Kevin Michael "GG" Allin was an American singer and record producer, who performed and recorded with many groups during his career. GG Allin was best known for his outlandish live performances, which featured transgressive acts, including coprophagia, self-mutilation, attacking audience members, for which he was arrested and imprisoned on multiple occasions. AllMusic and G4TV's That's Tough have called him "the most spectacular degenerate in rock & roll history" and the "toughest rock star in the world”. Known more for his notorious stage antics than for his music, he recorded prolifically, not only in the punk rock genre, but in spoken word and more traditional-style rock, his lyrics, which expressed themes of misogyny, pedophilia and racism, polarized listeners and created varied opinions of him within the politicized punk community. When questioned about his music and shows, Allin replied that he was trying to make rock music "dangerous" again. Allin's music was poorly recorded and produced, given limited distribution, met with negative reviews from critics, although he maintained a cult following throughout and after his career.
Allin promised for several years that he would die by suicide on stage during one of his concerts, but instead died offstage from an accidental heroin overdose on June 28, 1993. Allin was born Jesus Christ Allin at Weeks Memorial Hospital in Lancaster, New Hampshire, the younger of two sons born to Merle Colby Allin, Sr. and Arleta Gunther. He was given this name because his father told his wife that Jesus Christ had visited him, told him that his newborn son would be a great man in the vein of the Messiah. During early childhood, his older brother, was unable to pronounce "Jesus" properly and called him "Jeje", which became "GG"; the family lived in a log cabin with no running electricity in Groveton, New Hampshire. Merle Sr. was an abusive recluse and religious Christian fanatic, who threatened his family with death, digging graves in their cellar. In an essay titled "The First Ten Years", Allin wrote that his father wanted to kill his family in a murder-suicide, he "despised pleasure" and allowed his family "very little contact with others".
They lived a "primitive existence" and "were more like prisoners than a family". Allin stated that his mother attempted to escape before she filed for divorce, but Merle Sr. thwarted the attempt by kidnapping Allin. Allin said that he was glad to experience such an upbringing, that it "made a warrior soul at an early age."In 1961, Arleta filed for divorce from Merle Sr. as his mental instability was worsening. Allin and his brother were from that time raised by their mother and stepfather, settled in East St. Johnsbury, Vermont in 1966. Arleta changed her younger son's legal name to Kevin Michael Allin on March 2, 1962, during his first year of schooling. Arleta had allowed his birth name to stand until this point and changed it to give her son a chance of a mockery-free childhood. Allin, a poor student, was placed in special education classes and required to repeat the third grade. According to his older brother, he experienced bullying by fellow students for nonconformity. In his second year of high school, he began attending school cross-dressed, which he said was inspired by the New York Dolls.
When asked about his childhood, Allin said. Full of chances and dangers. We sold drugs, broke into houses, cars. Did whatever we wanted to for the most part – including all the bands we played in. People hated us back then." Allin's earliest musical influences were 1960s British Invasion bands including the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, the Dave Clark Five. In the early 70s, Alice Cooper became a large influence on Allin. Allin's earliest recorded musical endeavors were as a drummer. In his mid-teens, he and his older brother Merle, who plays bass guitar, formed their first band, Little Sister's Date, which lasted a little over a year; the group covered songs by Aerosmith and other popular hard rock bands of the time period. Both Allin and his brother Merle gained a strong interest in punk rock; the Ramones and the Stooges were a strong influence on Allin. Allin graduated from Concord High School in Concord, Vermont in 1975, shortly after formed the band Malpractice with his older brother, local musician Jeff Penny, Brian Demurs.
Allin played the drums for Malpractice until the band separated in 1977. He became the drummer for the band Stripsearch, which released one 7" single, containing the songs "Galileo" and "Jesus Over New York". From September 1977 to April 1984, Allin performed as front man for the Jabbers, in which he played drums and performed vocals. Allin's 1980 debut album was Always Was, Always Shall Be for Orange Records, it would be reissued for the first time on CD in 1995 by the Halycon imprint. At one point, industry veteran and the Dead Boys producer Genya Ravan served as his manager. Tension within the Jabbers mounted as Allin grew uncontrollable and vicious; the Jabbers disbanded. Allin fronted many acts during the early to mid-1980s; this includes albums from the Cedar Street Sluts, the Scumfucs in 1982 and the Texas Nazis in 1985. Allin remained in the underground hardcore scene yet was not part of the East Coast hardcore scene, his performances in Manchester, New Hampshire with the Cedar Street Sluts earned him the nickname of "the madman of Manchester."
