Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of Arizona, with 1,626,000 people. It is the fifth most populous city in the United States, the most populous American state capital, the only state capital with a population of more than one million residents. Phoenix is the anchor of the Phoenix metropolitan area known as the Valley of the Sun, which in turn is part of the Salt River Valley; the metropolitan area is the 11th largest by population in the United States, with 4.73 million people as of 2017. Phoenix is the seat of Maricopa County and the largest city in the state at 517.9 square miles, more than twice the size of Tucson and one of the largest cities in the United States. Phoenix was settled in 1867 as an agricultural community near the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers and was incorporated as a city in 1881, it became the capital of Arizona Territory in 1889. It has a hot desert climate. Despite this, its canal system led to a thriving farming community with the original settler's crops remaining important parts of the Phoenix economy for decades, such as alfalfa, cotton and hay.
Cotton, citrus and copper were known locally as the "Five C's" anchoring Phoenix's economy. These remained the driving forces of the city until after World War II, when high-tech companies began to move into the valley and air conditioning made Phoenix's hot summers more bearable; the city averaged a four percent annual population growth rate over a 40-year period from the mid-1960s to the mid-2000s. This growth rate slowed during the Great Recession of 2007–09, has rebounded slowly. Phoenix is the cultural center of the state of Arizona; the Hohokam people occupied the Phoenix area for 2,000 years. They created 135 miles of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable, paths of these canals were used for the Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct, they carried out extensive trade with the nearby Ancient Puebloans and Sinagua, as well as with the more distant Mesoamerican civilizations. It is believed that periods of drought and severe floods between 1300 and 1450 led to the Hohokam civilization's abandonment of the area.
After the departure of the Hohokam, groups of Akimel O'odham, Tohono O'odham, Maricopa tribes began to use the area, as well as segments of the Yavapai and Apache. The O'odham were offshoots of the Sobaipuri tribe, who in turn were thought to be the descendants of the Hohokam; the Akimel O'odham were the major group in the area and lived in small villages, with well-defined irrigation systems that spread over the entire Gila River Valley, from Florence in the east to the Estrellas in the west. Their crops included corn and squash for food, while cotton and tobacco were cultivated, they banded together with the Maricopa for protection against incursions by the Yuma and Apache tribes. The Maricopa are part of the larger Yuma people; the Tohono O'odham lived in the region, as well, but their main concentration was to the south and stretched all the way to the Mexican border. The O'odham lived in small settlements as seasonal farmers who took advantage of the rains, rather than the large-scale irrigation of the Akimel.
They grew crops such as sweet corn, tapery beans, lentils, sugar cane, melons, as well as taking advantage of native plants such as saguaro fruits, cholla buds, mesquite tree beans, mesquite candy. They hunted local game such as deer and javelina for meat; the Mexican–American War ended in 1848, Mexico ceded its northern zone to the United States, residents of that region became U. S. citizens. The Phoenix area became part of the New Mexico Territory. In 1863, the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in Maricopa County, to the northwest of Phoenix. Maricopa County had not yet been incorporated; the Army created Fort McDowell on the Verde River in 1865 to forestall Indian uprisings. The fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River by 1866, the first settlement in the valley after the decline of the Hohokam. Other nearby settlements merged to become the city of Tempe; the history of the city of Phoenix begins with Jack Swilling, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War.
