Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour
Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour and Leri, generally known as Count Cavour was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification. Cavour put forth several economic reforms in his region of Piedmont in his earlier years. After a large rail system expansion program, Cavour became prime minister in 1852, English historian Denis Mack Smith says Cavour was the most successful parliamentarian in Italian history but he was not especially liberal. Cavour was often dictatorial, ignored his ministerial colleagues and parliament and he practiced transformism and other undesirable policies which were carried over into post-Risorgimento Italy. Camillo Benso was born in Turin during Napoleonic rule, into a family that had gained an amount of land during the French occupation. His godparents were Napoleons sister Pauline, and her husband, Prince Camille Borghese and his older brother Gustavo were initially educated at home. He was sent to the Turin Military Academy when he was ten years old.
In July 1824 he was named a page to Charles Albert, Cavour frequently ran afoul of the authorities in the academy, as he was too headstrong to deal with the rigid military discipline. He was once forced to live three days on bread and water because he had been caught with books that the academy had banned and he was found to be apt at the mathematical disciplines, and was therefore enlisted in the Engineer Corps in the Piedmontese-Sardinian army in 1827. While in the army, he studied the English language as well as the works of Jeremy Bentham and Benjamin Constant, developing liberal tendencies which made him suspect to police forces at the time. He resigned his commission in the army in November 1831, both because of boredom with life and because of his dislike of the reactionary policies of King Charles Albert. He administered the estate at Grinzane, some forty kilometers outside the capital. Cavour lived time in Switzerland, with his Protestant relatives in Geneva and he grew acquainted with Calvinist teachings, and for a short while he converted from a form of unorthodox Catholicism, only to go back later.
A Reformed pastor, Alexandre Vinet, impressed upon Cavour the need for the separation of church and state and he traveled to Paris where he was impressed by parliamentary debates, especially those of François Guizot and Adolphe Thiers, confirming his devotion to a political career. He next went to London, where he was much more disappointed by British politics, and toured the country, visiting Oxford, Birmingham, Nottingham, a quick tour through the Netherlands and Switzerland eventually landed him back in Turin. Cavour believed that progress had to precede political change. He was a supporter of transportation by steam engine, sponsoring the building of many railroads. Between 1838 and 1842 Cavour began several initiatives in attempts to solve problems in his area
Vincenzo Gioberti was an Italian philosopher and politician. Gioberti was born in Turin, when still very young he lost his parents, and at the age of sixteen was admitted among the clerics of the court. He studied theology at the University of Turin, and obtained his doctorate there and he was educated by the fathers of the Oratory with a view to the priesthood and ordained in 1825. In 1828, he made a journey through Lombardy, and became friendly with Alessandro Manzoni and this authority was in his mind connected with papal supremacy. Though in a way quite intellectual rather than political, Gioberti was now noticed by the king and made one of his chaplains. His popularity and private influence, were enough for the court party to mark him for exile, he was not one of them. Knowing this, he resigned his office in 1833, but was arrested on a charge of conspiracy, and after. Gioberti first went to Paris, and a later, to Brussels where he remained till 1845. In Brussels he taught philosophy and assisted a friend in the work of a private school and he nevertheless found time to write many works of philosophical importance, with special reference to his country and its position.
In 1841, on the appearance of his book Del Buono, the Grand Duke of Tuscany offered him a chair at the University of Pisa, but King Charles Albert objected, and the offer came to nothing. His fame in Italy dates from 1843 when he published his Del primato morale e civile degli Italiani, an amnesty having been declared by Charles Albert in 1846, Gioberti was at liberty to return to Italy, but refused to do so till the end of 1847. On his entrance into Turin on 29 April 1848 he was received with the greatest enthusiasm and he refused the dignity of senator offered him by Charles Albert, preferring to represent his native town in the Chamber of Deputies, of which he was soon elected president. At the close of the year, a new ministry was formed, headed by Gioberti. There, refusing the pension which had offered him and all ecclesiastical preferment, he lived frugally. He died suddenly, of apoplexy, on 26 October 1852, Giobertis writings are more important than his political career. In the general history of European philosophy they stand apart and it shows a harmony with the Roman Catholic faith which caused Cousin to declare that Italian philosophy was still in the bonds of theology, and that Gioberti was no philosopher.
