Marxism is a theory and method of working class self-emancipation. As a theory, it relies on a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation, it originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Friedrich Engels. Marxism uses a methodology, now known as historical materialism, to analyze and critique the development of class society and of capitalism as well as the role of class struggles in systemic economic and political change. According to Marxist theory, in capitalist societies, class conflict arises due to contradictions between the material interests of the oppressed and exploited proletariat—a class of wage labourers employed to produce goods and services—and the bourgeoisie—the ruling class that owns the means of production and extracts its wealth through appropriation of the surplus product produced by the proletariat in the form of profit.
This class struggle, expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces against its relations of production, results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of class consciousness. In periods of deep crisis, the resistance of the oppressed can culminate in a proletarian revolution which, if victorious, leads to the establishment of socialism—a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution and production organized directly for use; as the productive forces continued to advance, Marx hypothesized that socialism would be transformed into a communist society: a classless, humane society based on common ownership and the underlying principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs". Marxism has developed into many different branches and schools of thought, with the result that there is now no single definitive Marxist theory.
Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism while rejecting or modifying other aspects. Many schools of thought have sought to combine Marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts, which has led to contradicting conclusions; however there is movement toward the recognition that historical materialism and dialectical materialism remains the fundamental aspect of all Marxist schools of thought. Marxism has had a profound impact on global academia and has influenced many fields such as archaeology, media studies, political science, history, art history and theory, cultural studies, economics, criminology, literary criticism, film theory, critical psychology and philosophy; the term "Marxism" was popularized by Karl Kautsky, who considered himself an "orthodox" Marxist during the dispute between the orthodox and revisionist followers of Marx. Kautsky's revisionist rival Eduard Bernstein later adopted use of the term. Engels did not support the use of the term "Marxism" to describe either his views.
Engels claimed that the term was being abusively used as a rhetorical qualifier by those attempting to cast themselves as "real" followers of Marx while casting others in different terms, such as "Lassallians". In 1882, Engels claimed that Marx had criticized self-proclaimed "Marxist" Paul Lafargue, by saying that if Lafargue's views were considered "Marxist" "one thing is certain and, that I am not a Marxist". Marxism analyzes the material conditions and the economic activities required to fulfill human material needs to explain social phenomena within any given society, it assumes that the form of economic organization, or mode of production, influences all other social phenomena—including wider social relations, political institutions, legal systems, cultural systems and ideologies. The economic system and these social relations form a superstructure; as forces of production, i.e. technology, existing forms of organizing production become obsolete and hinder further progress. As Karl Marx observed: "At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or—this expresses the same thing in legal terms—with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto.
From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Begins an era of social revolution"; these inefficiencies manifest themselves as social contradictions in society which are, in turn, fought out at the level of the class struggle. Under the capitalist mode of production, this struggle materializes between the minority who own the means of production and the vast majority of the population who produce goods and services. Starting with the conjectural premise that social change occurs because of the struggle between different classes within society who are under contradiction against each other, a Marxist would conclude that capitalism exploits and oppresses the proletariat, therefore capitalism will lead to a proletarian revolution. Marxian economics and its proponents view capitalism as economically unsustainable and incapable of improving the living standards of the population due to its need to compensate for falling rates of profit by cutting employee's wages, social benefits and pursuing military aggression.
The socialist system would succeed capitalism as humanity's mode of production through workers' revolution. According to Marxian crisis theory, socialism is not an economic necessity. In a sociali
The cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt was the cabinet of Sweden from 2006 to 2014. It was a coalition cabinet consisting of the four parties in the centre-right Alliance for Sweden: the Moderate Party, Centre Party, Liberal People's Party and the Christian Democrats; the cabinet was installed on 6 October 2006, following the 2006 general election which ousted the Social Democrats after twelve years in power. It retained power after the 2010 general election but now as a minority government, is the longest-serving consecutive non-socialist government since Erik Gustaf Boström in 1900, it was led by Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt of the Moderate Party. Party breakdown of cabinet ministers: Ministry of Employment, belonged to the Ministry of Industry and Communications in the cabinet of Göran Persson. Ministry of Culture, belonged to the Ministry of Education and Culture in the cabinet of Göran Persson. Ministry of Environment was before called the Ministry of Sustainable Development. Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality, belonged to the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs in the cabinet of Göran Persson.
