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YouTube Premium

YouTube Premium is a paid streaming subscription service that provides advertising-free streaming of all videos hosted by YouTube, exclusive original content produced in collaboration with the site's creators, access to audio-only versions of videos on the YouTube Music app, as well as offline playback and background playback of videos on mobile devices. The service was launched in November 2014 as Music Key, offering only advertisement-free streaming of music videos from participating labels on YouTube and Google Play Music; the service was revised and relaunched as YouTube Red on October 31, 2015, expanding its scope to offer advertisement-free access to all YouTube videos, as opposed to just music. YouTube announced the rebranding of the service as YouTube Premium on May 17, 2018, alongside the return of a separate, YouTube Music subscription service. In the year, it was reported that YouTube was planning to make some of the original content associated with the service available on an ad-supported basis.

The service was first unveiled in November 2014 as Music Key, serving as a collaboration between YouTube and Google Play Music, meant to succeed the former's own subscription service. Music Key offered ad-free playback of music videos from participating labels hosted on YouTube, as well as background and offline playback of music videos on mobile devices from within the YouTube app; the service included access to Google Play Music All Access, which provides ad-free audio streaming of a library of music. Alongside Music Key, Google introduced tighter integration between Play Music and YouTube's apps, including the sharing of music recommendations, access to YouTube's music videos from within the Play Music app. Music Key was not YouTube's first foray into premium content, having launched film rentals in 2010, premium, subscription-based channels in 2013. During its invite-only beta, Music Key faced mixed reception due to the limited scope of the offering; these concerns and others led to a revamping of the Music Key concept to create YouTube Red.

This shift required YouTube to seek permission from its content creators and rights holders to allow their content to be part of the ad-free service. YouTube sought to compete against sites such as Netflix, Prime Video and Hulu by offering original content as part of the subscription service, leveraging prominent YouTube personalities in combination with professional producers. Robert Kyncl acknowledged that while many of YouTube's prominent personalities had built their followings and created content while operating on a "shoestring budget", he admitted that "in order to scale up, it takes a different kind of enterprise, a different kind of skill set" such as story-telling and "showrunning". Prominent YouTube personality PewDiePie, involved in one of the planned originals for the service, explained that the service was meant to mitigate profits lost due to the use of ad blocking. YouTube Red was unveiled on October 21, 2015. On May 18, 2016, YouTube Red and YouTube Music launched in Australia and New Zealand, the first countries to gain access to the service outside the United States.

On August 3, 2016, YouTube Red support was added to the YouTube Kids app. That month the service launched in Mexico. On December 6, 2016, YouTube Red expanded to South Korea. On May 17, 2018, YouTube announced the upcoming rebranding of the service as YouTube Premium, which took effect on June 18; the rebranding came alongside the re-launch of YouTube Music, with a separate subscription service focused on music. YouTube announced that the price of the service would increase from US$9.99 to US$11.99 per-month for new subscribers. Alongside the rebranding, the services expanded into Canada, 11 European countries, with more expansion to come in the future. By July 2019, the services were available in territories. Since the re-launch, the YouTube apps and website have displayed an increasing number of nag screens that advertise the service to non-subscribers. A YouTube Premium subscription allows users to watch videos on YouTube without advertisements across the website and its mobile apps, including the dedicated YouTube Music, YouTube Gaming, YouTube Kids apps.