Method is with him a synthetic and psychological instrument and he reconstructs, as he declares and begins with the ideal formula, the Ens creates ex nihilo the existent. God is the only being, all things are merely existences
Young Ireland was a political and social movement of the mid-19th century. It began as a tendency within Daniel OConnells Repeal Association, associated with The Nation newspaper, Young Ireland led changes in Irish nationalism, including an abortive rebellion known as the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848. Many of the leaders were tried for sedition and sentenced to penal transportation to Van Diemens Land. From its beginnings in the late 1830s, Young Ireland grew in influence, some of the junior members of the movement went on to found the Irish Republican Brotherhood. The name Young Ireland was originally used in a way to describe the group of young Repeal Association members who were associated with The Nation newspaper. At the time, the Repeal Association was campaigning for the repeal of the Act of Union 1800 between the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The term was first coined by the English press, and used by leader Daniel OConnell in an attack at Conciliation Hall. Young Ireland traced its origins to the new College Historical Society, founded on 29 March 1839, among the members of this new society were John Blake Dillon, Thomas MacNevin, William Eliot Hudson and Thomas Davis, who was elected its president in 1840.
While still at Trinity College, Davis had addressed the Dublin Historical Society, Davis became president and gave two lectures. (Available from the National Library of Ireland, the lectures clearly show that Davis had become a convinced Irish nationalist by this period, on 15 April 1840, Daniel O’Connell held the first meeting of his new Repeal Association, in the Corn Exchange, Dublin. The group was received with sneers, and O’Connell’s sincerity was questioned, in the General Election in 1832, O’Connell had made the same appeal for repeal. Although half the representatives chosen for Ireland were pledged Repealers, O’Connell dropped the demand, several new members accepted appointments under the system they had pledged to overthrow. Since that time, O’Connell had become an ally of the Whigs. As they were expected to fall from power in 1840, activists renewing the agitation for Repeal was suspected as a devise to embarrass the new administration, not one man of status, outside the members of the defunct Association, joined the ranks of the new one.
O’Connell welcomed them and made members of the General Committee. The two men began their work in earnest, Davis first became Chairman of a sub-committee in charge of the registers of the Association, which contained the names of all the Members. Davis thus could communicate with all the politicians of the Party. As editors they featured articles on topics as Protestant nationality, historical parallels from classic and mediaeval history
Giuseppe Garibaldi was an Italian general and nationalist who played a large role in the history of Italy. He is considered, with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini, Garibaldi personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification. He has been called the Hero of Two Worlds because of his enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay. These earned him a reputation in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, the United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red worn by his volunteers in lieu of a uniform. In 1814, the Congress of Vienna returned Nice to Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia, Garibaldis familys involvement in coastal trade drew him to a life at sea.
He participated actively in the Niçois community and was certified in 1832 as a merchant navy captain, in April 1833 he travelled to Taganrog, Russia, in the schooner Clorinda with a shipment of oranges. During ten days in port he met Giovanni Battista Cuneo from Oneglia, Mazzini was an impassioned proponent of Italian unification as a liberal republic through political and social reform. Garibaldi joined the society and took an oath dedicating himself to the struggle to liberate, in Geneva during November 1833, Garibaldi met Mazzini, starting a long relationship that became troublesome. He joined the Carbonari revolutionary association, and in February 1834 participated in a failed Mazzinian insurrection in Piedmont, a Genoese court sentenced him to death in absentia, and he fled across the border to Marseille. Garibaldi first sailed to Tunisia before eventually finding his way to the Empire of Brazil, once there he took up the cause of Republic of Rio Grande do Sul in its attempt to separate from Brazil, joining the rebels known as the Ragamuffins in the Ragamuffin War.
During this war he met Ana Ribeiro da Silva, commonly known as Anita, in 1841, Garibaldi and Anita moved to Montevideo, where Garibaldi worked as a trader and schoolmaster. The couple married in Montevideo the following year and they had four children – Menotti, Rosita and Ricciotti. A skilled horsewoman, Anita is said to have taught Giuseppe about the culture of southern Brazil. Around this time, he adopted his trademark clothing, which consisted of the red shirt and sombrero commonly worn by the gauchos. In 1842 Garibaldi took command of the Uruguayan fleet and raised an Italian Legion, of known as Redshirts. He aligned his forces with a composed of the Uruguayan Colorados led by Fructuoso Rivera
The Austrian Empire was an empire in Central Europe created out of the realms of the Habsburgs by proclamation in 1804. It was an empire and one of Europes great powers. Geographically it was the second largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire and it was the third most populous after Russia and France, as well as the largest and strongest country in the German Confederation. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the dissolution in 1806. The Ausgleich of 1867 elevated Hungarys status and it became a separate entity from the Empire entirely, joining with it in the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Changes shaping the nature of the Holy Roman Empire took place during conferences in Rastatt, on 24 March 1803, the Imperial Recess was declared, which reduced the number of ecclesiastical states from 81 to only 3 and the free imperial cities from 51 to 6. This measure was aimed at replacing the old constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, taking this significant change into consideration, the German Emperor Francis II created the title Emperor of Austria, for himself and his successors.