The new government was presented on October 6, 2006. The following reforms have been proposed: Communication and transportation: The tax on automotive fuels will be raised because of inflation adjustment, by 9 öre per litre for gasoline and 6 öre per litre for diesel. Culture: The new government plans to reintroduce entrance fees to the country's 21 state-operated museums. Third-party liability premiums for vehicle insurance will be raised; the current operator's license for the public service broadcasters Sveriges Television, Sveriges Radio and Sveriges Utbildningsradio will come up for renegotiation in three years, instead of six as negotiated with the outgoing government. Education: The reform of the secondary education, to take effect from January 1, 2007 will be scrapped and instead the new government will start planning for a deeper reform to take place some time before 2010. Government agencies: The following government agencies will be closed down: Swedish Integration Board, National Institute for Working Life, Swedish Animal Welfare Agency and the County Labour Boards.
All agencies are being scrutinized for reformation. Heads of agencies to be made into merit based appointments. Foreign aid: The monetary foreign aid's goal and what countries receiving aid is being reconsidered. Working Tax Cuts Considerably raised fees for unemployment funds, linked to the rate of unemployment among the members of each fund resulting in large membership losses of unemployment funds and trade unions Municipal allowance Deduction for household services, so-called RUT deduction Abolished compulsory military service High Schools reforms and new grading system for the entire school system Reforming the legal framework of the National Defence Radio Establishment Implemented the Enforcement Directive Defence Decision 2009 Abolished pharmaceutical monopoly Deregulated railroad traffic Radio frequencies for mobile broadband in 800 MHz band Liberalisation of the Alcohol Law Abolition of the Swedish Cinema Office Abolition of compulsory student union Deductibility of gifts to nonprofit organizations Reforms of the health insurance system Decreased restaurant VAT from 25 to 12 percent, to the same level as for any other food.
Legalization of same-sex marriage Corporate tax rate lowered from 26,3% to 22%. On October 7, 2006, the day after the new cabinet was announced two of the ministers, the Minister for Foreign Trade Maria Borelius and the Minister for Culture Cecilia Stegö Chilò, admitted that they had employed persons to take care of their children without paying the appropriate taxes. On October 11, 2006, it came to light that Cecilia Stegö Chilò and her husband had not paid their TV license for the last 16 years. On October 12, 2006, it emerged that two other ministers in the cabinet had neglected to pay the television license. Radiotjänst i Kiruna AB, the private agency tasked with collecting the license fee, filed criminal charges against Cecilia Stegö Chilò, Maria Borelius and Tobias Billström. On October 14, 2006, Maria Borelius resigned as Minister for Foreign Trade. On October 16, 2006, just two days after Maria Borelius' resignation, Minister for Culture Cecilia Stegö Chilò resigned as well; the Minister for Defence, Mikael Odenberg, resigned on September 5, 2007, as he thought the budget cuts his department would face were to high.
On March 29, 2012, Minister for Defence, Sten Tolgfors, resigned due of his way to deal with the Project Simoom. In public opinion survey conducted by Aftonbladet/Sifo in late 2006, the Swedish public was asked to rate each of the new ministers on a 5-graded scale; the average result for the 22 ministers was 2.93. This is higher than any of the rates that the Social Democratic Persson cabinet received during its years in power, the highest ratings since the surveys started in 1996. From the Swedish general election, 2006 the opinions for the Reinfeldt cabinet have declined from a level of about 51% down to a level about 40%, which election researchers explain as more than what could be expected due to normal inter-election popularity fall. Center-right newspapers in Sweden criticize the cabinet for not being pedagogically proficient, while the opposition newspapers just connects the impopularity of the cabinet with the scandals and the performed practical politics; the Government and the Government Offices of Sweden Statement of Government Policy (6 O
Swedish Social Democratic Party
The Swedish Social Democratic Party, contesting elections as the Arbetarepartiet–Socialdemokraterna and referred to just as the Social Democrats, is the oldest and largest political party in Sweden. The current party leader since 2012 is Stefan Löfven, Prime Minister of Sweden since 2014. Founded in 1889, a schism occurred in 1917 when the left socialists split from the Social Democrats to form the Swedish Social Democratic Left Party; the symbol of the SAP is traditionally a red rose, believed to have been Fredrik Ström's idea. The words of honour, as recorded by the 2001 party programme, are "freedom and solidarity." The party had influences from Marxism in its early days, however these were removed in the years leading up to the split in 1917. In 2007, the Social Democrats elected Mona Sahlin as its first female party leader. On 7 December 2009, the Social Democrats launched a political and electoral coalition known as the Red-Greens together with the Greens and the Left Party; the parties contested the 2010 election on a joint manifesto, but lost the election to the incumbent centre-right coalition The Alliance.
