense which were most introduced by Kenji Tomiki, another senior judo teacher, who trained with Mochizuki at Ueshiba's dojo. In Mochizuki's case Kano's plan to have judo players learn aikido worked too well, resulting in Minoru becoming a live-in student under Ueshiba and once being asked to inherit the leadership of the art should Kisshomaru be unable to.
Mochizuki's inclination toward eclecticism can be seen as part of the influence imparted to him from Kano's teachings. As Kano had fused the forms of traditional jujutsu he had learned, with elements as different as ground work from the Fusen ryu and Western wrestling tactics so too did Mochizuki strive to learn many different arts in order to expand his overall understanding of fighting methods. Indeed, many of his early explorations in arts such as iaido and classical forms of jujutsu were at the suggestion of Kano during his time at the Kodokan, he expanded this to include an investigation of Western boxing and classical Japanese swordsmanship. Conversely when he made the suggestion to Ueshiba that aikidoka might benefit from a knowledge of the skilled striking techniques employed by karate practitioners his suggestion met with no enthusiasm. On a technical level the influence of judo great Kyuzo Mifune and classical jujutsu practitioner Sanjuro Oshima of the Gyokushin-ryu cannot be overstated.
One of the specialties of the Yoseikan Budo system under Minoru Mochizuki came to be the use of sutemi-waza or sacrifice techniques, in which these two teachers excelled. Although the far greater influence was undoubtedly Mifune in whose lessons the youthful Mochizuki found much greater enthusiasm, the teaching of the Gyokushin theory of'spherical spirit' stayed with Mochizuki over the years, inspiring him to invent new techniques with this art's principles in mind. Mochizuki credited his quick mastery of aikido with having learned this style which held many techniques in common with Ueshiba's art. In the context of contemporary aikido Minoru Mochizuki's art seems judo based. Indeed, many strong judoka came to train with the master throughout his life. One such person was Frenchman Patrick Auge who still maint
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense and law enforcement applications, physical and spiritual development. Although the term martial art has become associated with the fighting arts of East Asia, it referred to the combat systems of Europe as early as the 1550s; the term means "arts of Mars", the Roman god of war. Some authors have argued that fighting arts or fighting systems would be more appropriate on the basis that many martial arts were never "martial" in the sense of being used or created by professional warriors. Martial arts may be categorized along a variety of criteria, including: Traditional or historical arts vs. contemporary styles of folk wrestling and modern hybrid martial arts. Techniques taught: Armed vs. unarmed, within these groups by type of weapon and by type of combat By application or intent: self-defense, combat sport, choreography or demonstration of forms, physical fitness, etc. Within Chinese tradition: "external" vs. "internal" styles UnarmedUnarmed martial arts can be broadly grouped into focusing on strikes, those focusing on grappling and those that cover both fields described as hybrid martial arts.
Strikes Punching: Boxing, Wing Chun, Karate Kicking: Taekwondo, Savate Others using strikes: Muay Thai, Kung Fu, Pencak SilatGrappling Throwing: Hapkido, Sumo, Aikido Joint lock/Chokeholds/Submission holds: Judo, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Sambo Pinning Techniques: Judo, AikidoArmedThe traditional martial arts, which train in armed combat encompass a wide spectrum of melee weapons, including bladed weapons and polearms. Such traditions include eskrima, kalaripayat and historical European martial arts those of the German Renaissance. Many Chinese martial arts feature weapons as part of their curriculum. Sometimes, training with one specific weapon will be considered a style of martial arts in its own right, the case in Japanese martial arts with disciplines such as kenjutsu and kendo and kyudo. Modern martial arts and sports include modern fencing, stick-fighting systems like canne de combat, modern competitive archery. Combat-oriented Health-orientedMany martial arts those from Asia teach side disciplines which pertain to medicinal practices.
This is prevalent in traditional Asian martial arts which may teach bone-setting and other aspects of traditional medicine. Spirituality-orientedMartial arts can be linked with religion and spirituality. Numerous systems are reputed to have been disseminated, or practiced by monks or nuns. Throughout Asia, meditation may be incorporated as part of training. In those countries influenced by Hindu-Buddhist philosophy, the art itself may be used as an aid to attaining enlightenment. Japanese styles, when concerning non-physical qualities of the combat, are strongly influenced by Mahayana Buddhist philosophy. Concepts like "empty mind" and "beginner's mind" are recurrent. Aikido, for instance, can have a strong philosophical belief of the flow of energy and peace fostering, as idealised by its founder Morihei Ueshiba. Traditional Korean martial arts place emphasis on the development of the practitioner's spiritual and philosophical development. A common theme in most Korean styles, such as taekkyeon and taekwondo, is the value of "inner peace" in a practitioner, stressed to be only achieved through individual meditation and training.
The Koreans believe. Systema draws upon breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as elements of Russian Orthodox thought, to foster self-conscience and calmness, to benefit the practitioner in different levels: the physical, the psychological and the spiritual; some martial arts in various cultures can be performed in dance-like settings for various reasons, such as for evoking ferocity in preparation for battle or showing off skill in a more stylized manner. Many such martial arts incorporate music strong percussive rhythms; the oldest works of art depicting scenes of battle are cave paintings from eastern Spain dated between 10,000 and 6,000 BCE that show organized groups fighting with bows and arrows. Chinese martial arts originated during the legendary apocryphal, Xia Dynasty more than 4000 years ago, it is said. The Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who before becoming China's leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine and martial arts. One of his main opponents was Chi You, credited as the creator of jiao di, a forerunner to the modern art of Chinese wrestling.
The foundation of modern Asian martial arts is a blend of early Chinese and Indian martial arts. During the Warring States period of Chinese history extensive development in martial philosophy and strategy emerged, as described by Sun Tzu in The Art of War. Legendary accounts link the origin of Shaolinquan to the spread of Buddhism from ancient India during the early 5th century AD, with the figure of Bodhidharma, to China. Written evidence of martial arts in Southern India dates back to the Sangam literature of about the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD; the combat techniques of the Sangam period were the earliest precursors to Kalaripayattu. In Europe, the earlie