In 1804 the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, who was ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, to safeguard his dynastys imperial status he adopted the additional hereditary title of Emperor of Austria. Hungarys affairs remained administered by its own institutions as they had been beforehand, thus under the new arrangements no Imperial institutions were involved in its internal government. The fall and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire in September 1805, on 20 October 1805, an Austrian army led by general Karl Mack von Leiberich was defeated by French armies near the town of Ulm. The French victory resulted in the capture of 20,000 Austrian soldiers, Napoleons army won another victory at Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Francis was forced into negotiations with the French from 4 to 6 December 1805, the French victories encouraged rulers of certain imperial territories to assert their formal independence from the Empire.
On 10 December 1805, the prince-elector Duke of Bavaria proclaimed himself King, finally, on 12 December, the Margrave of Baden was given the title of Grand Duke. In addition, each of these new countries signed a treaty with France, the Treaty of Pressburg between France and Austria, signed in Pressburg on 26 December, enlarged the territory of Napoleons German allies at the expense of defeated Austria. Certain Austrian holdings in Germany were passed to French allies—the King of Bavaria, the King of Württemberg, Austrian claims on those German states were renounced without exception. On 12 July 1806, the Confederation of the Rhine was established, comprising 16 sovereigns and this confederation, under French influence, put an end to the Holy Roman Empire. On 6 August 1806, even Francis recognized the new state of things and proclaimed the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, as he did not want Napoleon to succeed him
Raffaello Carboni was born in Urbino, Italy in 1817. Dedicated to the cause of Italian nationalism, he fought with the forces of Mazzini, after the fall of the Roman Republic, he fled to London and to Melbourne. He arrived on the Ballarat goldfields in 1853, and became a member of the central committee. By the time of the Eureka Stockade he had been on or around the goldfields for almost two years. On 30 November 1854, he called on all miners irrespective of nationality, when the stockade was attacked on 3 December 1854, he remained a spectator. He was, however and tried for treason, but acquitted in March, in July 1855 Carboni was elected to the local court at Ballarat to adjudicate mining disputes. His book, The Eureka Stockade, the only complete first-hand description, Carboni became a naturalized British citizen, but left Australia 18 January 1856, sailing in the Impératrice Eugénie, and using some of the gold found at Ballarat to pay for his travels. After three years travel during which he visited Jerusalem and Bethlehem, he returned to Italy and worked for a time as interpreter with the French army at Milan and he transferred to Genoa where Agostino Bertani was organizing troops and supplies for the Expedition of the Thousand to Sicily.
Carboni left Genoa in the Veloce for Palermo, where he arrived on 24 June and his knowledge of languages afforded him a position of responsibility and he worked in the administration as interpreter and translator, starting in the office of the statesman Francesco Crispi. For a time he was entrusted with the secret Anglo-Italian correspondence between Crispi and Lord John Russell, following demobilisation, he travelled in Europe for a time, settled in Naples for reasons of health. There he continued to publish his works, having already offered Rita, La Campana Della Gancia and La Santola, copies of which he sent to Peter Lalor and Sir Redmond Barry. These and other works were separate items of his two Magna Opera, Lo Scotta-o-Tinge, a collection of libretti and plays, and La Ceciliana, none was represented on the stage, nor has his music been publicly performed. He died in Rome at the St James Hospital, aged 58, Works by Raffaello Carboni at Project Gutenberg Works by Raffaello Carboni at Project Gutenberg Australia Works by or about Raffaello Carboni at Internet Archive
New International Encyclopedia
The New International Encyclopedia was an American encyclopedia first published in 1902 by Dodd and Company. It descended from the International Cyclopaedia and was updated in 1906,1914 and 1926, the New International Encyclopedia was the successor of the International Cyclopaedia. Initially, the International Cyclopaedia was largely a reprint of Aldens Library of Universal Knowledge, the local Cyclopaedia was much improved by editors Harry Thurston Peck and Selim Peabody. The title was changed to New International Encyclopedia in 1902, with editors Harry Thurston Peck, Daniel Coit Gilman, in 1906 the New International Encyclopedia was expanded from 17 volumes to 20. The 2nd edition appeared in 1914 in 24 volumes, set up from new type and it was very strong in biography. The 1926 material was printed in Cambridge, Massachusetts, by The University Press, boston Bookbinding Company of Cambridge produced the covers. Thirteen books enclosing twenty-three volumes comprise the encyclopedia, which includes a supplement after Volume 23, each book contains about 1600 pages.