On 26 November 2010 the Red-Green alliance was dissolved. The Social Democratic Party has about 100,000 members, with about 2,540 local party associations and 500 workplace associations, it has been the largest party in the Riksdag since 1914. The member base is diverse, but prominently features organized blue-collar workers and public sector employees; the party has a historical relationship with the Swedish Trade Union Confederation. Organisations within the Swedish social democratic movement: The National Federation of Social Democratic Women in Sweden organizes women; the Swedish Social Democratic Youth League organizes youth. The Social Democratic Students of Sweden organizes university students; the Religious Social Democrats of Sweden organizes all members with religious beliefs. The LGBT Social Democrats of Sweden organizes LGBT-people; the Swedish Social Democratic Party had its golden age during the mid-1930s to mid-1980s when in half of all general elections they got between 44.6% and 46.2% of the votes, making it one of the most successful political parties in the history of the liberal democratic world.
In two of the general elections, in 1940 and 1968, they got more than 50%. In 1940 all established Swedish parties, except for the Communist Party, had a coalition government due to the pressures of the Second World War, it led to voters most wanting one party to be in majority to give a parliament that couldn't be hung. In 1944 the tides of the war had turned and the allied nations looked to win, giving voters more confidence in voting by preference and explaining the more normal electoral result of 46.6%. There might well have among parts of the public regarding how the Communist Party was held out of the government, in 1944 they got 10.3%. In 1968 the established Communist Party, most due to bad press about the Soviets overtaking of Czechoslovakia, got a very bad result of 3% of the votes, while the Social Democrats enjoyed 50.1% and their own majority in parliament. Only in a brief period between the elections of 1973 to 1979 did the Social Democrats get below the normal interval of 44.6% to 46.2%, instead scoring an average of 43.2%, losing in 1976, the first time in 44 years, again just in 1979.
However, they won back power in 1982 with a normal result of 45.6%. The voter base consists of a diverse swathe of people throughout Swedish society, although it is strong amongst organised blue-collar workers. In the 2006 general election, the Social Democratic Party received the smallest share of votes in a general election with universal suffrage, resulting in the loss of office to the opposition, the centre-right coalition Alliance for Sweden. Among the support that the Social Democratic Party lost in the 2006 election was the vote of pensioners, blue-collar trade unionists; the combined Social Democratic Party and Left Party vote of citizens with non-Nordic foreign backgrounds sank from 73% in 2002 to 48% in 2006. Stockholm County votes for the centre-right parties. Only 23% of Stockholm City residents voted for S in 2006. From 2006 to 2014, the Social Democrats lost two consecutive terms to the centre-right Alliance, due to the centrist liberal attitudes of Prime Minister Frederik Reinfeldt attracted some of the S voters.
In 2010, 2014 and 2018, the vote shares of S declined, some of these votes were lost to the right-wing populist Sweden Democrats. In the 2018 Swedish general election The Social Democrats' vote share fell to 28.3 percent, its lowest level of support since 1911. In the 1890s the Social Democrats stood on the same ticket as the Liberals; the party's first chapter in its statutes says "the intension of the Swedish Social Democratic Labour Party is the struggle towards the Democratic Socialism," that is, a society with a democratic economy based on the socialist principle, "From each ac
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
The Communist International, known as the Third International, was an international organization that advocated world communism. The Comintern resolved at its Second Congress to "struggle by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the state"; the Comintern had been preceded by the 1916 dissolution of the Second International. The Comintern held seven World Congresses in Moscow between 1919 and 1935. During that period, it conducted thirteen Enlarged Plenums of its governing Executive Committee, which had much the same function as the somewhat larger and more grandiose Congresses; the Comintern was dissolved by Joseph Stalin in 1943 to avoid antagonizing its allies the United States and the United Kingdom. While the differences had been evident for decades, World War I proved the issue that divided the revolutionary and reformist wings of the workers' movement.