Allin gained wider attention with the ROIR cassette-only release of Hated in the Nation containing tracks from Allin's out-of-print catalog with the Jabbers, the Scumfucs and Cedar Street Sluts. The tape featured several in-studio and in-concert
Georgia Hubley is an American percussionist and visual artist. She is one of the two founding members of the indie rock band Yo La Tengo, she is married to the group's other founding member, guitarist/vocalist Ira Kaplan, with whom she lives in New Jersey. The two would see each other in record shops and at the same shows. Finding a common ground in music, sharing a love of New York Mets baseball, they began hanging out and jamming together, they formed the band in 1984, released their first album, Ride the Tiger, in 1986 on the Coyote label. In addition to her duties as drummer and vocalist, Hubley has designed covers for the band's releases, she plays occasional guitar, drum machine on the band's recordings. Georgia is a daughter of UPA studios animators John Hubley and Faith Elliott Hubley, a sister of Emily Hubley. Yo La Tengo
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Lowell is a city in the U. S. Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Located in Middlesex County, Lowell was a county seat until Massachusetts disbanded county government in 1999. With an estimated population of 109,945 in 2014, it is the fourth-largest city in Massachusetts, the second-largest in the Boston metropolitan statistical area; the city is part of a smaller Massachusetts statistical area called Greater Lowell, as well as New England's Merrimack Valley region. Incorporated in 1826 to serve as a mill town, Lowell was named after Francis Cabot Lowell, a local figure in the Industrial Revolution; the city became known as the cradle of the American Industrial Revolution, due to a large series of textile mills and factories. Many of the Lowell's historic manufacturing sites were preserved by the National Park Service to create Lowell National Historical Park. During the Cambodian genocide, the city took in an influx of refugees, leading to a Cambodia Town and America's second-largest Cambodian-American population.
Lowell is home to two institutions of higher education. Founded in the 1820s as a planned manufacturing center for textiles, Lowell is located along the rapids of the Merrimack River, 25 miles northwest of Boston in what was once the farming community of East Chelmsford, Massachusetts; the so-called Boston Associates, including Nathan Appleton and Patrick Tracy Jackson of the Boston Manufacturing Company, named the new mill town after their visionary leader, Francis Cabot Lowell, who had died five years before its 1823 incorporation. As Lowell's population grew, it acquired land from neighboring towns, diversified into a full-fledged urban center. Many of the men who composed the labor force for constructing the canals and factories had immigrated from Ireland, escaping the poverty and Potato Famines of the 1830s and 1840s; the mill workers, young single women called Mill Girls came from the farm families of New England. By the 1850s, Lowell had the largest industrial complex in the United States.
The textile industry wove cotton produced in the South. In 1860, there were more cotton spindles in Lowell than in all eleven states combined that would form the Confederacy, yet the city did not finish raw materials produced in the American South, but rather became involved in the South in another way, too. Many of the coarse cottons produced in Lowell returned to the South to clothe enslaved people, according to historian Sven Beckert, "'Lowell' became the generic term slaves used to describe coarse cottons." The city continued to thrive as a major industrial center during the 19th century, attracting more migrant workers and immigrants to its mills. Next were the Catholic Germans, followed by a large influx of French Canadians during the 1870s and 1880s. Waves of immigrants included Portuguese, Lithuanians, Swedes and eastern European Jews, they came to work in Lowell and settled in ethnic neighborhoods, with the city's population reaching 50% foreign-born by 1900. By the time World War I broke out in Europe, the city had reached its economic and population peak of over 110,000 people.
The Mill Cities' manufacturing base declined as companies began to relocate to the South in the 1920s. The city fell into hard times, was referred to as a "depressed industrial desert" by Harper's Magazine in 1931, as the Great Depression worsened. At this time, more than one-third of its population was "on relief", as only three of its major textile corporations remained active. Several years the mills were reactivated, making parachutes and other military necessities for the World War II effort. However, this economic boost was short-lived and the post-war years saw the last textile plants close. In the 1970s, Lowell became part of the Massachusetts Miracle, being the headquarters of Wang Laboratories. At the same time, Lowell became home to thousands of new immigrants, many from Cambodia, following the genocide at the hands of the Khmer Rouge; the city continued focusing more on culture. The former mill district along the river was restored and became part of the Lowell National Historical Park, founded in the late 1970s.