A great deal of material is recorded in the New International Encyclopedia. An early description of Adolf Hitler and his activities from 1920 to 1924 is in the supplement to the 1926 edition, many of the names used to describe the scientific identities of plants and animals are now obsolete. Numerous colorful maps which display the nations, colonies, the maps are valuable for their depictions of national and colonial borders in Europe and Africa at the time of World War I. Drawings and photographs are plentiful, more than 500 men, and some women and composed the information contained in the New International Encyclopedia. Editors of the First Edition Daniel Coit Gilman, LL. D, President of Johns Hopkins University, President of Carnegie Institution. Frank Moore Colby, M. A. formerly Professor in New York University, editors of the Second Edition Frank Moore Colby, M. A. Talcott Williams, LL. D. Director of the School of Journalism, Columbia University, media related to New International Encyclopedia at Wikimedia Commons 1914 second ed
Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina fell under Austro-Hungarian rule in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin approved the occupation of the Bosnia Vilayet, which officially remained part of the Ottoman Empire. Following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, in June and July 1878 the Congress of Berlin was organized by the Great Powers, according to article 25, The provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall be occupied and administered by Austria-Hungary. To this end the governments of Austria-Hungary and Turkey reserve to themselves to come to an understanding on the details, the primary commander was Josip Filipović, the forward XVIII infantry division was under the command Stjepan Jovanović, while the rear army commander in Dalmatia was Gavrilo Rodić. The occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina started on 29 July 1878 and was over on 20 October, the Ottoman army in Bosnia and Herzegovina at the time consisted of roughly 40,000 troops with 77 cannons, that combined with local militias to around 93,000 men. Despite setbacks at Maglaj and Tuzla, Sarajevo was occupied in October 1878, Austro-Hungarian casualties amounted to over 5,000 and the unexpected violence of the campaign led to recriminations between commanders and political leaders.
Fierce resistance from Muslims was expected as Austro-Hungarians realized their occupation meant that Bosnian Muslims would lose their status based on their religion. Tensions remained in parts of the country and a mass emigration of predominantly Muslim dissidents occurred. The Austro-Hungarian administration advocated the ideal of a pluralist and multi-confessional Bosnian nation, between 1861 and 1869, Topal Osman Pasha, an Ottoman grand vizier had striven to do the same. Croats and Serbs who opposed the policy mostly ignored Bosnian nationhood and instead sought to claim Bosnian Muslims as their own, the idea of a unified South Slavic state became a popular political ideology in the region at this time, including Bosnia and Herzegovina. Certain Muslim circles in Bosnia and Herzegovina published the newspaper Bošnjak and this newspaper caused fierce discussions in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. The newspaper supported Kállays policy, whose goal was to strengthen Austro-Hungarian rule in occupied Bosnia, although Kállays policy was not widely accepted even amongst Muslims, Bošnjak nevertheless represented the national aspirations of some Muslims in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Kállays policy was defeated in 1896 and 1899, when Bosnian Serbs and Muslims called for religious. Kállays policy had some potential to resist Croatian and Serbian national aspirations, after the death of Kallay, the policy was abandoned. By 1905, nationalism was a factor of Bosnian politics. Soon after Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878, the government took the religious activities. Austro-Hungarian authorities issued regulations which made Muslim clergy Austro-Hungarian state officials and this was to isolate Bosnian Muslims from the Ottoman Empire, and its clergy who were subordinate to the Sultan. The Muslims were largely unhappy with their new status, and formed Muslim political opposition and this Muslim opposition demanded, at first, Muslim religious autonomy from Austria-Hungary, but later, as it grew stronger, they demanded autonomy from the Ottoman Empire. The Muslim opposition tried to align itself with the Serbs, who were demanding religious, but unsolved agrarian relations between the Muslim leadership and the Serbs was an obstacle to any far-reaching alliance
The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans. The majority of Serbs inhabit the state of Serbia, as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina. They form significant minorities in Croatia and Slovenia, there is a large Serb diaspora in Western Europe, and outside Europe there are significant communities in North America and Australia. The Serbs share many traits with the rest of the peoples of Southeast Europe. They are predominantly Eastern Orthodox Christians by religion, the Serbian language is official in Serbia, co-official in Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is spoken by the majority in Montenegro. The modern identity of Serbs is rooted in Eastern Orthodoxy and traditions, in the 19th century, the Serbian national identity was manifested, with awareness of history and tradition, medieval heritage, cultural unity, despite living under different empires. When the Principality of Serbia gained independence from the Ottoman Empire, Orthodoxy became crucial in defining the national identity, instead of language which was shared by other South Slavs.
