Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Ella Elin Nikolina Bohlin is a Christian Democratic politician in Sweden. Bohlin was born in Jönköping, she has a B. A. in political science and has worked as a spinning instructor. Bohlin was the leader of the Christian Democratic Youth League of Sweden between 2005 and 2008, she was her party's top candidate in the 2009 elections to the European Parliament, but was not elected because Alf Svensson, the former party leader, received more individual votes and took the party's single seat. In 2011 she became an advisor to the government on behalf of her party in environmental and agricultural matters. In 2014 she was elected to the Stockholm County Council, where she is minister for children and the aged, she is married to Per Bohlin. She is an evangelical Christian and has been labeled a creationist, but says she does not care about the subject, she is a former member of Livets ord. Stockholm County Council page Ella Bohlin's blog
Revolutionary Communist Youth (Sweden)
The Revolutionary Communist Youth is the youth wing of the Swedish Communist Party. It was founded in 1994 as a successor of the Young Communist League of Sweden, which existed 1972-1978. RKU publishes; the organization participates at the World Festivals of Youth and Students, arranged by the World Federation of Democratic Youth. The organization believes that capitalist society is not capable of satisfying the needs of the people. RKU believes that there are clear examples of capitalism's failure in Sweden, with alleged high unemployment and worsening education system, while large corporations make billions in profits. RKU believes that the only long-term solution to the problems of capitalism is a violent revolutionary rearrangement of society at large, the construction of a new socialist society, where production will be organised from people's needs. RKU emphasizes that the envisioned socialist society must be democratic and controlled by the working class. Rebell is a Swedish youth magazine published by the Revolutionary Communist Youth.
It was founded in 1994. Revolutionary Communist Youth
Swedish Anarcho-syndicalist Youth Federation
The Swedish Anarcho-Syndicalist Youth Federation, is a youth-based group in Sweden that supports independent working class struggle. The federation was founded in 1993, in part rooted in the militant autonomous youth movement that had begun to grow throughout Scandinavia in the early 1990s. Inspiration came from the anarcho-syndicalist trade union Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden. From just three groups in 1993 it grew and today it is a nationwide federation made up of around 25 local groups, located throughout the entire country. Aside from the Samordningsgruppen, SOG. Since the early 1990s, the SUF published a magazine called Direkt Aktion. SUF is, in contrast to its anarcho-syndicalist beliefs, not a union, their idea of anarcho-syndicalism expands beyond the daily labour union activity, claims that in a global community where capitalist relations have expanded into all parts of society, a broader movement and a broader definition of class struggle is needed. Thus, they believe it is necessary to confront capitalism not only in workplaces, but in schools, local communities, etc.
The network Planka.nu was initiated as a campaign by SUF in 2001. The campaign dealt with public transportation, seeking a shift from soaring prices to a tax-financed model; the campaign got a lot of attention because of the unorthodox methods. Nu jävlar är det nog, was a nationwide anti-racist campaign initiated by SUF on August 24, 2004 and ended February 1, 2005, it claimed to be different from other anti-racist campaigns in that it took in account factors such as social class. Klasskampen tar inte semester - "There is no vacation for the class struggle" - was SUF's nationwide campaign about summer jobs, it lasted for five months, from May 1 to October 1, 2005. It was criticized for encouraging people to commit illegal acts; the nationwide campaign Osynliga partiet was initiated by SUF. The campaign first received media attention when winner of the political reality show Toppkandidaterna, Petter Nilsson, donated part of his prize to SUF for financing part of the campaign, criticized after the offices of the Centre Party were vandalized following their announcement of their intention to dismantle the Employment Security Act, with the logo of the campaign found at the site.
In addition to this, a few offices of the Christian Democrats were attacked. Central Organisation of the Workers of Sweden, Sveriges Arbetares Centralorganisation Invisible Party, Osynliga Partiet - a campaign initiated by SUF Direkt Aktion Official website A short introduction to SUF
Aron Modig is a Swedish politician, chairman of the Young Christian Democrats, the youth wing of the Christian Democrats from 2011 to 2013. In July 2012, he visited Cuba to show support for the nation's pro-democracy activists. On July 22, he was injured in a car crash while traveling with dissident and Sakharov Prize-winner Oswaldo Payá. Payá was killed at the scene. Details of the crash are disputed. Payá's daughter Rosa María stated that her father died after the rental car in which he was traveling was rammed several times by another car. Payá's son Oswaldo added that his father had received numerous death threats and agreed that his car had been deliberately driven off the road; the official statement by the Cuban government said that the driver lost control of the vehicle and collided with a tree. Modig tells that he subsequently was taken away to an unknown place and held captive for eight days by government officials. There he was being interrogated and scolded by terms: "You shouldn't come to our country to meddle in our affairs!".