Although Wang went bankrupt in 1992, the city continued its cultural focus by hosting the nation's largest free folk festival, the Lowell Folk Festival, as well as many other cultural events. This effort began to attract other families back to the urban center. Additional historic manufacturing and commercial buildings were adapted as residential units and office space. By the 1990s, Lowell had built a new ballpark and arena, which became home to two minor league sports teams, the Lowell Devils and Lowell Spinners; the city began to have a larger student population. The University of Massachusetts Lowell and Middlesex Community College expanded their programs and enrollment. During the period of time when Lowell was part of the Massachusetts Miracle, the Lowell City Development Authority created a Comprehensive Master Plan which included recommendations for zoning adaptations within the city; the city's original zoning code was adopted in 1926 and was revised in 1966 and 2004, with changes included to respond to concerns about overdevelopment.
In 2002, in lieu of updating the Comprehensive Master Plan, more broad changes were recommended so that the land use and development would be consistent with the current master plan. The most significant revision to the 1966 zoning code is the adoption of an inclusion of a transect-based zoning code and some aspects of a form-based code style of zoning that emphasizes urban design elements as a means to ensure that infill development will respect the character of the neighborhood or district in question. By 2004, the recommended zoning changes were unanim
Freaks, Faggots, Drunks and Junkies
Freaks, Faggots and Junkies is the fifth studio album by transgressive punk rock musician GG Allin. A collaboration with backing band Bulge, the LP was first released by Homestead Records in 1988. Critic Steve Huey said about the album: "Allin's entire output ranks as the worst music recorded. Allin returned to his home area of New England sometime in late 1987 or early 1988, settling somewhere in New Hampshire only because, according to his self-penned liner notes for the album, "it's cheap". At the time, Allin had been prohibited from performing as a musician in Boston since around the time his first backing band, The Jabbers, were coming to the end of their run. Since the rushed recording and release of You Give Love a Bad Name the previous year, Allin had been in the recording studio only one other time, recording four songs with himself playing all of the instruments, aided by only two people who provided backing vocals; these recordings immediately were released - without Allin's consent or immediate knowledge - under the false band name "GG Allin & His Illegitimate Kids".
Preferring to have a trustworthy live band helping him in the studio, Allin contacted Johnny X and Charlie Infection, co-founders of Boston independent punk label Ax/ction Records and the guitarist and drummer of area punk/metal band Psycho. X and Infection had befriended and dealt with Allin in the past, most notably getting an unreleased GG & The Cedar Street Sluts track, "I Wanna Suck Your Cunt", contributed to a 7" compilation EP, Welcome To Ax/ction Island, as well as selling some Allin records and tapes through their mail order business. With Psycho's bassist Ed Lynch in tow and the band—using the name of their side project Bulge for the album—rehearsed and recorded thirteen new songs for Allin's next album. Another former member of Psycho, Bill Normal became involved with the album, pinch-hitting for Lynch on four of the tracks and playing some deliberately atonal synthesizer on the cut "Crash and Burn"; when the "Illegitimate Kids" tape came to light, Allin decided to "steal back" the recordings and append the four recordings to the album.
For some unknown reason, Bulge, along with sometime Allin friend and collaborator Mark Sheehan would be credited with playing the instruments on the four tracks in question: "Wild Riding", "Family", "Young Little Meat", "I Wanna Kill You". For reasons unknown, Normal's contributions as bassist weren't listed on the album, while his keyboard work on "Crash and Burn" was credited to him under the pseudonym "Dork." It's possible. Allin was starting to get into poetry and spoken word performances - albeit in his own style - and decided to frame the opening and closing of the album with two pieces. My Revenge Dope Money Be My Fuckin' Whore Suck My Ass It Smells Dog Shit Wild Riding Sleeping in My Piss Anti-Social Masturbator Last In Line For The Gang Bang Die When You Die Commit Suicide Crash & Burn Outlaw Scumfuc Caroline and Sue Cunt Sucking Cannibal Family Young Little Meat I Wanna Kill You My Bloody MutilationAll songs written and arranged by GG Allin, Johnny X, Charlie Infection and Ed Lynch except where noted.