The Triple Alliance comprised two empires while the Triple Entente gathered France and Britain into an alliance with Russia. Socialists had been anti-war and internationalist, fighting against what they perceived as militarist exploitation of the proletariat for bourgeois states. A majority of socialists voted in favor of resolutions for the Second International to call upon the international working class to resist war if it were declared. Despite this, after the beginning of World War I many European socialist parties announced support for their respective nations; some exceptions were the socialist parties of the British Labour Party. To Vladimir Lenin's surprise the Social Democratic Party of Germany voted in favor of war; the assassination of the influential anti-war French Socialist Jean Jaurès on 31 July 1914 cemented the socialist parties support for their government of national unity. Socialist parties in neutral countries supported neutrality rather than total opposition to the war.
On the other hand, during the 1915 Zimmerwald Conference, Lenin organized an opposition to the "imperialist war" as the Zimmerwald Left, publishing the pamphlet Socialism and War where he called socialists collaborating with their national governments social chauvinists, i.e. socialists in word, but nationalists in deed. The Zimmerwald Left produced no practical advice for; the Second International divided into a revolutionary left-wing, a moderate center-wing, a more reformist right-wing. Lenin condemned much of the center as "social pacifists" for several reasons, including their vote for war credits despite publicly opposing the war. Lenin's term "social pacifist" aimed in particular at Ramsay MacDonald, leader of the Independent Labour Party in Britain, who opposed the war on grounds of pacifism but did not fight against it. Discredited by its apathy towards world events, the Second International dissolved in 1916. In 1917, Lenin published the April Theses which supported revolutionary defeatism, where the Bolsheviks hoped that Russia would lose the war so that they could cause a socialist insurrection.
The victory of the Russian Communist Party in the Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917 was felt throughout the world and an alternative path to power to parliamentary politics was demonstrated. With much of Europe on the verge of economic and political collapse in the aftermath of the carnage of World War I, revolutionary sentiments were widespread; the Russian Bolsheviks headed by Lenin believed that unless socialist revolution swept Europe, they would be crushed by the military might of world capitalism just as the Paris Commune had been crushed by force of arms in 1871. The Bolsheviks believed that this required a new international to foment revolution in Europe and around the world; the Comintern was founded at a Congress held in Moscow on 2–6 March 1919 against the backdrop of the Russian Civil War. There were 52 delegates present from 34 parties, they decided to form an Executive Committee with representatives of the most important sections and that other parties joining the International would have their own representatives.
The Congress decided that the Executive Committee would elect a five-member bureau to run the daily affairs of the International. However, such a bureau was not formed and Lenin, Leon Trotsky and Christian Rakovsky delegated the task of managing the International to Grigory Zinoviev as the Chairman of the Executive. Zinoviev was assisted by Angelica Balabanoff, acting as the secretary of the International, Victor L. Kibaltchitch and Vladmir Ossipovich Mazin. Lenin and Alexandra Kollontai presented material; the main topic of discussion was the difference between bourgeois democracy and the dictatorship of the proletariat. The following parties and movements were invited to the Founding Congress: Russian Communist Party Spartacus League Communist Party of German Austria Hungarian Communist Workers' Party Communist Party of Finland Polish Communist Workers’ Party Communist Party of Estonia Communist Party of Latvia Communist Party of Lithuania Communist Party of Byelorussia Communist Party of Ukraine The revolutionary elements of the Czech social democracy Social Democratic and Labour Party of Bulgaria Socialist Party of Romania Left-wing of the Serbian Social Democratic Party Social Democratic Left Party of Sweden The Norwegian Labour Party For Denmark, the Klassekampen group Communist Party of the Netherlands Revolutionary elements of the Belgian Labour Party Groups and orga
The feminist movement refers to a series of political campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's suffrage, sexual harassment, sexual violence, all of which fall under the label of feminism and the feminist movement. The movement's priorities vary among nations and communities, range from opposition to female genital mutilation in one country, to opposition to the glass ceiling in another. Feminism in parts of the western world has gone through three waves. First-wave feminism was oriented around the station of middle- or upper-class white women and involved suffrage and political equality. Second-wave feminism attempted to further combat cultural inequalities. Although the first wave of feminism involved middle class white women, the second wave brought in women of color and women from other developing nations that were seeking solidarity. Third-wave feminism is continuing to address the financial and cultural inequalities and includes renewed campaigning for greater influence of women in politics and media.