Through the apps, users can save videos to their device for offline viewing, play their audio in the background, in picture-in-picture mode on Android Oreo and newer. YouTube Premium offers original content, exclusive to subscribers, created and published by YouTube's largest creators; the service offers ad-free music streaming through the YouTube Music Premium and Google Play Music services. YouTube Premium offers original films and series produced in collaboration with professional studios and YouTube personalities, under the banner YouTube Originals. For multi-episode series, the first episode of a YouTube Origina

Janusz SzpotaƄski

Janusz Szpotański, was a Polish poet, critic, literary theorist and chess player. He was the creator of satirical tragi-comedic poems which ridiculed the communist government of Poland; these works were written in an absurdist, grotesque style, lampooned prominent members of the Polish communist party, as well as the general "low life" mentality of the average Communist Party member. He is best known for creating the character of "Towarzysz Szmaciak" - an uneducated, cynical, anti-semitic and stupid individual who supported the communist party out of opportunistic, not ideological motives; the metaphor of a "dishrag" alludes to the fact that individuals of this kind, while forming the support base of communism in Poland at the time, where considered useful by the party elite but at the same time despised by them. For ridiculing Władysław Gomułka in his poem "Cisi i gęgacze" he was arrested in 1967 and in 1968 sentenced to three years in prison on the charge of "spreading information harmful to the interests of state".

During the March events of 1968, Gomułka referred to him in several of his official speeches, calling him "a man with a mentality of a pimp" and referring to his work as "reactionary doggerel" which "breathed with poisonous sadistic venom against our authority". Szpotański was a member of the Stowarzyszenie Pisarzy Polskich. On September 23, 2006, he was posthumously awarded the Polonia Restituta Commander's Cross by the President of Poland, Lech Kaczyński. Cisi i gęgacze czyli bal u prezydenta, 1964 Targowica czyli opera Gnoma, 1966 Ballada o cudzie na Woli: W Warszawie na Woli ukazał się duch Bieruta i sprzedawał kiełbasę po 26 zł za kilo, 1966 Lament Wysokiego Dygnitarza, 1966 Ballada o Łupaszcze, 1968 Rozmowa z Kartoflami, 1968 Gnomiada, 1976 Caryca i Zwierciadło, 1974 Towarzysz Szmaciak, 1977 Szmaciak w Mundurze, Czyli Wojna Pcimska, 1983 Sen Towarzysza Szmaciaka, 1984 Bania w Paryżu, 1974-1979 Dziennik Teatralny, "Zmarł Janusz Szpotański", 10/5/2001, Antoni Libera, ed. "Janusz Szpotański, Fragmenty nienapisanej biografii", Janusz Szpotański, "Utwory Zebrane"

Excelsior Records

Excelsior Records was an American record label established by Otis René, which existed from 1944 to 1971. It is notable as having released some of the earliest recordings of Nat King Cole, it is not to be confused with former MCA and current independent record label Excelsior Recordings of The Netherlands. The Excelsior record label was established by Otis René in 1944, ceased operations in original form in 1951, only to live on in a second incarnation until 1971, it is notable for having released some of the first recordings by Nat King Cole. Otis René was noted to have earned $25,000 on one song in 1945, "I'm Lost", recorded by the King Cole Trio. René had produced the song, as well as distributed the record. Other artists on Excelsior Records included Herb Jeffries, the King Perry Orchestra, Timmie Rogers, the Flennoy Trio, Gerald Wilson & His Orchestra, the Charles Mingus Sextet, Johnny Otis & His Orchestra, the Gladys Bentley Quintet, the Al Stomp Russell Trio. Otis René and his brother Leon René had purchased their own shellac record pressing plant, but when the format changed from 78 rpm to 45 rpm, their old equipment could not press the new smaller vinyl discs, both labels went out of business, only to be purchased out of bankruptcy in name only, the label existed another 20 years by selling second and third-run pressings of recordings.

In 1952, Otis started up the short-lived Spin Records with musician Preston Love. Joe Alexander Buddy Banks Orchestra Spence Bare & His Western Swing Band Eddie Beal Trio Gladys Bentley Quintette Smiley Burnette & His Rancheros King Cole Trio Johnnie Creach's Majors and Minors Martha Davis & Her Torrid Trio The Esquire Trio Flennoy Trio The Great New Hope Gospel Singers Hollywood's Four Blazes The Jackson Harmoneers Herb Jeffries'Memphis' Jimmy McCracklin The Mello Larks Charles Mingus Sextette Bob Mosley & His All Stars The Luvenia Nash Singers Johnny Otis and his Orchestra King Perry Orchestra Wes Prince & His Rhythm Princes The Red Flames Timmie Rogers Royal Hawaiian Serenaders Jimmy Rushing Al "Stomp" Russell Trio Lucky Thompson All Stars Big Joe Turner Flora Washington Sherman Williams & His Shuffle Rhythm Gerald Wilson & His Orchestra The Otis René Story V. S. O. P. Records #121 2-CD set - note: features 44 songs from the vaults of Excelsior Records, including 9 unreleased tracks and demos.