On all tracks except 6, 16, 17 and 18: GG Allin - vocals Johnny X - guitar and backing vocals Charlie Infection - drums and backing vocals Ed Lynch - bass and backing vocals Bill Normal - keyboards on "Crash & Burn", uncredited bass on tracks 7, 9, 14 and 15On tracks 6, 16, 17 and 18: GG Allin - lead vocals and all instruments Mark Sheehan, Erik Mercier, Greg Gonorea and Beth Burrow - backing vocals
New York Dolls
The New York Dolls were an American hard rock band formed in New York City in 1971. Along with the Velvet Underground and the Stooges, they were one of the first bands of the early punk rock scenes. Although their original line-up fell apart the band's first two albums—New York Dolls and Too Much Too Soon —became among the most popular cult records in rock; the line-up at this time comprised vocalist David Johansen, guitarist Johnny Thunders, bassist Arthur Kane and pianist Sylvain Sylvain and drummer Jerry Nolan. On stage, they donned an androgynous wardrobe, wearing high heels, eccentric hats, satin. Nolan described the group in 1974 as "the Dead End Kids of today". According to the Encyclopedia of Popular Music, the New York Dolls predated the punk and glam metal movements and were "one of the most influential rock bands of the last 20 years", they influenced rock groups such as the Sex Pistols, the Ramones, Guns N' Roses, the Damned and the Smiths, whose frontman Morrissey organized a reunion show for the New York Dolls' surviving members in 2004.
After reuniting, they recorded and released three more albums—One Day It Will Please Us to Remember Even This, Cause I Sez So and Dancing Backward in High Heels. The New York Dolls have been inactive following a 2011 British tour with Alice Cooper. Sylvain Sylvain and Billy Murcia, who went to junior high school and high school together, started playing in a band called "the Pox" in 1967. After the frontman quit and Sylvain started a clothing business called Truth and Soul and Sylvain took a job at A Different Drummer, a men's boutique, across the street from the New York Doll Hospital, a doll repair shop. Sylvain said. In 1970 they formed a band again and recruited Johnny Thunders to join on bass, though Sylvain ended up teaching him to play guitar, they called themselves the Dolls. When Sylvain left the band to spend a few months in London and Murcia went their separate ways. Thunders was recruited by Kane and Rick Rivets, playing together in the Bronx. At Thunders' suggestion, Murcia replaced the original drummer.
Thunders sang for the band Actress. An October 1971 rehearsal tape recorded by Rivets was released as Dawn of the Dolls; when Thunders decided that he no longer wanted to be the front man, David Johansen joined the band. The group was composed of singer David Johansen, guitarists Johnny Thunders and Rick Rivets, bass guitarist Arthur "Killer" Kane and drummer Billy Murcia; the original lineup's first performance was on Christmas Eve 1971 at a homeless shelter, the Endicott Hotel. After getting a manager and attracting some music industry interest, the New York Dolls got a break when Rod Stewart invited them to open for him at a London concert. While on a brief tour of England in 1972, Murcia was invited to a party, where he passed out from an accidental overdose, he was put in force-fed coffee in an attempt to revive him. Instead, it resulted in asphyxiation, he was found dead on the morning of November 6, 1972, at the age of 21. Once back in New York, the Dolls auditioned drummers, including Marc Bell, Peter Criscuola, Jerry Nolan, a friend of the band.
They selected Nolan, after US Mercury Records' A&R man Paul Nelson signed them, they began sessions for their debut album. In 1972, the band took on Marty Thau as manager. New York Dolls was produced by singer-songwriter and solo artist Todd Rundgren. In an interview in Creem magazine, Rundgren says he touched the recording. Sales were sluggish in the middle US, a Stereo Review magazine reviewer in 1973 compared the Dolls' guitar playing to the sound of lawnmowers. America's mass rock audience's reaction to the Dolls was mixed. In a Creem magazine poll, they were elected both best and worst new group of 1973; the Dolls toured Europe, while appearing on UK television, host Bob Harris of the BBC's Old Grey Whistle Test derided the group as "mock rock," comparing them unfavorably to the Rolling Stones. For their next album, Too Much Too Soon, the quintet hired producer George "Shadow" Morton, whose productions for the Shangri-Las and other girl-groups in the mid-1960s had been among the band's favorites.