He saw a potential for farming. He formed a small community that same year about four miles east of the city. Lord Darrell Duppa was one of the original settlers in Swilling's party, he suggested the name "Phoenix", as it described a city born from the ruins of a former civilization; the Board of Supervisors in Yavapai County recognized the new town on May 4, 1868, the first post office was established the following month with Swilling as the postmaster. On February 12, 1871, the territorial legislature created Maricopa County by dividing Yavapai County; the first election for county office was held in 1871. He ran unopposed; the town grew during the 1870s, President Ulysses S. Grant issued a land patent for the site of Phoenix on April 10, 1874. By 1875, the town had a telegraph office
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Globe is a city in Gila County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 7,532; the city is the county seat of Gila County. Globe was founded c. 1875 as a mining camp. Mining, tourism and retirees are most important in the present-day Globe economy; the Globe Downtown Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1987. Globe is in southern Gila County at 33°23′59″N 110°46′54″W, in the valley of Pinal Creek, a north-flowing tributary of the Salt River. U. S. Route 60 passes through the city, leading northeast through the Fort Apache Indian Reservation 87 miles to Show Low, west 87 miles to Phoenix; the western terminus of U. S. Route 70 is in Globe at US 60 on the east side of town. Arizona State Route 77 leads south from Globe 36 miles to Winkelman, Roosevelt is 31 miles to the northwest via State Route 188. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city of Globe has a total area of 18.2 square miles, of which 0.01 square miles, or 0.07%, is water.
The town of Miami, Arizona, is 6 miles west of Globe's downtown. Globe and the unincorporated areas nearby are called "Globe-Miami". Globe is served by the Arizona Eastern Railway. In December 2008, weekend excursion service under the name Copper Spike began operating from Globe to the Apache Gold Hotel Casino near San Carlos. Trains operated four daily round-trips on Thursdays through Sundays until 2011, when the Copper Spike Excursions were discontinued; the San Carlos Apache Airport is a public-use general aviation airport located seven nautical miles southeast of the city's central business district. Globe has a semi-arid climate, characterized by hot summers and moderate to warm winters. Globe's arid climate is somewhat tempered by its elevation, leading to cooler temperatures and more precipitation than Phoenix or Yuma. Summers in Globe are hot, with daytime highs between 90 °F and 100 °F. High temperatures topping 100 °F are not uncommon in August for Globe. Summertime lows are right around 65 °F. Wintertime highs average between 55 °F and 65 °F, lows tend to be right at or above freezing.
The all-time highest recorded temperature in Globe is 111 °F, it occurred on both June 27, 1990, July 29, 1995. The lowest recorded temperature in the city is 12 °F, which occurred the same year the first time the record high was reached—December 23, 1990; as of the census of 2000, there were 7,486 people, 2,814 households, 1,871 families residing in the city. The population density was 415.5 people per square mile. There were 3,172 housing units at an average density of 176.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 77.60% White, 1.15% Black or African American, 3.10% Native American, 1.12% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 14.59% from other races, 2.40% from two or more races. 32.71% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,814 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.3% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.5% were non-families. 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.09. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,071, the median income for a family was $42,280. Males had a median income of $31,404 versus $21,952 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,128. About 8.8% of families and 11.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over. In 1875, prospectors found silver in the San Carlos Apache Reservation, including an unusual globe-shaped silver nugget. In just four years, the silver began to give out, but by copper deposits were discovered. In the 1900s, the Old Dominion Copper Company in Globe ranked.
The Old Dominion closed in 1931, mining operations moved to nearby Miami. Globe's economy remains dependent on substance abuse, the mining industry, as of 2008 the city was home to one of the few operating copper smelters in the United States. Besh-Ba-Gowah, about one mile south of Globe, was occupied by Salado populations between AD 1225 and AD 1400; the plans for an incorporated Globe were established in July 1876, with retail stores and Globe's first newspaper printing its first issue on May 2, 1878. By February 1881, Globe was the Gila County seat. Coming with Globe's new importance as the county seat came a stagecoach line linking it to Silver City, New Mexico. Due to Globe's relative isolation from the rest of Arizona and its proximity to the San Carlos Apache reservation, Globe remained a frontier town. Globe's history is laced with many historic events such as murders, stagecoach robberies, outlaws and Apache raids. Natiotish, a San Carlos Apache, left the r
Pleasant Valley War
The Pleasant Valley War, sometimes called the Tonto Basin Feud, or Tonto Basin War, or Tewksbury-Graham Feud, was a range war fought in Pleasant Valley, Arizona in the years 1882-1892. The conflict involved the ranchers Grahams and Tewksburys; the Tewksburys, who were part Indian, started their operations as cattle ranchers before branching out to sheep. Pleasant Valley is located in Gila County, but many of the events related to this feud took place in neighboring Apache and Navajo counties. Other neighborhood Arizona parts, such as Holbrook and Globe, were the setting of its bloodiest battles. Although the feud was fought between the Tewksburys and the Grahams against the well-established cattleman James Stinson, it soon involved other cattlemen associations, hired guns and Arizona lawmen; the feud lasted for about a decade, with its most deadly incidents between 1886 and 1887. The Pleasant Valley War had the highest number of fatalities of such range conflicts in United States history, with an estimated total of 35 to 50 deaths, the near annihilation of the males of the two feuding families.