Excelsior Records on the Internet Archive's Great 78 Project

No-win situation

A no-win situation called a “lose-lose situation”, is one where a person has choices, but no choice leads to a net gain. For example, if an executioner offers the condemned the choice of death by being hanged, shot, or poisoned, all choices lead to death; this bleak situation gives the chooser no room: whichever choice is made the person making it will lose their life. Less drastic situations may be considered no-win situations - if one has a choice for lunch between a ham sandwich and a roast beef sandwich, but is a vegetarian or has a wheat allergy, that might be considered a no-win situation. In game theory, a "no-win" situation is one; this may be because of any or all of the following: Unavoidable or unforeseeable circumstances causing the situation to change after decisions have been made. This is common in text adventures. Zugzwang, as in chess, when any move a player chooses makes him worse off than before. A situation in which the player has to accomplish two mutually dependent tasks each of which must be completed before the other or that are mutually exclusive.

Ignorance of other players' actions, meaning the best decision for all differs from that for any one player. Carl von Clausewitz's advice characterizes war as a no-win situation. A similar example is the Pyrrhic victory, in which a military victory is so costly that the winning side ends up worse off than before it started. Looking at the victory as a part of a larger situation, the situation could either be no-win, or more of a win for the other side than the one that won the "victory", or victory at such cost that the gains are outweighed by the cost and are no longer a source of joy. For example, the "victorious" side may have accomplished their objective, but the objective may have been worthless, or they may lose a strategic advantage in manpower or positioning. A related concept is sometimes described as winning the battle but losing the war, where a lesser objective is won but the true objective beyond it is not well pursued and is lost. In past Europe, those accused of being witches were sometimes bound and thrown or dunked in water to test their innocence.

A witch would float, be executed. Unwinnable is a state in many text adventures, graphical adventure games and role-playing video games where it is impossible for the player to win the game, where the only options are restarting the game, loading a saved game, wandering indefinitely, or a game over, it is known as a dead end situation or a softlock. This is the result of the player's previous choices, not due to the game itself lacking a path to victory. For example, in games such as Goldeneye 007, Perfect Dark, TimeSplitters, the level does not end once a player fails an objective short of being killed, but it is impossible to progress to the next level no matter what the player does afterwards. Other games take steps to avoid unwinnable situations. Softlocks can be triggered by incorrect manipulation of game code or mechanics, as seen in speedrunning - should a certain sequence of tasks to perform a sequence break be carried out incorrectly, the game may become softlocked, forcing either a restart of the game or the console altogether.

Unwinnable should not be confused with unbeatable, used to describe a character, monster, or puzzle, too powerful or difficult to be overcome by the player or character at a lower standing, is found in role-playing video games. In many cases, "unbeatable" gamestates occur because of integer overflow or other errors programmers did not take into account, called a kill screen. In this situation, the game may crash. In the film WarGames, the supercomputer WOPR simulates all possible games of tic-tac-toe as a metaphor for all possible scenarios of a nuclear war, each of them ending in a nuclear holocaust; the computer exclaims, "A strange game. In the Star Trek canon, the Kobayashi Maru simulation is a no-win scenario designed as a character test for command track cadets at Starfleet Academy, it first appears in the film Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan. In the film, Admiral James T. Kirk states. In the TV show Quantico, the agents are put in a terrorist hijack flight simulation mission, unbeatable.