In reaction to political activism, feminists have had to maintain focus on women's reproductive rights, such as the right to abortion. Feminism in China started in the 20th century with the Chinese Revolution in 1911. In China, Feminism has a strong association with class issues; some commentators believe that this close association is damaging to Chinese feminism and argue that the interests of party are placed before those of women. Feminism in the United States, Canada and a number of countries in western Europe has been divided into three waves by feminist scholars: first and third-wave feminism. Recent research suggests there may be a fourth wave characterized, by new media platforms; the women’s movement became more popular in May 1968 when women began to read again, more the book The Second Sex, written in 1949 by a defender of women’s rights, Simone de Beauvoir. De Beauvior's writing explained; the obstacles de Beauvoir enumerates include women’s inability to make as much money as men do in the same profession, women’s domestic responsibilities, society’s lack of support towards talented women, women’s fear that success will lead to an annoyed husband or prevent them from finding a husband at all.
De Beauvoir argues that woman lack ambition because of how they are raised. Girls are told to follow the duties of their mothers, whereas boys are told to exceed the accomplishments of their fathers. Along with other influences, Simone de Beauvoir’s work helped the feminist movement to erupt, causing the formation of Le Mouvement de Libération des Femmes; this determined. Contributors to The Women’s Liberation Movement include Simone de Beauvoir, Christiane Rochefort, Christine Delphy and Anne Tristan. Through actions the women were able to get few equal rights for example right to education, right to work, right to vote. One of the most important issues that The Women’s Liberation movement faced was the banning of abortion and contraception; the women were determined to fight it. Thus, the women made a declaration known as Le Manifeste de 343 which held signatures from 343 women admitting to having had an illegal abortion; the declaration got published in Le Nouvel Observateur and Le Monde, two French newspapers on 5 April 1971.
The group gained support upon the publication. Women received the right to abort with the passing of the Veil Law in 1975; the Women's movement effected change in Western society, including women's suffrage, the right to initiate divorce proceedings and "no fault" divorce, the right of women to make individual decisions regarding pregnancy, the right to own property. It has led to broad employment for women at more equitable wages, access to university education. In 1918 Crystal Eastman wrote an article published in the Birth Control Review, she contended that birth control is a fundamental right for women and must be available as an alternative if they are to participate in the modern world. “In short, if feminism and bold and intelligent, leads the demand, it will be supported by the secret eagerness of all women to control the size of their families, a suffrage state should make short work of repealing these old laws that stand in the way of birth control.” She stated “I don’t believe there is one woman within the confines of this state who does not believe in birth control!”The United Nations Human Development Report 2004 estimated that when both paid employment and unpaid household tasks are accounted for, on average women work more than men.