He was queried about the political purposes with his stay in Cuba, but no questions were asked about the crash. At a press conference arranged by Cuban authorities on 30 July and the driver and second survivor, Ángel Carromero, stated that the crash was an accident and no other car was involved. Https://web.archive.org/web/20131005004215/http://camcocuba.org/1-1-INTERNATIONALS/WASHINGTON-D-C-ENGLISH.htm
Young Left (Sweden)
Young Left is a socialist and feminist youth organisation. It is the official youth wing of the Swedish Left Party; the organisation calls themselves a"revolutionary youth organisation with roots in the communist part of the labour movement". Young Left is a socialist and feminist political youth organisation committed to organising young people to work for social change that evolved out of the labour movement, with influences from environmentalism, the peace movement, the feminist movement. Young Left works for social justice and a society characterised by equality, generous welfare provisions for all citizens, generous immigration policies, respect for the environment; as its mother party, the Left Party, as well as the Social Democratic Party, Young Left is a strong supporter of the Swedish labour unions and the Swedish model, with conditions of work such as wages being regulated in branch-level collective agreements between the unions and the employers, rather than on individual basis. Ung Vänster has had various names and political alignments over the years, but is continuously characterised by the issues that have been at the centre of its history, such as antifascism, social justice and justice.
During the past years, the main focus of the organisation has been the struggle against growing xenophobia in Sweden and criticism of the right government, in particular on its privatisations of welfare services and priorities of tax reductions, rather than increased public spending on welfare and investments in infrastructure and renewable energy. In difference of the Left Party, the Young Left are a revolutionary socialist organisation, not reformist; that means that they want to change the society by a revolution, not with reforms. Young Left work together with and support the Left Party and Vänsterns Studentförbund, but makes on the basis of its own analyses independent decisions regarding organisational and political issues. Young Left was founded in 1903 as Socialdemokratiska Ungdomsförbundet. However, the youth league has attached itself to the left-wing within the Social Democratic Party. At the outbreak of the First World War, the tensions within the party aggravated. In May 1917, the youth league together with the left-wing faction within the party took the initiative to form a new party, Sverges socialdemokratiska vänsterparti.
SDUF became the youth wing of the new party. SSV joined the Communist International in 1919, was renamed to Sveriges kommunistiska parti. Following that, SDUF was renamed to Sveriges Kommunistiska Ungdomförbund, became the Swedish section of the Communist Youth International. In 1952, Democratic Youth was founded on the initiative of the party, in order to be a broader youth movement; until 1958, SKU and DU existed as parallel organisations. In 1958, the two organisations merged and took the name DU. In 1967, ultra-left elements took over the organisation, broke away to form Marxist-leninistiska kampförbundet. Reconstruction work started rapidly. In 1970, the organisation was re-baptised as Kommunistisk Ungdom. By 1973, there was a national organisation in function, and, by 1975, an ordinary congress was held. Young Left have published the youth magazine Röd Press since 1982, when Young Left lost the rights of its magazine Stormklockan to the Maoist MLK in a trial. In Sweden, Young Left was one of the many forces behind the large 15 February 2003 anti-war protest.
Under the years of the 2010s, different members of the Young Left have been excluded because of strong couplings to the Revolutionary Front and the AFA. The national executive board have been doing both official cut-offs in these cases; this is because these groups are not deemed compatible with the democratic socialism and anti-racism fight that the Young Left are driving. The party board of the Left Party has been advising for hard consequences in these situations. After having had a stable membership of between 1,500 – 2,800 for a number of years, the membership of the youth organisation had declined to 964 in 2016 according to the Swedish Agency for Youth and Civil Society. 2017- Henrik Malmrot 2015-2017 Hanna Cederin 2011-2015 Stefan Lindborg 2005-2011 Ida Gabrielsson 2004-2005 Tove Fraurud 2001-2004 Ali Esbati 1996-2001 Jenny Lindahl Persson 1993-1996 Jenny Jederlund 1989-1993 Magnus Blomgren 1980-1989 Stellan Hermansson 1975-1980 Lars Johansson 1973-1975 Bengt Karlsson 1970-1973 Spokespersons: Bengt Karlsson, Urban Herlitz 1967-1970 Anders Carlberg 1964-1967 Kjell E Johansson 1962-1964 Rolf Hagel 1957-1962 Rolf Utberg 1951-1958 Urban Karlsson 19??-1951 Axel Jansson?
1935-1939 Filip Forsberg? 1921-1924 Nils Flyg 191?-1921 Zeth Höglund 1908-1909 Per Albin Hansson 190?-190? Fabian Månsson 1903- 1903 Socialdemokratiska Ungdomsförbund 1921 Sveriges Kommunistiska Ungdomsförbund 1958 Demokratisk Ungdom 1967 Vänsterns Ungdomsförbund 1970 Kommunistisk Ungdom 1991 Ung Vänster Official website