The Pleasant Valley War gave Arizona Territory a reputation for not being ready for statehood. Years after its end, many books and articles were written about the feud. Edwin "Ed" Tewksbury was born in 1858 in San Francisco and was the second son of former miner James D. Tewksbury and his Indian wife; the family was composed of four sons and one daughter and owned a great number of horses and cattle as they started out their ranching business. The Grahams were from Northern Ireland before migrating to Ohio in 1851, were composed of Samuel Graham as the head, his wife Jane, their five children Allen, Mary and Thomas. Jane died in 1861, Sam married Mary E. Goetzman, with whom he fathered seven children. In 1881, John and Thomas staked claims in Arizona; the Grahams were new ranchers who came to the lush ranges of Arizona after being invited by Ed Tewksbury. Tom Graham and John D. Tewksbury started out as friends but things changed when a big cattleman named James Stinson came into Pleasant Valley.
His large herd started to occupy many areas of grazable land, dominating the ranches built by the two families. Things escalated. Accusations soon turned into warrants, while both families were present in the Tewksbury house, cowboys from Stinson's outfit, led by John Gilliland, came up to arrest the Tewksburys. Tempers flared, the Tewksburys refused to be arrested. Both John Gilliland and Ed Tewksbury drew their guns and fired at each other, which resulted in the wounding of John and Elisha Gilliland. In the courthouse, John Graham testified that Gilliland drew first and that Elisha was just an innocent bystander whom he and the Tewksburys tried to save afterward. In 1884, the friendship between the Tewksburys and the Grahams was shattered when Stinson made a deal with the Grahams to pay them each 50 head of cattle, see that they never served jail time, if they would turn state's evidence against the Tewksburys; the Grahams took the deal and started working for Stinson, betraying the Tewksburys by siding with their accusers.
John Graham filed a complaint with District Attorney Charles B. Rush, accusing the Tewksbury family of rebranding over sixty of Stinson's cattle; the Tewksburys were forced to face the charges in Prescott, but the case against them was thrown out of court for lack of evidence after the judge discovered the deal between Stinson and the Grahams. On the Tewksburys' way home from Prescott, the elderly Frank contracted pneumonia and died soon after; the family blamed his death on his men. On July 23, 1884, the Tewksbury faction, consisting of John Tewksbury, William Richards, George Blaine and Ed Rose, visited the ranch house of James Stinson in a supposed planning of the upcoming rodeo, they were met by the ranch foremen, Marion McCann, five other cowhands, the former asked the Tewksburys to leave except for Ed Rose, whom they knew was neutral in the conflict. The Tewksburys tried to reason with him, which ended in the two groups hurling insults at one another. Things heated up when Blaine called for McCann to come out and face him, before firing a shot at the foreman.