The tradition of slava, the family saint feast day, is an important ethnic marker of Serb identity, the origin of the ethnonym is unclear. Serbia has among the tallest people in the world, after Montenegro and Netherlands, Slavs invaded and settled the Balkans in the 6th and 7th centuries. Up until the late 560s their activity was raiding, crossing from the Danube, the Danube and Sava frontier was overwhelmed by large-scale Slavic settlement in the late 6th and early 7th century. What is today central Serbia was an important geo-strategical province, through which the Via Militaris crossed and this area was frequently intruded by barbarians in the 5th and 6th centuries. The numerous Slavs mixed with and assimilated the descendants of the indigenous population, numerous small Serbian states were created, located in modern Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. With the decline of the Serbian state of Duklja in the late 11th century, Raška separated from it, prince Stefan Nemanja conquered the neighbouring territories of Kosovo and Zachlumia.
The Nemanjić dynasty ruled over Serbia until the 14th century, over the next 140 years, Serbia expanded its borders. Its cultural model remained Byzantine, despite political ambitions directed against the empire, the medieval power and influence of Serbia culminated in the reign of Stefan Dušan, who ruled the state from 1331 until his death in 1355. Ruling as Emperor from 1346, his territory included Macedonia, northern Greece, when Dušan died, his son Stephen Uroš V became Emperor. With the death of two important Serb leaders in the battle, and with the death of Stephen Uroš that same year, hrebeljanović was subsequently accepted as the titular leader of the Serbs because he was married to a member of the Nemanjić dynasty. In 1389, the Serbs faced the Ottomans at the Battle of Kosovo on the plain of Kosovo Polje, both Lazar and Sultan Murad I were killed in the fighting
House of Savoy
The House of Savoy is one of the oldest royal families in the world, being founded in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, it grew from ruling a small county in that region to the attainment of the rank of king in 1713, the Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, the name derives from the historical region of Savoy in the Alpine region between what is now France and Italy. Over time, the House of Savoy expanded its territory and influence through judicious marriages, from rule of a small region on the French/Italian border, the dynastys realm included nearly all of the Italian Peninsula by the time of its deposition. The house descended from Humbert I, Count of Sabaudia, Humberts family are thought to have originated from near Magdeburg in Saxony, with the earliest recording of the family being two 10th century brothers and Humbert.
Though Sabaudia was originally a county, counts were diplomatically skilled. Two of Humberts sons were bishops at the Abbey of Saint Maurice on the River Rhone east of Lake Geneva and this diplomatic skill caused the great powers such as France and Spain to take the counts opinions into account. Piedmont was joined with Sabaudia, and the name evolved into Savoy, the people of Savoy were descended from the Celts and Romans. In 1494, Charles VIII of France passed through Savoy on his way to Italy and Naples, during the outbreak of the Italian war of 1521-1526, Emperor Charles V stationed imperial troops in Savoy. In 1536, Francis I of France invaded Savoy and Piedmont taking Turin by April of that year, Charles III, Duke of Savoy, fled to Vercelli. He served Philip II as Governor of the Netherlands from 1555 to 1559, in this capacity he led the Spanish invasion of northern France and won a victory at St. Quentin in 1557. He took advantage of various squabbles in Europe to slowly regain territory from both the French and the Spanish, including the city of Turin and he moved the capital of the duchy from Chambéry to Turin.