Mercury dropped the Dolls not long after the second album. By 1975 the Dolls were playing smaller venues. Drug and alcohol abuse by Thunders and Kane as well as artistic differences added to the tensions among members. In late February or early March Malcolm McLaren became their informal manager, he got the band red leather outfits to wear on a communist flag as backdrop. The Dolls did a 5-concert tour of New York's five boroughs, supported by Pure Hell; the Little Hippodrome show was recorded and released by Fan Club records in 1982 as Red Patent Leather. It was a bootleg album, remixed by Sylvain, with former manager Marty Thau credited as executive producer. Due to Kane being unable to play that night, roadie Peter Jordan played bass, though he was credited as having played "second bass". Jordan filled in for Kane. In March and April McLaren took the band on a tour of South Florida. Jordan replaced Kane for most of those shows
The Compact Cassette, Compact Audio Cassette or Musicassette commonly called the cassette tape or tape or cassette, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback. It was developed by Philips in Hasselt and released in 1962. Compact cassettes come in two forms, either containing content as a prerecorded cassette, or as a recordable "blank" cassette. Both forms are reversible by the user; the compact cassette technology was designed for dictation machines, but improvements in fidelity led the Compact Cassette to supplant the Stereo 8-track cartridge and Reel-to-reel tape recording in most non-professional applications. Its uses ranged from portable audio to home recording to data storage for early microcomputers; the first cassette player designed for use in car dashboards was introduced in 1968. Between the early 1970s and the early 2000s, the cassette was one of the two most common formats for prerecorded music, first alongside the LP record and the compact disc.
Compact Cassettes contain two miniature spools, between which the magnetically coated, polyester-type plastic film is passed and wound. These spools and their attendant parts are held inside a protective plastic shell, 4 by 2.5 by 0.5 inches at its largest dimensions. The tape itself was referred to as "eighth-inch" tape 1⁄8 inches wide, but it was larger: 0.15 inches. Two stereo pairs of tracks or two monaural audio tracks are available on the tape; this reversal is achieved either by flipping the cassette, or by the reversal of tape movement when the mechanism detects that the tape has come to an end. In 1935, decades before the introduction of the Compact Cassette, AEG released the first reel-to-reel tape recorder, with the commercial name "Magnetophon", it was based on the invention of the magnetic tape by Fritz Pfleumer, which used similar technology but with open reels. These instruments were expensive and difficult to use and were therefore used by professionals in radio stations and recording studios.
In 1958, following four years of development, RCA Victor introduced the stereo, quarter-inch, reel-to-reel RCA tape cartridge. However, it was a large cassette, offered few pre-recorded tapes. Despite the multiple versions, it failed. Consumer use of magnetic tape machines took off in the early 1960s, after playback machines reached a comfortable, user-friendly design; this was aided by the introduction of transistors which replaced the bulky and costly vacuum tubes of earlier designs. Reel-to-reel tape became more suitable to household use, but still remained an esoteric product. WIRAG, the Vienna division of Philips developed a cartridge, described as single-hole cassette, adapted from its German described name Einloch-Kassette. Tape and tape speed were identical with the Compact Cassette. Grundig came up with the DC-International derived from blue prints of the Compact Cassette in 1965, but failed on the demand of distributing companies. In 1962, Philips invented the Compact Cassette medium for audio storage, introducing it in Europe on 30 August 1963 at the Berlin Radio Show, in the United States in November 1964, with the trademark name Compact Cassette.
The team at Philips was led by Lou Ottens in Hasselt, Belgium."Philips was competing with Telefunken and Grundig in a race to establish its cassette tape as the worldwide standard, it wanted support from Japanese electronics manufacturers." However, the Philips' Compact Cassette became dominant as a result of Philips' decision to license the format free of charge. Philips released the Norelco Carry-Corder 150 recorder/player in the US in November 1964. By 1966 over 250,000 recorders had been sold in the US alone and Japan soon became the major source of recorders. By 1968, 85 manufacturers had sold over 2.4 million players. By the end of the 1960s, the cassette business was worth an estimated 150 million dollars. In the early years sound quality was mediocre, but it improved by the early 1970s when it caught up with the quality of 8-track tape and kept improving; the Compact Cassette went on to become a popular alternative to the 12-inch vinyl LP during the late 1970s. The mass production of "blank" Compact Cassettes began in 1964 in Germany.
Prerecorded music cassettes were launched in Europe in late 1965. The Mercury Record Company, a US affiliate of Philips, introduced M. C. to the US in July 1966. The initial offering consisted of 49 titles. However, the system had been designed for dictation and portable use, with the audio quality of early players not well suited for music; some early models had an unreliable mechanical design. In 1971, the Advent Corporation introduced their Model 201 tape deck that combined Dolby type B noise reduction and chromium oxide tape, with a commercial-grade tape transport mechanism supplied by the Wollensak camera division of 3M Corporation; this resulted in the format being taken more for musical use, started the era of high fidelity cassettes and players. Although the birth and growth of the cassette began in the 1960s, its cultural moment took place during the 1970s and 1980s; the cassette's popularity grew