Catch-22 Cornelian dilemma Double bind Kobayashi Maru Morton's fork Pyrrhic victory Setting up to fail Two-body problem Winner's curse Win-win game Zugzwang Leon F Seltzer Ph. D Two Ways to "Win" in a No-Win Situation

Verde Canyon Railroad

The Verde Canyon Railroad is a heritage railroad running between Clarkdale and Perkinsville in the U. S. state of Arizona. The passenger excursion line operates on 20 miles of tracks of the Clarkdale Arizona Central Railroad, a shortline; the Verde Canyon Railroad has its depot, a railway museum in Clarkdale, about 25 miles southwest of Sedona. The tracks on which the Verde Canyon Railroad runs were opened in 1912 as part of a north–south branch line linking a copper smelter at Clarkdale and the copper mines at Jerome to Santa Fe Railway tracks passing through Drake; the Santa Fe Railway owned and operated the 38-mile branch line from 1912 to 1988. David L. Durbano bought the branch line in 1988. Passenger service between Clarkdale at milepost 38 and Perkinsville at milepost 18, resumed in 1990 under the name Verde Canyon Railroad. Milepost 0 of the AZCR is at Drake; the AZCR track to Drake is still used for hauling freight though the excursion line stops at Perkinsville. Excursions involve a 40-mile round trip from Clarkdale to Perkinsville and back.

Scenes from How the West Was Won were filmed at Perkinsville in 1960s. The route follows the Verde River, crossing bridges and trestles, passes through a 680-foot-long curved tunnel. Between milepost 30 and Perkinsville, most of the land along the railroad right-of-way is in the Prescott National Forest or the Coconino National Forest; the railroad carries about 100,000 passengers per year. In 2005 the Verde Canyon Railroad celebrated its one-millionth passenger, the following month was named an "Arizona Treasure" by Arizona Governor Janet Napolitano; the John Bell Railroad Museum is part of the depot complex in Clarkdale. Housed in an old boxcar, the museum displays rail artifacts and photographs, many of which came from Bell's personal collection. List of heritage railroads in the United States List of historic properties in Clarkdale, Arizona "Rail: The Official Magazine of the Verde Canyon Railroad". Clarkdale, Arizona: Verde Canyon Railroad. 2011. OCLC 41598511. Verde Canyon Railroad

Aquilia Severa

Iulia Aquilia Severa was the second and fourth wife of Emperor Elagabalus. She was the daughter of Quintus Aquilius, twice consul under Caracalla; the praenomen of Julia was given to her after becoming an empress. Severa was a Vestal Virgin and, as such, her marriage to Elagabalus in late 220 was the cause of enormous controversy – traditionally, the punishment for breaking the thirty-year vow of celibacy was death by being buried alive. Elagabalus is believed to have had religious reasons for marrying Severa – he himself was a follower of the eastern sun god El-Gabal, when marrying himself to Severa, he conducted a symbolic marriage of his god to Vesta. Both these marriages were revoked shortly however; this was on the urging of Julia Maesa, the grandmother who had engineered Elagabalus' rise to the imperial throne. Elagabalus married Annia Faustina, a more acceptable choice to the senatorial elite. Within a short time, Elagabalus had divorced Faustina and returned to living with Severa, claiming that the original divorce was invalid.

It is believed that Severa remained with Elagabalus until his assassination in 222. The two are not believed to have had any children. Severa's own opinions about the entire affair are not well recorded; some sources state that she was forced to marry against her will, others go further, alleging rape. It is claimed by some historians, that many stories about Elagabalus have been exaggerated by his enemies, so there is no certainty about what happened, it is unclear whether Elagabalus had any real feelings towards Severa, or whether he was more concerned with the symbolism of the marriage. Elagabalus had relationships with men, the historian Cassius Dio claims that Elagabalus had a more stable relationship with his chariot driver, than with any of his wives. Media related to Aquilia Severa at Wikimedia Commons