The shot went high, McCann retaliated by drawing his pistol and shooting Blaine in the throat. John Tewksbury fired at McCann, before himself getting wounded and riding off with the others. Blaine survived his wound, both groups settled the fighting in court. Afterward, Stinson dissolved his herd; the Grahams found themselves in a tight spot in 1885, after losing a significant number of their herd and subsequently being caught driving cattle that were not theirs. The feud only got worse when the Tewksburys started bringing in herds of sheep in 1885; the Tewksbury brothers leased some sheep from brothers by the name of Daggs in northern Arizona. Local newspapers such as the Arizona Silver Belt reported that the feud was caused by the Tewksburys' other occupation as sheepmen, which many cattlemen such as Stinson disliked due to the sheep's destructive eating habits in the open ranges. Historian Tim Ehrhardt suggested that this was not the case, contending the feud was caused by the enmity that existed between the families.
Sheep were not brought into the valley until 1885, two years after the feuding between the Tewksbury and Graham factions began. Cattlemen from Gila County were on the side of the Tewksburys during the war, they would help Ed in many of his court defenses in the future; the Tewksburys hired a Basque sheep herder to transport the sheep to Pleasant Valley. He w
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Tonto National Forest
The Tonto National Forest, encompassing 2,873,200 acres, is the largest of the six national forests in Arizona and is the fifth largest national forest in the United States. The Tonto National Forest has diverse scenery, with elevations ranging from 1,400 feet in the Sonoran Desert to 7,400 feet in the ponderosa pine forests of the Mogollon Rim; the Tonto National Forest is the most visited "urban" forest in the United States. The boundaries of the Tonto National Forest are the Phoenix metropolitan area to the south, the Mogollon Rim to the north and the San Carlos and Fort Apache Indian Reservation to the east; the Tonto is managed by the USDA Forest Service and its headquarters are in Phoenix. There are local ranger district offices in Globe, Payson, Roosevelt and Young. Many wildlife species inhabit the forest including raccoons, bald eagles, black bears, skunks, roadrunners, prairie falcons, white-tailed deer, long-eared owls, mule deer, red-tailed hawks, Great blue herons, barn owls, ring-tailed cats, pronghorns and elk.
Tonto National Forest began charging user fees in 1996 for daily and overnight stays at expanded amenity recreation sites in the national forest. Five different passes are offered for sale: Daily Tonto Pass $8 Watercraft Sticker $4 Annual Discovery Pass $80 Annual Senior Discovery Pass $60 Interagency Passes Tonto Passes are available through online vendors at the Tonto National Forest recreation passes and permits web page. Passes are available through many local merchants; the Tonto National Forest has six notable cold water reservoirs: Bartlett Reservoir Horseshoe ReservoirThe next four are created by the Salt River chain of dams: Saguaro Lake Canyon Lake Apache Lake Theodore Roosevelt Lake There are eight federally designated wilderness areas within the Tonto National Forest: Four Peaks Wilderness Hellsgate Wilderness Mazatzal Wilderness Pine Mountain Wilderness Salome Wilderness Salt River Canyon Wilderness Sierra Ancha Superstition WildernessA portion of the Verde Wild and Scenic River lies within the forest.
The Tonto Forest Reserve was established on October 1905 by the General Land Office. In 1906 the forest reserves were transferred to the U. S. Forest Service, on March 4, 1907 Tonto became a National Forest. On January 13, 1908 the Pinal Mountains National Forest was added along with other lands. On July 1, 1908 part of Black Mesa National Forest and other lands were added, on July 1, 1953 part of Crook National Forest was added. A land swap proposed as a part of the 2015 National Defense Authorization Act would permit a subsidiary of the Rio Tinto mining conglomerate, Resolution Copper Co. to acquire 2,400 acres of the Tonto National Forest, considered sacred for the San Carlos Apache Tribe, for purposes of copper mining. This proposal, in Section 3003, titled "Southeast Arizona Land Exchange", is opposed by many Native Americans, including the 57 member tribes of The Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians, by the Great Plains Tribal Chairmen’s Association. Fossil Creek List of U. S. National Forests Tonto National Monument, a National Park Service unit surrounded by Tonto National Forest Pinal Mountains Tonto National Forest Hikes at HikeArizona.
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Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income