The 17th century brought economic development to the Turin area. Charles Emmanuel II developed the port of Nice and built a road through the Alps towards France, and through skillful political manoeuvres territorial expansion continued. Savoy rule over Sicily lasted only seven years, the crown of Sicily, the prestige of being kings at last, and the wealth of Palermo helped strengthen the House of Savoy further. In 1720 they were forced to exchange Sicily for Sardinia as a result of the War of the Quadruple Alliance, on the mainland, the dynasty continued its expansionist policies as well. In 1798, Joubert occupied Turin and forced Charles Emmanuel IV to abdicate, eventually, in 1814 the kingdom was restored and enlarged with the addition of the former Republic of Genoa by the Congress of Vienna. In the meantime, nationalist figures such as Giuseppe Mazzini were influencing popular opinion, the Kingdom of Italy was the first Italian state to include the Italian Peninsula since the fall of the Roman Empire
Carlo Pisacane, Duke of San Giovanni was an Italian patriot and one of the first Italian socialist thinkers. He argued that violence was not only to draw attention to, or generate publicity for, a cause, but to inform, educate. These ideas are called propaganda of the deed and have exerted compelling influence on rebels, the revolution of 1848 recalled him to Italy, he played a part in the brief Roman Republic, and was an instrumental part of the war commission in the defence of the city. After its capture by the French, he went into exile, first to London and to Genoa. Pisacane regarded the rule of the House of Savoy as no better than that of Austria, today the town of Sanza has an annual feast on the day of his death known as Carlo Pisacane Day where they celebrate his murder. There is a commemorative statue and he argued that violence was necessary not only to draw attention to, or generate publicity for, a cause, but to inform and ultimately rally the masses behind the revolution. These ideas have exerted compelling influence on rebels and terrorist alike ever since, during the historical period known as Risorgimento, Pisacane represented the extreme left, and as a follower of French philosopher Pierre-Joseph Proudhon introduced Anarchism in Italy.
His essays, titled Saggi and Testamento Politico, were published posthumously in France, benito Mussolini was heavily influenced by Pisacanes revolutionary ideas and ideals to achieve political goals. The landing is remembered in the poem La spigolatrice di Sapri by Luigi Mercantini and this poem in turn inspired the title of the 1952 film about the landing, Eran trecento. It was translated into English by Henry W. Longfellow with the title The Gleaner of Sapri, in August of every year Carlo Pisacanes landing is celebrated in a three-day festival in Sapri. Revolution, An alternative answer to the Italian question translated and introduced by Richard Mann Roberts
Pope Pius IX
Pope Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope from 16 June 1846 to his death in 1878. He was the elected pope in the history of the Catholic Church. During his pontificate Pius IX convened the First Vatican Council, which decreed papal infallibility and he was the last pope to rule as the Sovereign of the Papal States, which fell completely to the Italian Army in 1870 and were incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy. After this, he was referred to—chiefly by himself—as the Prisoner of the Vatican, after his death in 1878, his canonization process was opened on 11 February 1907 by Pope Pius X and it drew considerable controversy over the years. It was closed on several occasions during the pontificates of Pope Benedict XV, Pope Pius XII re-opened the cause on 7 December 1954, and Pope John Paul II proclaimed him Venerable on 6 July 1985. Together with Pope John XXIII, he was beatified on 3 September 2000 after the recognition of a miracle, Pius IX was assigned the liturgical feast day of February 7, the date of his death.
Europe, including the Italian peninsula, was in the midst of political ferment when the bishop of Spoleto. He took the name Pius, after his generous patron and the prisoner of Napoleon Bonaparte. Through the 1850s and 1860s, Italian nationalists made military gains against the Papal States, concordats were concluded with numerous states such as Austria-Hungary, Spain, Tuscany, Venezuela, Honduras, El Salvador and Haiti. Many contemporary Church historians and journalists question his approaches, in his Syllabus of Errors, still highly controversial, Pius IX condemned the heresies of secular society, especially modernism. He was a Marian pope, who in his encyclical Ubi primum described Mary as a Mediatrix of salvation, in 1854, he promulgated the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, articulating a long-held Catholic belief that Mary, the Mother of God, was conceived without original sin. In 1862, he convened 300 bishops to the Vatican for the canonization of Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan and his most important legacy is the First Vatican Council, which convened in 1869.
The council is considered to have contributed to a centralization of the Church in the Vatican, Pius IX was beatified by Pope John Paul II on 3 September 2000. His Feast Day is 7 February, Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti was born on May 13,1792. He was educated at the Piarist College in Volterra and in Rome, as a theology student in his hometown Sinigaglia, in 1814 he met Pope Pius VII, who had returned from French captivity. In 1815, he entered the Papal Noble Guard but was dismissed after an epileptic seizure. He threw himself at the feet of Pius VII, who elevated him, the pope originally insisted that another priest should assist Mastai during Holy Mass, a stipulation that was rescinded, after the seizure attacks became less frequent. Mastai was ordained priest on April 10,1819 and he initially worked as the rector of the Tata Giovanni Institute in Rome