In rural areas of selected developing countries women performed an average of 20% more work than men, or 120% of men's total work, an additional 102 minutes per day. In the OECD countries surveyed, on average women performed 5% more work than men, or 105% of men's total work—an additional 20 minutes per day. However, men did up to 19 minutes more work per day than women in five out of the eighteen OECD countries surveyed: Canada, Hungary and The Netherlands. According to UN Women, "Women perform 66 percent of the world's work, produce 50 percent of the food, but earn 10 percent of the income and own 1 percent of the property."The feminist movement's agenda includes acting as a counter to the putatively patriarchal strands in the dominant culture. While differing during the progression of waves, it i
Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production, with an emphasis on self-management and democratic management of economic institutions within a market or some form of decentralized planned socialist economy. Democratic socialists espouse that capitalism is inherently incompatible with what they hold to be the democratic values of liberty and solidarity. Democratic socialism can be supportive of either revolutionary or reformist politics as a means to establish socialism; the term democratic socialism is sometimes used synonymously with socialism, but the adjective democratic is sometimes used to distinguish democratic socialists from Marxist–Leninist-inspired socialism which to some is viewed as being non-democratic in practice. Democratic socialists oppose the Stalinist political system and Soviet economic model, rejecting the perceived authoritarian form of governance and centralized command economy that took form in the Soviet Union and other socialist states in the early 20th century.
Democratic socialism is further distinguished from social democracy on the basis that democratic socialists are committed to systemic transformation of the economy from capitalism to socialism whereas social democracy is supportive of reforms to capitalism. In contrast to social democrats, democratic socialists believe that reforms aimed at addressing social inequalities and state interventions aimed at suppressing the economic contradictions of capitalism will only see them emerge elsewhere in a different guise; as socialists, democratic socialists believe that the systemic issues of capitalism can only be solved by replacing the capitalist system with a socialist system—i.e. By replacing private ownership with social ownership of the means of production; the origins of democratic socialism can be traced to 19th-century utopian socialist thinkers and the British Chartist movement which differed in detail, but all shared the essence of democratic decision making and public ownership in the means of production as positive characteristics of the society they advocated.
In the early 20th century, the gradualist reformism promoted by the British Fabian Society and Eduard Bernstein in Germany influenced the development of democratic socialism. Democratic socialism is defined as having a socialist economy in which the means of production are and collectively owned or controlled alongside a politically democratic system of government. Peter Hain classifies democratic socialism along with libertarian socialism as a form of anti-authoritarian socialism from below in contrast to Stalinism, a variant of state socialism. For Hain, this democratic/authoritarian divide is more important than the revolutionary/reformist divide. In this type of democratic socialism, it is the active participation of the population as a whole and workers in particular in the management of economy that characterizes democratic socialism while nationalization and economic planning are characteristic of state socialism. A similar, but more complex argument is made by Nicos Poulantzas. Draper himself uses the term "revolutionary-democratic socialism" as a type of socialism from below in his The Two Souls of Socialism and writes: "he leading spokesman in the Second International of a revolutionary-democratic Socialism-from-Below Rosa Luxemburg, who so emphatically put her faith and hope in the spontaneous struggle of a free working class that the myth-makers invented for her a'theory of spontaneity'".
He writes about Eugene Debs: "'Debsian socialism' evoked a tremendous response from the heart of the people, but Debs had no successor as a tribune of revolutionary-democratic socialism". Tendencies of democratic socialism follow a gradual, reformist or evolutionary path to socialism rather than a revolutionary one; this tendency is invoked in an attempt to distinguish democratic socialism from Marxist–Leninist socialism as in Donald Busky's Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey, Jim Tomlinson's Democratic Socialism and Economic Policy: The Attlee Years, 1945–1951, Norman Thomas Democratic Socialism: A New Appraisal or Roy Hattersley's Choose Freedom: The Future of Democratic Socialism. A variant of this set of definitions is Joseph Schumpeter's argument set out in Capitalism and Democracy that liberal democracies were evolving from "liberal capitalism" into "democratic socialism", with the growth of workers' self-management, industrial democracy and regulatory institutions. For example, the new version of Clause IV of the constitution of the British Labour Party, though affirming a commitment to democratic socialism, no longer commits the party to public ownership of industry as in its place advocates "the enterprise of the market and the rigour of competition" along with "high quality public services either owned by the public or accountable to them".
Scholar Lyman Tower Sargent proposes: Democratic socialism can be characterized as follows: Much property held by the public through a democratically elected government, including most major industries and transportation systems A limit on the accumulation of private property Governmental regulation of the economy Extensive publicly financed assistance and pension programs Social costs and the provision of services added to purely financial considerations as the measure of efficiencyPublicly held property is limited to productive property and significant infrastructure. And in practice in many democratic socialist countries, it has not extende